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71 Tau (Polyxo)


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Observed Orbital Eccentricities
For 391 spectroscopic and visual binaries with known orbital elementsand having B0-F0 IV or V primaries, we collected the derivedeccentricities. As has been found by others, those binaries with periodsof a few days have been circularized. However, those with periods up toabout 1000 or more days show reduced eccentricities that asymptoticallyapproach a mean value of 0.5 for the longest periods. For those binarieswith periods greater than 1000 days their distribution of eccentricitiesis flat from 0 to nearly 1, indicating that in the formation of binariesthere is no preferential eccentricity. The binaries with intermediateperiods (10-100 days) lack highly eccentric orbits.

Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear Motion
Useful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr).

Tidal Effects in Binaries of Various Periods
We found in the published literature the rotational velocities for 162B0-B9.5, 152 A0-A5, and 86 A6-F0 stars, all of luminosity classes V orIV, that are in spectroscopic or visual binaries with known orbitalelements. The data show that stars in binaries with periods of less thanabout 4 days have synchronized rotational and orbital motions. Stars inbinaries with periods of more than about 500 days have the samerotational velocities as single stars. However, the primaries inbinaries with periods of between 4 and 500 days have substantiallysmaller rotational velocities than single stars, implying that they havelost one-third to two-thirds of their angular momentum, presumablybecause of tidal interactions. The angular momentum losses increase withdecreasing binary separations or periods and increase with increasingage or decreasing mass.

The Environment of the Optically Brightest Herbig Ae Star, HD 104237
We investigate the environment of the nearest Herbig Ae star, HD 104237,with a multiwavelength combination of optical coronagraphic, near-IR,and mid-IR imaging supported by optical, UV, and far-ultravioletspectroscopy. We confirm the presence of T Tauri stars associated withthe Herbig Ae star HD 104237, noted by Feigelson et al. We find that twoof the stars within 15" of HD 104237 have IR excesses, potentiallyindicating the presence of circumstellar disks, in addition to theHerbig Ae star itself. We derive a new spectral type of A7.5Ve-A8Ve forHD 104237 and find log(L/Lsolar)=1.39. With these data, HD104237 has an age of t~5 Myr, in agreement with the estimates for theother members of the association. HD 104237 is still actively accreting,with a conspicuous UV/far-UV excess seen down to 1040 Å, and isdriving a bipolar microjet termed HH 669. This makes it the second,older Herbig Ae star now known to have a microjet. The presence of themicrojet enables us to constrain the circumstellar disk to r<=0.6"(70 AU) with an inclination angle of i=18deg+14-11from pole-on. The absence of a spatially extended continuum andfluorescent H2 emission near Lyα is in agreement withthe prediction of shadowed disk models for the IR spectral energydistribution. With the high spatial density of disks in this group ofstars, proximity, and minimal reddening, HD 104237 and its companionsshould serve as ideal laboratories for probing the comparative evolutionof planetary systems.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA Contract NAS5-26555.Based on observations made with ESO's TIMMI2 camera on La Silla, Chile, under program ID 71.C-0438.Based on observations made with the ESO VLT and the Near-IR Adaptive Optics System+Conica, under program ID 71.C-0143. Based on observations made under the ON-ESO agreement for the joint operation of the 1.52 m ESO telescope.Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. FUSE is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University underNASA contract NAS5-32985.

