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Cepheid distances from interferometry .
Long baseline interferometry is now able to resolve the pulsationalchange of the angular diameter of a significant number of Cepheids inthe solar neighborhood. This allows the application of a new version ofthe Baade-Wesselink (BW) method to measure their distance, for which wedo not need to estimate the star's temperature. Using angular diametermeasurements from the VLT Interferometer, we derived the distances tofour nearby Cepheids. For three additional stars, we obtained averagevalues of their angular diameters. Based on these new measurements andalready existing data, we derived calibrations of the Period-Luminosityand Period-Radius relations. We also obtained reliable surfacebrightness-color relations, that can be employed for the infraredsurface brightness version of the BW method.

Multiple shock waves in the atmosphere of the Cepheid X Sagittarii?
Context: .Shock waves in Cepheids have often been invoked, both fromobservational and theoretical points of view. However, classical shockwave signatures, such as emission or line doubling, have hardly beendetected. Aims: .In this paper, we suggest that our spectra of theclassical Cepheid X Sgr can be interpreted by means of the passage of 2shock waves per pulsation period. Methods: .We study new,high-resolution (120 000) spectra of X Sgr that show very complicatedpatterns within metallic lines. Results: .Spectra show up to 3components in most of the lines of the spectra during most of thepulsation cycle. These components seem to follow a pulsation motion. Inthe blue wing, the appearance of a new component is observed twice perpulsation period, which can be interpreted by 2 consecutive shock waves,one being apparently related to the classical κ-mechanism at workin these stars. The origin of the second shock is still unclear. Conclusions: .X Sgr is an exceptional Cepheid according to its observedmulti-components behaviour. Additional observations are requested inorder to establish the eventual effect of the binary orbit on thepulsation motion.

Extended envelopes around Galactic Cepheids. I. ℓ Carinae from near and mid-infrared interferometry with the VLTI
We present the results of long-baseline interferometric observations ofthe bright southern Cepheid ℓ Carinae in the infrared N (8-13 μm)and K (2.0-2.4 μm) bands, using the MIDI and VINCI instruments of theVLT Interferometer. We resolve in the N band a large circumstellarenvelope (CSE) that we model with a Gaussian of 3 Rstar(≈500 Rȯ ≈ 2-3 AU) half width at half maximum. Thesignature of this envelope is also detected in our K band data as adeviation from a single limb darkened disk visibility function. Thesuperimposition of a Gaussian CSE on the limb darkened disk model of theCepheid star results in a significantly better fit of our VINCI data.The extracted CSE parameters in the K band are a half width at halfmaximum of 2 Rstar, comparable to the N band model, and atotal brightness of 4% of the stellar photosphere. A possibility is thatthis CSE is linked to the relatively large mass loss rate of ℓ Car.Though its physical nature cannot be determined from our data, wediscuss an analogy with the molecular envelopes of RV Tauri, redsupergiants and Miras.

Galactic Cepheids. II. Lithium
We report on the discovery of two lithium Cepheids in the Galaxy, basedon observations made with the echelle spectrograph of the Apache PointObservatory. We have used high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratiospectra to determine abundances of chemical elements in 16 classicalCepheids. Only two of our program stars show a lithium line, RX Aur andYZ Aur (RX Aur has been also classified by us as a new nonradialpulsator). For the others, including the stars with [N/C]<0.2, Li isdepleted up to logN(Li)<1.0. Hence, it appears that mixing depletesLi before stars enter the instability strip. According to stellarmodels, the main mixing event takes place when Teff dropsbelow 4000 K, which is outside the red edge of the instability strip;i.e., after stars have crossed the instability strip for the first time.

