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A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i ˜100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.

Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - IV. The magnesium abundance in 52 stars - a test of metallicity
From high-resolution spectra a non-local thermodynamic equilibriumanalysis of the MgII 4481.2-Åfeature is implemented for 52 earlyand medium local B stars on the main sequence (MS). The influence of theneighbouring line AlIII 4479.9-Åis considered. The magnesiumabundance is determined; it is found that logɛ(Mg) = 7.67 +/-0.21 on average. It is shown that uncertainties in the microturbulentparameter Vt are the main source of errors inlogɛ(Mg). When using 36 stars with the most reliableVt values derived from OII and NII lines, we obtain the meanabundance logɛ(Mg) = 7.59 +/- 0.15. The latter value isprecisely confirmed for several hot B stars from an analysis of the MgII7877-Åweak line. The derived abundance logɛ(Mg) = 7.59 +/-0.15 is in excellent agreement with the solar magnesium abundancelogɛsolar (Mg) = 7.55 +/- 0.02, as well as with theproto-Sun abundance logɛps(Mg) = 7.62 +/- 0.02. Thus,it is confirmed that the Sun and the B-type MS stars in ourneighbourhood have the same metallicity.

Catalog of Galactic β Cephei Stars
We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic β Cepheistars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview ofobservational characteristics of all known β Cephei stars, coveringinformation until 2004 June. Ninety-three stars could be confirmed to beβ Cephei stars. We use data from more than 250 papers publishedover the last nearly 100 years, and we provide over 45 notes onindividual stars. For some stars we reanalyzed published data orconducted our own analyses. Sixty-one stars were rejected from the finalβ Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be β Cepheistars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmedβ Cephei stars is also presented.We analyze the β Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributionsof their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radialvelocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm thatthe majority of the β Cephei stars are multiperiodic pulsators. Weshow that, besides two exceptions, the β Cephei stars with highpulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. Those higher amplitude starshave angular rotational velocities in the same range as thehigh-amplitude δ Scuti stars (Prot>~3 days).We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93β Cephei stars are main-sequence objects. We discuss theobservational boundaries of β Cephei pulsation and the physicalparameters of the stars. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modesare near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show thatthe mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 Msolar. Wepoint out that the theoretical instability strip of the β Cepheistars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt toexplain this observation.

UVBLUE: A New High-Resolution Theoretical Library of Ultraviolet Stellar Spectra
We present an extended ultraviolet-blue (850-4700 Å) library oftheoretical stellar spectral energy distributions computed at highresolution, λ/Δλ=50,000. The UVBLUE grid, as wenamed the library, is based on LTE calculations carried out with ATLAS9and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz and consists of nearly 1800entries that cover a large volume of the parameter space. It spans arange in Teff from 3000 to 50,000 K, the surface gravityranges from logg=0.0 to 5.0 with Δlogg=0.5 dex, while sevenchemical compositions are considered:[M/H]=-2.0,-1.5,-1.0,-0.5,+0.0,+0.3, and +0.5 dex. For its coverageacross the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, this library is the mostcomprehensive one ever computed at high resolution in theshort-wavelength spectral range, and useful application can be foreseenfor both the study of single stars and in population synthesis models ofgalaxies and other stellar systems. We briefly discuss some relevantissues for a safe application of the theoretical output to ultravioletobservations, and a comparison of our LTE models with the non-LTE (NLTE)ones from the TLUSTY code is also carried out. NLTE spectra are found,on average, to be slightly ``redder'' compared to the LTE ones for thesame value of Teff, while a larger difference could bedetected for weak lines, which are nearly wiped out by the enhanced coreemission component in case of NLTE atmospheres. These effects seem to bemagnified at low metallicity (typically [M/H]<~-1). A match with aworking sample of 111 stars from the IUE atlas, with availableatmosphere parameters from the literature, shows that UVBLUE modelsprovide an accurate description of the main mid- and low-resolutionspectral features for stars along the whole sequence from the B to ~G5type. The comparison sensibly degrades for later spectral types, withsupergiant stars that are in general more poorly reproduced than dwarfs.As a possible explanation of this overall trend, we partly invoke theuncertainty in the input atmosphere parameters to compute thetheoretical spectra. In addition, one should also consider the importantcontamination of the IUE stellar sample, where the presence of binaryand variable stars certainly works in the sense of artificiallyworsening the match between theory and observations.