The 100 Brightest X-Ray Stars within 50 Parsecs of the Sun
Based on the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 astrometric catalogs and the ROSATsurveys, a sample of 100 stars most luminous in X-rays within or arounda distance of 50 pc is culled. The smallest X-ray luminosity in thesample, in units of 1029 ergs s-1, isLX=9.8 the strongest source in the solar neighborhood is IIPeg, a RS CVn star, at LX=175.8. With respect to the originof X-ray emission, the sample is divided into partly overlapping classesof pre-main-sequence, post-T Tauri, and very young ZAMS objects (typeXY), RS CVn-type binary stars (type RS), other active short-periodbinaries, including binary BY Dra-type objects (type XO), apparentlysingle or long-period binary active evolved stars (type XG), contactbinaries of WU UMa kind (type WU), apparently single or long-periodbinary variable stars of BY Dra kind (type BY), and objects of unknownnature (type X?). Chromospherically active, short-period binaries (RSand XO) make up 40% of the brightest X-ray emitters, followed by youngstars (XY) at 30% and unknown sources (X?) at 15%. The fraction ofspectroscopically single evolved X-ray emitters of spectral classes IVand III is quite large (10%). The sources identified as RS CVn-typestars (RS, 23 objects) are considerably stronger in X-ray than theXY-objects and the other active binaries (XO and WU, 20 objects). Sevenobjects have LX>100, all RS except one XY, viz., BO Mic. Onlyfive (22%) RS objects have LX<25, while only three (10%)XY stars have LX>25. Formally, the limit of LX=25could serve as a statistical criterion to differentiate RS and XY stars.However, the other short-period binaries (including eclipsing stars ofAlgol and β Lyr type) have a distribution of LX verysimilar to the XY objects. The contact binaries (WU) appear to be muchweaker in X-rays than their detached counterparts of RS type, but thesample of the former is too small (three objects) to reach a firmconclusion. Sources matched with giants (either single or in binaries)are found to be significantly harder, with only 7% of hardness ratiosbelow 0, than subgiants (66% of HR1<0) and dwarfs (59% of HR1<0).Almost all objects in the sample are binary or multiple stars; thefraction of components (FC), defined as the total number of componentsin all binary and multiple systems divided by the sum of the totalnumber of components and single stars, is at least 0.90. The FC for theXY objects reaches 0.81, and for the unknown type 0.89. About 70% of RSobjects have also visual or astrometric companions, which makes themhierarchical multiple systems. The RS objects (mostly old, evolvedstars) and the XY stars have quite different kinematics. While the RSobjects move at considerable velocities in apparently random directionswith respect to the local standard of rest, the young stars have smallerand orderly velocities and tend to comprise expanding mini-associationssuch as the β Pic and the Tucana groups. The majority of the youngX-ray active stars belong to the Pleiades stream with the meanheliocentric velocity (U,V,W)=(-9.6,-21.8,-7.7) km s-1.

Differential rotation in rapidly rotating F-stars
We obtained high quality spectra of 135 stars of spectral types F andlater and derived ``overall'' broadening functions in selectedwavelength regions utilizing a Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD)procedure. Precision values of the projected rotational velocity v \siniwere derived from the first zero of the Fourier transformed profiles andthe shapes of the profiles were analyzed for effects of differentialrotation. The broadening profiles of 70 stars rotating faster than v\sini = 45 km s-1 show no indications of multiplicity nor ofspottedness. In those profiles we used the ratio of the first two zerosof the Fourier transform q_2/q_1 to search for deviations from rigidrotation. In the vast majority the profiles were found to be consistentwith rigid rotation. Five stars were found to have flat profilesprobably due to cool polar caps, in three stars cuspy profiles werefound. Two out of those three cases may be due to extremely rapidrotation seen pole on, only in one case (v \sini = 52 km s-1)is solar-like differential rotation the most plausible explanation forthe observed profile. These results indicate that the strength ofdifferential rotation diminishes in stars rotating as rapidly as v \sini>~ 50 km s-1.Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/813Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, 69.D-0015(B).

A systematic study of X-ray variability in the ROSAT all-sky survey
We present a systematic search for variability among the ROSAT All-SkySurvey (RASS) X-ray sources. We generated lightcurves for about 30 000X-ray point sources detected sufficiently high above background. For ourvariability study different search algorithms were developed in order torecognize flares, periods and trends, respectively. The variable X-raysources were optically identified with counterparts in the SIMBAD, theUSNO-A2.0 and NED data bases, but a significant part of the X-raysources remains without cataloged optical counterparts. Out of the 1207sources classified as variable 767 (63.5%) were identified with stars,118 (9.8%) are of extragalactic origin, 10 (0.8%) are identified withother sources and 312 (25.8%) could not uniquely be identified withentries in optical catalogs. We give a statistical analysis of thevariable X-ray population and present some outstanding examples of X-rayvariability detected in the ROSAT all-sky survey. Most prominent amongthese sources are white dwarfs, apparently single, yet neverthelessshowing periodic variability. Many flares from hitherto unrecognisedflare stars have been detected as well as long term variability in theBL Lac 1E1757.7+7034.The complete version of Table 7 is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/247