Predicting accurate stellar angular diameters by the near-infrared surface brightness technique
I report on the capabilities of the near-infrared (near-IR) surfacebrightness technique to predict reliable stellar angular diameters asaccurate as <~2 per cent using standard broad-band Johnson photometryin the colour range -0.1 <= (V-K)O<= 3.7 includingstars of A, F, G, K spectral type. This empirical approach is fast toapply and leads to estimated photometric diameters in very goodagreement with recent high-precision interferometric diametermeasurements available for non-variable dwarfs and giants, as well asfor Cepheid variables. Then I compare semi-empirical diameters predictedby model-dependent photometric and spectrophotometric (SP) methods withnear-IR surface brightness diameters adopted as empirical referencecalibrators. The overall agreement between all these methods is withinapproximately +/-5 per cent, confirming previous works. However, on thesame scale of accuracy, there is also evidence for systematic shiftspresumably as a result of an incorrect representation of the stellareffective temperature in the model-dependent results. I also comparemeasurements of spectroscopic radii with near-IR surface brightnessradii of Cepheids with known distances. Spectroscopic radii are found tobe affected by a scatter as significant as >~9 per cent, which is atleast three times greater than the formal error currently claimed by thespectroscopic technique. In contrast, pulsation radii predicted by theperiod-radius (PR) relation according to the Cepheid period result aresignificantly less dispersed, indicating a quite small scatter as aresult of the finite width of the Cepheid instability strip, as expectedfrom pulsation theory. The resulting low level of noise stronglyconfirms our previous claims that the pulsation parallaxes are the mostaccurate empirical distances presently available for Galactic andextragalactic Cepheids.

Mean Angular Diameters and Angular Diameter Amplitudes of Bright Cepheids
We predict mean angular diameters and amplitudes of angular diametervariations for all monoperiodic PopulationI Cepheids brighter than=8.0 mag. The catalog is intended to aid selecting mostpromising Cepheid targets for future interferometric observations.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

Cepheid pulsations resolved by the VLTI.
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Period-luminosity relations for Galactic Cepheid variables with independent distance measurements
In this paper, we derive the period-luminosity (PL) relation forGalactic Cepheids with recent independent distance measurements fromopen cluster, Barnes-Evans surface brightness, interferometry and HubbleSpace Telescope astrometry techniques. Our PL relation confirms theresults from recent works, which showed that the Galactic Cepheidsfollow a different PL relation to their Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)counterparts. Our results also show that the slope of the Galactic PLrelation is inconsistent with the LMC slope with more than 95 per centconfidence level. We apply this Galactic PL relation to find thedistance to NGC 4258. Our result of μo= 29.49 +/- 0.06 mag(random error) agrees at the ~1.4σ level with the geometricaldistance of μgeo= 29.28 +/- 0.15 mag from water masermeasurements.

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Detection of Sub-TeV Gamma Rays from the Galactic Center Direction by CANGAROO-II
We have detected sub-TeV gamma-ray emission from the direction of theGalactic center (GC) using the CANGAROO-II Imaging Atmospheric CerenkovTelescope. We detected a statistically significant excess at energiesgreater than 250 GeV. The flux was 1 order of magnitude lower than thatof the Crab Nebula at 1 TeV with a soft spectrum proportional toE-4.6+/-0.5. The signal centroid is consistent with the GCdirection, and the observed profile is consistent with a pointlikesource. Our data suggest that the GeV source 3EG J1746-2851 is identicalto this TeV source, and we study the combined spectra to determine thepossible origin of the gamma-ray emission. We also obtain an upper limiton the cold dark matter density in the Galactic halo.

Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry. III. Calibration of the surface brightness-color relations
The recent VINCI/VLTI observations presented in Paper I have nearlydoubled the total number of available angular diameter measurements ofCepheids. Taking advantage of the significantly larger color rangecovered by these observations, we derive in the present paper highprecision calibrations of the surface brightness-color relations usingexclusively Cepheid observations. These empirical laws make it possibleto determine the distance to Cepheids through a Baade-Wesselink typetechnique. The least dispersed relations are based on visible-infraredcolors, for instance FV(V-K) = -0.1336 ± 0.0008 (V-K)+ 3.9530 ± 0.0006}. The convergence of the Cepheid (this work)and dwarf star (Kervella et al. \cite{kervella04c}) visible-infraredsurface brightness-color relations is strikingly good. The astrophysicaldispersion of these relations appears to be very small, and below thepresent detection sensitivity.Table \ref{table_measurements1} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry. II. Calibration of the period-radius and period-luminosity relations
Using our interferometric angular diameter measurements of sevenclassical Cepheids reported in Kervella et al. (\cite{kervella04},A&A, 416, 941 - Paper I), complemented by previously existingmeasurements, we derive new calibrations of the Cepheid period-radius(P-R) and period-luminosity (P-L) relations. We obtain a P-R relation oflog R = [0.767 ± 0.009] log P + [1.091 ± 0.011], only 1σ away from the relation obtained by Gieren et al.(\cite{gieren98}, ApJ, 496, 17). We therefore confirm their P-R relationat a level of Δ(log R) = ± 0.02. We also derive an originalcalibration of the P-L relation, assuming the slopes derived by Gierenet al. (\cite{gieren98}) from LMC Cepheids, αK = -3.267± 0.042 and αV = -2.769 ± 0.073. With aP-L relation of the form Mλ =αλ (log P - 1) + βλ, weobtain log P = 1 reference points of βK = -5.904± 0.063 and βV = -4.209 ± 0.075. Ourcalibration in the V band is statistically identical to the geometricalresult of Lanoix et al. (\cite{lanoix99}, MNRAS, 308, 969).

Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry. I. VINCI/VLTI observations of seven Galactic Cepheids
We report the angular diameter measurements of seven classical Cepheids,X Sgr, η Aql, W Sgr, ζ Gem, β Dor, Y Oph and ℓ Carthat we have obtained with the VINCI instrument, installed at ESO's VLTInterferometer (VLTI). We also present reprocessed archive data obtainedwith the FLUOR/IOTA instrument on ζ Gem, in order to improve thephase coverage of our observations. We obtain average limb darkenedangular diameter values of /line{θLD}[X Sgr] = 1.471± 0.033 mas, /line{θLD[η Aql] = 1.839± 0.028 mas, /line{θLD}[W Sgr] = 1.312 ±0.029 mas, /line{θLD}[β Dor] = 1.891 ±0.024 mas, /line{θLD}[ζ Gem] =1.747 ±0.061 mas, /line{θLD}[Y Oph] = 1.437 ± 0.040mas, and /line{θLD}[ℓ Car] = 2.988 ± 0.012mas. For four of these stars, η Aql, W Sgr, β Dor, and ℓCar, we detect the pulsational variation of their angular diameter. Thisenables us to compute directly their distances, using a modified versionof the Baade-Wesselink method: d[η Aql] =276+55-38 pc, d[W Sgr] =379+216-130 pc, d[β Dor] =345+175-80 pc, d[ℓ Car] =603+24-19 pc. The stated error bars arestatistical in nature. Applying a hybrid method, that makes use of theGieren et al. (\cite{gieren98}) Period-Radius relation to estimate thelinear diameters, we obtain the following distances (statistical andsystematic error bars are mentioned): d[X Sgr] = 324 ± 7 ±17 pc, d[η Aql] = 264 ± 4 ± 14 pc, d[W Sgr] = 386± 9 ± 21 pc, d[β Dor] = 326 ± 4 ± 19pc, d[ζ Gem] = 360 ± 13 ± 22 pc, d[Y Oph] = 648± 17 ± 47 pc, d[ℓ Car] = 542 ± 2 ± 49pc.Tables 3 to 10 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

J - K DENIS photometry of a VLTI-selected sample of bright southern stars
We present a photometric survey of bright southern stars carried outusing the DENIS instrument equipped with attenuating filters. Theobservations were carried out not using the survey mode of DENIS, butwith individual target pointings. This project was stimulated by theneed to obtain near-infrared photometry of stars to be used in earlycommissioning observations of the ESO Very Large TelescopeInterferometer, and in particular to establish a network of brightcalibrator sources.We stress that near-infrared photometry is peculiarly lacking for manybright stars. These stars are saturated in 2MASS as well as in regularDENIS observations. The only other observations available for brightinfrared stars are those of the Two Micron Sky Survey dating from overthirty years ago. These were restricted to declinations above≈-30°, and thus cover only about half of the sky accessible fromthe VLTI site.We note that the final 2MASS data release includes photometry of brightstars, obtained by means of point-spread function fitting. However, thismethod only achieves about 30% accuracy, which is not sufficient formost applications.In this work, we present photometry for over 600 stars, each with atleast one and up to eight measurements, in the J and K filters. Typicalaccuracy is at the level of 0\fm05 and 0\fm04 in the J and K_s bands,respectively.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/413/1037

Amateur observations - Successes and opportunities.
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Sodium enrichment of the stellar atmospheres. II. Galactic Cepheids
The present paper is a continuation of our study of the sodium abundancein supergiant atmospheres (Andrievsky et al. 2002a). We present theresults on the NLTE abundance determination in Cepheids, and the derivedrelation between the sodium overabundance and their masses.