What Is Happening at Spectral Type F5 in Hyades F Stars?
Aiming at a better understanding of the mechanisms heating thechromospheres, transition regions, and coronae of cool stars, we studyultraviolet, low-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Space TelescopeImaging Spectrograph spectra of Hyades main-sequence F stars. We studythe B-V dependence(s) of the chromospheric and transition layer emissionline fluxes and their dependences on rotational velocities. We find thatthe transition layer emission line fluxes and also those of strongchromospheric lines decrease steeply between B-V=0.42 and 0.45, i.e., atspectral type F5, for which the rotational velocities also decreasesteeply. The magnitude of the line-flux decrease increases for lines ofions with increasing degree of ionization. This shows that the line-fluxdecrease is not due to a change in the surface filling factor but ratherdue to a change of the relative importance of different heatingmechanisms. For early F stars with B-V<0.42 we find for thetransition layer emission lines increasing fluxes for increasing vsini,indicating magnetohydrodynamic heating. The vsini dependence isstrongest for the high-ionization lines. On the other hand, the lowchromospheric lines show no dependence on vsini, indicating acousticshock heating for these layers. This also contributes to the heating ofthe transition layers. The Mg II and Ca II lines show decreasing fluxesfor increasing vsini, as long as vsini is less than ~40 kms-1. The coronal X-ray emission also decreases for increasingvsini, except for vsini larger than ~100 km s-1. We have atpresent no explanation for this behavior. For late F stars thechromospheric lines show vsini dependences similar to those observed forearly F stars, again indicating acoustic heating for these layers. Wewere unable to determine the vsini dependence of the transition layerlines because of too few single star targets. The decrease of emissionline fluxes at the spectral type F5, with steeply decreasing vsini,indicates, however, a decreasing contribution of magnetohydrodynamicheating for the late F stars. The X-ray emission for the late F starsincreases for increasing vsini, indicating magnetohydrodynamic heatingfor the coronae of the late F stars, different from the early F stars.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated,under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin i
This work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897

Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associations
Radial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and ``HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be ``Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

A Hipparcos study of the Hyades open cluster. Improved colour-absolute magnitude and Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams
Hipparcos parallaxes fix distances to individual stars in the Hyadescluster with an accuracy of ~ 6 percent. We use the Hipparcos propermotions, which have a larger relative precision than the trigonometricparallaxes, to derive ~ 3 times more precise distance estimates, byassuming that all members share the same space motion. An investigationof the available kinematic data confirms that the Hyades velocity fielddoes not contain significant structure in the form of rotation and/orshear, but is fully consistent with a common space motion plus a(one-dimensional) internal velocity dispersion of ~ 0.30 kms-1. The improved parallaxes as a set are statisticallyconsistent with the Hipparcos parallaxes. The maximum expectedsystematic error in the proper motion-based parallaxes for stars in theouter regions of the cluster (i.e., beyond ~ 2 tidal radii ~ 20 pc) isla 0.30 mas. The new parallaxes confirm that the Hipparcos measurementsare correlated on small angular scales, consistent with the limitsspecified in the Hipparcos Catalogue, though with significantly smaller``amplitudes'' than claimed by Narayanan & Gould. We use the Tycho-2long time-baseline astrometric catalogue to derive a set of independentproper motion-based parallaxes for the Hipparcos members. The newparallaxes provide a uniquely sharp view of the three-dimensionalstructure of the Hyades. The colour-absolute magnitude diagram of thecluster based on the new parallaxes shows a well-defined main sequencewith two ``gaps''/``turn-offs''. These features provide the first directobservational support of Böhm-Vitense's prediction that (the onsetof) surface convection in stars significantly affects their (B-V)colours. We present and discuss the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram (log L versus log T_eff) for an objectively defined set of 88high-fidelity members of the cluster as well as the delta Scuti startheta 2 Tau, the giants delta 1, theta1, epsilon , and gamma Tau, and the white dwarfs V471 Tau andHD 27483 (all of which are also members). The precision with which thenew parallaxes place individual Hyades in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram is limited by (systematic) uncertainties related to thetransformations from observed colours and absolute magnitudes toeffective temperatures and luminosities. The new parallaxes providestringent constraints on the calibration of such transformations whencombined with detailed theoretical stellar evolutionary modelling,tailored to the chemical composition and age of the Hyades, over thelarge stellar mass range of the cluster probed by Hipparcos.

1-4 Micron Spectrophotometry of Dust in the Taurus Dark Cloud: Water Ice Distribution in Heiles Cloud 2
We have conducted near infrared spectroscopy of 61 background starstoward Heiles Cloud 2 in the Taurus molecular cloud complex. We used alow-dispersion spectrometer, PASP2, which can simultaneously obtain thespectrum with a wavelength coverage between 1.3 and 4.2 μm. For 56 of61 objects, the visual extinction (AV) and theoptical depth of water ice at λ=3.1 μm (τICE)have been estimated: for 50 of 56 objects, these were systematicallyestimated from our data only. In order to investigate the water icedistribution in Heiles Cloud 2, we have constructed a ``water ice map''in which τICE is plotted at the position of each object.The water ice map is then compared with the C18O (J=1-0) mapobtained by millimeter observations performed by Sunada & Kitamura.We find that the distribution of water ice is closely correlated withthat of C18O. Strong water ice absorption is seen only towardthe dense C18O clumps, while less water ice absorption isdetected toward the outer region of the cloud. There is anAV threshold for the positive ice detection(AV0), as suggested by previous observations, but with asignificant scatter; AV0=2-5 mag. The scatter might be causedby the different contribution of the inner water-containing portion ofthe cloud along the line of sight. The value of τICEincreases with increasing of AV and the slope ofΔτICE/ΔAV is 0.067,consistent with the previously observed values for the Taurus molecularcloud.

Extreme-Ultraviolet Flares in an F2 Star
We report on the coronal properties of two early F dwarfs. For bothstars, spectroscopic data reveal a hot corona with material attemperatures as high as 107.1-107.2 K. The EUVphotometric observations of one of the stars (HR 120: F2) reveal twolarge flares with rapid decay times. The rapid decays are in strikingcontrast with previously published slowly decaying flares on a late typeF star (HR 1817: F8/9). Analysis of decay times suggests that the loopsizes which flared in the F2 star are significantly shorter than thosewhich flared in the F8/9 star. We discuss these results in the contextof a proposal made by Giampapa & Rosner.

71 Tauri: Hyades Enigma Resolved?
71 Tauri (HD 28052; F0 IV-V) is an enigmatic object for two reasons: (1)it is the second brightest X-ray source in the Hyades, yet early F starsas a rule are not strong coronal emitters; and (2) it lies a magnitudeabove the cluster main sequence, but radial velocity studies and speckleimaging suggest that it is single. Recently, long-slit ultravioletspectra of the star, obtained with the Space Telescope ImagingSpectrograph (STIS), serendipitously have revealed the presence of astellar companion at a distance of 0.1" directly south of the primary.The companion is seen only in its far-UV chromospheric emission lines.The nature of this object cannot be determined from our STIS spectraalone, but its high emission levels are most readily explained if it isa close binary of coronally active dG/dK stars. The presence of thesecondary can account for the striking X-ray properties of 71 Tau butnot its unusual location in the cluster color-magnitude diagram. It isconceivable that the primary itself is a close double of nearly equalstars, making 71 Tau a possible quadruple system. The alternative-that71 Tau is ~150 Myr older than other members of the Hyades, approachingthe end of core hydrogen burning for a 2 Msolar star-wouldchallenge the presumed synchrony of star formation in the cluster.