New Period-Luminosity and Period-Color relations of classical Cepheids: I. Cepheids in the Galaxy
321 Galactic fundamental-mode Cepheids with good B, V, and (in mostcases) I photometry by Berdnikov et al. (\cite{Berdnikov:etal:00}) andwith homogenized color excesses E(B-V) based on Fernie et al.(\cite{Fernie:etal:95}) are used to determine their period-color (P-C)relation in the range 0.4~ 1.4). The latter effect is enhanced by asuggestive break of the P-L relation of LMC and SMC at log P = 1.0towards still shallower values as shown in a forthcoming paper.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/404/423

Line profile variations in classical Cepheids. Evidence for non-radial pulsations?
We have investigated line profiles in a large sample of Cepheid spectra,and found four stars that show unusual (for Cepheids) line profilestructure (bumps or/and asymmetries). The profiles can be phasedependent but the behavior persists over many cycles. The asymmetriesare unlikely to be due to the spectroscopic binarity of these stars orthe specific velocity field in their atmospheres caused by shock waves.As a preliminary hypothesis, we suggest that the observed features onthe line profiles in the spectra of X Sgr, V1334 Cyg, EV Sct and BG Crucan be caused by the non-radial oscillations. It is possible that thesenon-radial oscillations are connected to resonances between the radialmodes (3fd2 , 7fd5 or 10fd0 ).Based on spectra collected at McDonald 2.1 m and Kitt Peak 4 m (USA),CTIO 4 m (Chile) and MSO 1.8 m (Australia).

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Fundamental Parameters of Cepheids. V. Additional Photometry and Radial Velocity Data for Southern Cepheids
I present photometric and radial velocity data for Galactic Cepheids,most of them being in the southern hemisphere. There are 1250 Genevaseven-color photometric measurements for 62 Cepheids, the averageuncertainty per measurement is better than 0.01 mag. A total of 832velocity measurements have been obtained with the CORAVEL radialvelocity spectrograph for 46 Cepheids. The average accuracy of theradial velocity data is 0.38 km s-1. There are 33 stars withboth photometry and radial velocity data. I discuss the possiblebinarity or period change that these new data reveal. I also presentreddenings for all Cepheids with photometry. The data are availableelectronically. Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla.

Hydrocarbons, Ices, and ``XCN'' in the Line of Sight toward the Galactic Center
We discuss 2.8-3.9 μm spectra from the United Kingdom InfraredTelescope of seven sight lines toward IR sources near Sagittarius A* inthe Galactic center (GC). In all lines of sight, the 3.0 μmH2O ice feature is present with optical depths in the range0.33-1.52. By constructing a simple ice model, we show that the iceprofile is not fully accounted for by pure H2O ice mantles.Residual absorption is present at 2.95 and 3.2-3.6 μm. Aliphatichydrocarbon absorption at 3.4 μm is shown to vary by a factor of 1.7,indicating significant changes in the foreground extinction across thesmall field. By determining the true ice profile for the GC line ofsight, we reveal an additional broad absorption component around ~3.3μm, which partially underlies the 3.4 μm aliphatic hydrocarbonfeature. Its carrier resides in the diffuse interstellar medium. Thewidth of this absorption is deduced to be at least ~100 cm-1,much broader than individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon moleculesproduced in the laboratory or unidentified infrared emission featuresobserved in the interstellar medium. The 4.62 μm ``XCN'' feature isdetected in the molecular clouds along the line of sight toward IRS 19.In the solar neighborhood, this feature is seen only toward some deeplyembedded protostars. Toward the GC, it may indicate the serendipitouspresence of such an object in the line of sight to IRS 19, or it mightconceivably arise from the processing of ices in the circumnuclear ringof the GC itself.