A revised catalogue of delta Sct stars
An extensive and up-dated list of delta Sct stars is presented here.More than 500 papers, published during the last few years, have beenrevised and 341 new variables have been added to our last list, sixyears ago. This catalogue is intended to be a comprehensive review onthe observational characteristics of all the delta Sct stars known untilnow, including stars contained in earlier catalogues together with othernew discovered variables, covering information published until January2000. In summary, 636 variables, 1149 references and 182 individualnotes are presented in this new list. Tables 1 and 2 will be accessibleonly in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Evolution of X-ray activity of 1-3 Msun late-type stars in early post-main-sequence phases
We have investigated the variation of coronal X-ray emission duringearly post-main-sequence phases for a sample of 120 late-type starswithin 100 pc, and with estimated masses in the range 1-3Msun, based on Hipparcos parallaxes and recent evolutionarymodels. These stars were observed with the ROSAT/PSPC, and the dataprocessed with the Palermo-CfA pipeline, including detection andevaluation of X-ray fluxes (or upper limits) by means of a wavelettransform algorithm. We have studied the evolutionary history of X-rayluminosity and surface flux for stars in selected mass ranges, includingstars with inactive A-type progenitors on the main sequence and lowermass solar-type stars. Our stellar sample suggests a trend of increasingX-ray emission level with age for stars with masses M > 1.5Msun, and a decline for lower-mass stars. A similar behaviorholds for the average coronal temperature, which follows a power-lawcorrelation with the X-ray luminosity, independently of their mass andevolutionary state. We have also studied the relationship between X-rayluminosity and surface rotation rate for stars in the same mass ranges,and how this relationships departs from the Lx ~vrot2 law followed by main-sequence stars. Ourresults are interpreted in terms of a magnetic dynamo whose efficiencydepends on the stellar evolutionary state through the mass-dependentchanges of the stellar internal structure, including the properties ofenvelope convection and the internal rotation profile.

X-ray flares on zero-age- and pre-main sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga-Perseus
We present the results of a systematic search for X-ray flares on youngstars observed during ROSAT PSPC observations of theTaurus-Auriga-Perseus sky region. All pointed PSPC observationscurrently available from the ROSAT Public Data Archive with knownpre-main sequence T Tauri Stars or young Pleiads or Hyads in the fieldof view are analyzed. A study of the activity of late-type stars ofdifferent ages provides information on the evolution of their coronalactivity, which may be linked to their angular momentum. We develop acriterion for the detection of flares based on the shape of the X-raylightcurve. Applying our detection method to all 104 PSPC pointings fromthe archive we find 52 flares. Among them 15 are detected on T TauriStars, 20 on Pleiads, and 17 on Hyads. Only the 38 events which candefinitely be attributed to late-type stars (i.e. stars of spectral typeG and later) are considered in the statistical analysis of theproperties of flaring stars. We investigate the influence of stellarparameters such as age, rotation and multiplicity on individual flareparameters and flare frequency. From the total exposure time falling tothe share of each sample and the duration of the individual flares wecompute a flare rate. We take into account that the detectionsensitivity for large X-ray flares depends on the S/N and hence on thestellar distance. The values we derive for the flare rates are 0.86 +/-0.16% for T Tauri Stars, 0.67 +/- 0.13% for Pleiads and 0.32 +/- 0.17%for Hyads. The flare rate of classical T Tauri Stars may be somewhathigher than that of weak-line T Tauri Stars (F_c = 1.09 +/- 0.39% versusF_w = 0.65 +/- 0.16%). Hardness ratios are used to track the heatingthat takes place during stellar flares. Hardness ratios are evaluatedfor three distinct phases of the flare: the rise, the decay, and thequiescent (pre- and post-flare) stage. In most cases the hardnessincreases during the flares as compared to the quiescent state. Duringboth quiescence and flare phase TTSs display the largest hardnessratios, and the Hyades stars show the softest spectrum.

The ROSAT Wide Field Camera Extragalactic Survey
We report the results of a new analysis of the ROSAT Wide Field Camera(WFC) all-sky survey data, designed to detect extragalactic sources ofextreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in regions of low Galactic N_H. Weidentify a total of 19 active galactic nuclei (AGN), more than doublethe number of confirmed AGN in the published WFC (2RE) survey. Oursample contains eight narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, making this thefirst reasonably sized, complete sample of these extreme AGN, along withsix broad-line Seyfert 1s and five BL Lacertae objects. TheseEUV-selected sources typically have steep soft X-ray spectra with a meanpower-law energy index alpha_X ~ -2. The derived AGN luminosity functionis rather flat and appears to cut off above a luminosity of 10^46 ergs^-1 keV^-1, measured monochromatically at 200 eV. Narrow-line Seyfert1s account for roughly half of the local (z ~ 0) volume emissivity inthe EUV band.

UV observations of B to F-type stars.
Not Available

Testing convection theories using Balmer line profiles of A, F, and G stars
We consider the effects of convection on the Balmer line profiles({H_α} and {H_β}) of A, F, and G stars. The standardmixing-length theory (MLT) atlas9 models of Kurucz (1993), with andwithout overshooting, are compared to atlas9 models based on theturbulent convection theory proposed by Canuto & Mazzitelli (1991,1992) and implemented by Kupka (1996), and the improved version of thismodel proposed by Canuto et al. (1996) also implemented by Kupka. TheBalmer line profiles are a useful tool in investigating convectionbecause they are very sensitive to the parameters of convection used inthe stellar atmosphere codes. The {H_α} and {H_β} lines areformed at different depths in the atmosphere. The {H_α} line isformed just above the convection zone. The {H_β} line, however, ispartially formed inside the convection zone. We have calculated the{T_eff} of observed stars by fitting Balmer line profiles to syntheticspectra and compared this to: (i) the {T_eff} of the fundamental stars;(ii) the {T_eff} of stars determined by the Infra-Red Flux Method and(iii) the {T_eff} determined by Geneva photometry for the stars in theHyades cluster. We find that the results from the {H_α} and{H_β} lines are different, as expected, due to the differing levelsof formation. The tests are inconclusive between three of the fourmodels; MLT with no overshooting, CM and CGM models, which all giveresults in reasonable agreement with fundamental values. The resultsindicate that for the MLT theory with no overshooting it is necessary toset the mixing length parameter alpha equal to 0.5 for stars with {T_eff<= 6000} K or {T_eff >= 7000} K. However for stars with {6000}K{<= T_eff <= 7000} K the required value for the parameter is{alpha >= 1.25}. Models with overshooting are found to be clearlydiscrepant, consistent with the results with uvby photometry by Smalley& Kupka (1997). Based on observations made at the Observatorio delRoque de los Muchachos using the Richardson-Brealey Spectrograph on the1.0m Jacobs Kapteyn Telescope.

Amplitude investigation of delta Scuti variables in open clusters
We report here the results of a statistical analysis of 28 delta Scutistars from five open clusters, alpha Persei, Pleiades, Hyades, Praesepeand Coma. These delta Scuti variables, most of which are on the mainsequence, tend to show a positive correlation between oscillationamplitude and absolute luminosity. No correlation is found betweenamplitude and effective temperature.

Color indices of the Sun and Hyades stars in the WBVR system
Using an original setup at high altitudes, we measured the color indicesof the Sun in the WBVR photometric system relative to standard stars: (W- B)_solar = -0.05, (B - V)_solar = +0.67, and (V - R)_solar = +0.53. Wepresent the WBVR photometry for the Hyades members selected by vanBueren by their space velocities. The solar position is shown intwo-color diagrams relative to Hyades stars and bright G2 V stars. Acomparison of our results with Kurucz's models reveals a discrepancybetween the metallicities of the models and the Hyades members.