On the Absolute Calibration of the Cepheid Distance Scale Using Hipparcos Parallaxes
The fundamental Hipparcos parallaxes (HIPP) of 219 Cepheids are used forthe absolute calibration of the Galactic distance scale sampled by amodern Baade-Wesselink (BW) distance indicator, which reliably accountsfor pulsation and thermal properties of Cepheid variable stars. Notablywe map thermal properties into the Johnson-Cousins color (V-I). The BWrealization is found to be much less affected than previously adoptedoptical luminosity laws by intrinsic scatter and systematic errors inrepresenting individual Cepheid distances and thus is best suited for acalibration of the galactic distance scale using the fundamentalHipparcos parallaxes (HIPP). Comparisons between the actual Hipparcoscalibration and three independent ground-based calibrations of the sameBW distance scale show very close agreement at the 0.04 mag level, i.e.,at the 1 σ level of the absolute accuracy claimed for BWrealizations, although the Hipparcos calibration is affected by anuncertainty of +/-0.10 mag due to propagation of parallax errors alone.Comparisons include the zero-age main-sequence calibration by Cepheidsin clusters (Pleiades distance modulus at 5.57 mag), the calibration bypulsation parallaxes of Cepheids, and the calibration by updated modelcalculations of synthetic stellar spectra of Cepheids. Notably, theresulting galactic distance scale is found to be ~0.1 mag shorter thanthe value obtained in the original calibration of Feast & Catchpole.The implications of the actual calibration on the Cepheid-based distanceto the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the extragalactic distance scaleare briefly discussed. A true distance modulus of 18.59+/-0.04 mag ispresently achieved. Evidence from Hipparcos-based calibrations bydifferent methods strongly supports the actual upward revision of0.09+/-0.04 mag for the LMC distance of 18.50 mag adopted in the HubbleSpace Telescope Key Project program, corresponding to no more than a 5%decrease in the value of the Hubble constant.

CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
The Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom.

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Stars with the Largest Hipparcos Photometric Amplitudes
A list of the 2027 stars that have the largest photometric amplitudes inHipparcos Photometry shows that most variable stars are all Miras. Thepercentage of variable types change as a function of amplitude. Thiscompilation should also be of value to photometrists looking forrelatively unstudied, but large amplitude stars.

Photoelectric Observations of Southern Cepheids in 2001
A total of 2097 photometric observations in the BVIc systemare presented for 117 Cepheids located in the southern hemisphere. Themain purpose of the photometry is to provide new epochs of maximumbrightness for studying Cepheid period changes, as well as to establishcurrent light elements for the Cepheids.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the enigmatic cocoon stars in the Quintuplet Cluster
In an attempt to determine the nature of the enigmatic cocoon stars inthe Quintuplet Cluster, we have obtained mid-infrared imaging andspectrophotometry of the cluster, using the CAM and SWS instruments onISO, using SpectroCam-10 on the Palomar 5 m telescope, and NICMOS onHST. The spectra show smooth continua with various dust and iceabsorption features. These features are all consistent with aninterstellar origin, and there is no clear evidence for anycircumstellar contribution to these features. We find no spectral lineor feature that could elucidate the nature of these sources. Detailedmodeling of the silicate absorption features shows that they are bestreproduced by the mu Cep profile, which is typical of the interstellarmedium, with tausil =~ 2.9. The high spatial resolution mid-IR imagesshow that three of the five cocoon stars have spatially extended andasymmetric envelopes, with diameters of ~ 20 000 AUs. A reddening lawsimilar to that of Lutz (\cite{lut99}) but with silicate features basedon the mu Cep profile and normalized to our value of tausil is used toderedden the observed spectrophotometry. The dereddened energydistributions are characterised by temperatures of 750-925 K, somewhatcooler than determined from near IR data alone. Models of optically thinand geometrically thick dust shells, as used by Williams et al.(\cite{wil87}) for very dusty, late-type WC stars, reproduce theobserved SEDs from 4 to 17mic , and imply shell luminosities of log(L/Lsun Msun) =~ 4.5-4.9 for the brightest fourcomponents. An analysis of the various suggestions proposed to explainthe nature of the cocoon stars reveals serious problems with all thehypotheses, and the nature of these sources remains an enigma. ISO is anESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially thePI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:17h47m33.60s
Apparent magnitude:4.54
Distance:330.033 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-3.3
Proper motion Dec:-10.9
B-T magnitude:5.537
V-T magnitude:4.656

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names
Flamsteed3 Sgr
HD 1989HD 161592
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 6836-118-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0600-28758495
BSC 1991HR 6616
HIPHIP 87072

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