The Multiplicity of the Hyades and Its Implications for Binary Star Formation and Evolution
A 2.2 μm speckle imaging survey of 167 bright (K < 8.5 mag) Hyadesmembers reveals a total of 33 binaries with separations spanning 0.044"to 1.34" and magnitude differences as large as 5.5 mag. Of thesebinaries, 9 are new detections and an additional 20 are now spatiallyresolved spectroscopic binaries, providing a sample from which dynamicalmasses and distances can be obtained. The closest three systems,marginally resolved at Palomar Observatory, were reobserved with the 10m Keck Telescope in order to determine accurate binary star parameters.Combining the results of this survey with previous radial velocity,optical speckle, and direct-imaging Hyades surveys, the detectedmultiplicity of the sample is 98 singles, 59 binaries, and 10 triples. Astatistical analysis of this sample investigates a variety of multiplestar formation and evolution theories. Over the binary separation range0.1"-1.07" (5-50 AU), the sensitivity to companion stars is relativelyuniform, with = 4 mag, equivalent to a mass ratio = 0.23. Accounting for the inability to detect high fluxratio binaries results in an implied companion star fraction (CSF) of0.30 +/- 0.06 in this separation range. The Hyades CSF is intermediatebetween the values derived from observations of T Tauri stars (CSF_TTS =0.40 +/- 0.08) and solar neighborhood G dwarfs (CSF_SN = 0.14 +/- 0.03).This result allows for an evolution of the CSF from an initially highvalue for the pre-main sequence to that found for main-sequence stars.Within the Hyades, the CSF and the mass ratio distribution provideobservational tests of binary formation mechanisms. The CSF isindependent of the radial distance from the cluster center and theprimary star mass. The distribution of mass ratios is best fitted by apower law q^-1.3+/-0.3 and shows no dependence on the primary mass,binary separation, or radial distance from the cluster center. Overall,the Hyades data are consistent with scale-free fragmentation, butinconsistent with capture and disk-assisted capture in small clusters.Without testable predictions, scale-dependent fragmentation and diskfragmentation cannot be assessed with the Hyades data.

The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright main-sequence stars and subgiant stars
We present X-ray data for all main-sequence and subgiant stars ofspectral types A, F, G, and K and luminosity classes IV and V listed inthe Bright Star Catalogue that have been detected as X-ray sources inthe ROSAT all-sky survey; several stars without luminosity class arealso included. The catalogue contains 980 entries yielding an averagedetection rate of 32 percent. In addition to count rates, sourcedetection parameters, hardness ratios, and X-ray fluxes we also listX-ray luminosities derived from Hipparcos parallaxes. The catalogue isalso available in electronic form via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Identification of soft high galactic latitude RASS X-ray sources. I. A complete count-rate limited sample
We present a summary of spectroscopic identifications for a completesample of bright soft high galactic latitude X-ray sources drawn fromthe ROSAT All-Sky Survey which have PSPC count-rates CR > 0.5 {ctss}(-1) and hardness ratios HR1 < 0. Of a total of 397 sources, 270had catalogued counterparts although most of these were not previouslyknown as X-ray sources; of the remaining 127 sources neither X-ray noroptical properties were previously known. Of the whole sample of verysoft X-ray sources 155 were also discovered by the Wide-Field-Camera onboard ROSAT. We present spectroscopic identifications of 108 sources andother identifications for further 18 sources; 1 source remainsunidentified so far. In practically all cases a unique opticalcounterpart exists facilitating identification. The largest sourceclasses are AGN, magnetic cataclysmic variables, and hot white dwarfs.Based in part on observations with the ESO/MPI 2.2m telescope at LaSilla, Chile

Pulsating and nonpulsating stars in Hyades observed by HIPPARCOS satellite
A study of the stars in the instability strip of Hyades cluster has beenperformed taking into account the new estimate of the stellarparallaxes. For taking advantage of the improved accuracy of thedistances and hence absolute magnitudes it is necessary to separate thephotometric effects of close companions, which appear quite common inHyades. The delta Scuti stars, differently from nonpulsating stars,appear to be located also above the main sequence, and this is dueprobably to their large rotational velocity. The comparison of therotational effects on the star position in the color-magnitude diagramwith theoretical model predictions tends to confirm the importance ofdifferential rotation. A brief discussion of theta (2) Tau and someremarks on the X-ray emission of other two delta Scuti stars are alsoreported. Based on data from Hipparcos astrometry satellite

Identification of lambda Bootis stars using IUE spectra. I. Low resolution data
An analysis of the stars included in the catalogue of lambda Bootisstars by Paunzen et al. (1997) and which also have IUE observations ispresented here. Population I A-F type stars as well as field horizontalbranch stars were also included in the analysis. Using line-ratios ofcarbon to heavier elements (Al and Ni) allows us to establishunambiguous membership criteria for the lambda Bootis group. Tables 1-3are only available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Hyades: distance, structure, dynamics, and age
{We use absolute trigonometric parallaxes from the Hipparcos Catalogueto determine individual distances to members of the Hyades cluster, fromwhich the 3-dimensional structure of the cluster can be derived.Inertially-referenced proper motions are used to rediscuss distancedeterminations based on convergent-point analyses. A combination ofparallaxes and proper motions from Hipparcos, and radial velocities fromground-based observations, are used to determine the position andvelocity components of candidate members with respect to the clustercentre, providing new information on cluster membership: 13 newcandidate members within 20 pc of the cluster centre have beenidentified. Farther from the cluster centre there is a gradual mergingbetween certain cluster members and field stars, both spatially andkinematically. Within the cluster, the kinematical structure is fullyconsistent with parallel space motion of the component stars with aninternal velocity dispersion of about 0.3 km s(-1) . The spatialstructure and mass segregation are consistent with N-body simulationresults, without the need to invoke expansion, contraction, rotation, orother significant perturbations of the cluster. The quality of theindividual distance determinations permits the cluster zero-age mainsequence to be accurately modelled. The helium abundance for the clusteris determined to be Y =3D 0.26+/-0.02 which, combined with isochronemodelling including convective overshooting, yields a cluster age of625+/-50 Myr. The distance to the observed centre of mass (a conceptmeaningful only in the restricted context of the cluster memberscontained in the Hipparcos Catalogue) is 46.34+/-0.27 pc, correspondingto a distance modulus m-M=3D3.33+/-0.01 mag for the objects within 10 pcof the cluster centre (roughly corresponding to the tidal radius). Thisdistance modulus is close to, but significantly better determined than,that derived from recent high-precision radial velocity studies,somewhat larger than that indicated by recent ground-based trigonometricparallax determinations, and smaller than those found from recentstudies of the cluster convergent point. These discrepancies areinvestigated and explained. } Based on observations made with the ESAHipparcos astrometry satellite. Table~2 is also available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

On the X-ray emission from M-type giants
We have searched for X-ray emission from M-type giants and supergiantslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) in the data of the ROSATall-sky survey (RASS). These stars lie to the far right of the X-raydividing line and are thus not expected to be X-ray sources. Any X-raydetection would therefore violate the common paradigm of X-ray darkM-type giants beyond the X-ray dividing line. We found 11 BSC M-typegiants and supergiants to coincide with RASS X-ray sources. While for 4stars the X-ray emission is very likely related to their cataclysmic orsymbiotic nature or can be attributed to a visual G-type companion, theother 7 stars are candidates for intrinsic X-ray emission. Of theseobjects, 3 have a rather large offset between optical and X-rayposition, so their proper identification with late-type giants is atleast questionable. For the remaining four stars, we obtained opticallow-dispersion spectra in order to search for emission lines indicativeof a possible symbiotic nature. None of these stars shows any brightemission lines, so they are probably quite normal M-type giants. Wediscuss possible origins of X-ray emission in these stars and theimportance of evolutionary aspects. Based on observations by the ROSATand Calar Alto Observatories

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Taurus
Right ascension:04h26m20.80s
Declination:+15°37'06.0"
Apparent magnitude:4.49
Distance:47.939 parsecs
Proper motion RA:111.2
Proper motion Dec:-26.6
B-T magnitude:4.78
V-T magnitude:4.504

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesPolyxo
Flamsteed71 Tau
HD 1989HD 28052
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 1265-1176-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1050-01261681
BSC 1991HR 1394
HIPHIP 20713

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