Absolute Parameters for Eight Eclipsing Binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud: The Mass-Luminosity Relation
A simultaneous light and radial velocity analysis of eight LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC) eclipsing binaries is presented. Combiningspectroscopic observations obtained with UVES at the ESO Very LargeTelescope and light curves available from the MACHO and OGLE databases,accurate masses and radii for the binary components, along with theirspectral types and luminosities, are derived. These determinations allowus to construct the first mass-luminosity relation for late O and earlyB type stars in the LMC. This mass-luminosity relation looks verysimilar to that of the Milky Way, in spite of the differentmetallicities. The good agreement achieved in the comparison with recenttheoretical isochrones is encouraging regarding the reliability of starmodels up to 20 Msolar.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory,Paranal, with VLT UT2 (Kueyen); ESO programs 68.D-0328(A) and70.D-0191(A).

B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.

An empirical temperature calibration for the Δ a photometric system . I. The B-type stars
We establish an empirical effective temperature calibration of mainsequence, luminosity class V to III B-type stars for the Δ aphotometric system which was originally developed to detect magneticchemically peculiar objects of the upper main sequence (early B-type toearly F-type) at 5200 Å. However, this system provides the index(g_1-y) which shows an excellent correlation with (B-V) as well as (b-y)and can be used as an indicator of the effective temperature. This issupplemented by a very accurate color-magnitude diagram, y or V versus(g_1-y), which can be used, for example, to determine the reddening,distance and age of an open cluster. This makes the Δ aphotometric system an excellent tool to investigate theHertzsprung-Russell-Diagram (HRD) in more detail. Using thereddening-free parameters and already established calibrations withinthe Strömgren uvbyβ, Geneva 7-color and Johnson UBV systems, apolynomial fit of third degree for the averaged effective temperaturesto the individual (g_1-y)0 values was derived. For thispurpose, data from the literature as well as new observations were takenresulting in 225 suitable bright normal B-type objects. The statisticalmean of the error for this sample is 238 K which is sufficient toinvestigate the HRD of distant galactic open clusters as well asextragalactic aggregates in the future.

CHORIZOS: A χ2 Code for Parameterized Modeling and Characterization of Photometry and Spectrophotometry
We have developed CHi-square cOde for parameterRized modeling andcharacterIZation of phOtometry and Spectrophotmetry (CHORIZOS). CHORIZOScan use up to two intrinsic free parameters (e.g., temperature andgravity for stars, type and redshift for galaxies, or age andmetallicity for stellar clusters) and two extrinsic parameters (amountand type of extinction). The code uses χ2 minimization tofind all models compatible with the observed data in the modelN-dimensional (N=1, 2, 3, 4) parameter space. CHORIZOS can use eithercorrelated or uncorrelated colors as input and is specially designed toidentify possible parameter degeneracies and multiple solutions. Thecode is written in IDL and is available to the astronomical community.Here we present the techniques used, test the code, apply it to a fewwell-known astronomical problems, and suggest possible applications. Asa first scientific result from CHORIZOS, we confirm from photometry theneed for a revised temperature-spectral type scale for OB starspreviously derived from spectroscopy.

Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - III. An analysis of helium lines in spectra of 102 stars
Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of He I lines in spectraof 102 B stars is implemented in order to derive the helium abundanceHe/H, the microturbulent parameter Vt and the projectedrotation velocity v sini. A simultaneous determination of He/H andVt for the stars is effected by analysing equivalent widthsof the 4471- and 4922-Å lines primarily as indicators of He/H andthe 4713-, 5016-, 5876- and 6678-Å lines primarily as indicatorsof Vt. The rotation velocities v sini are found from profilesof the same lines. It is shown that, when Vt > 7 kms-1, the Vt(He I) values determined from He Ilines are systematically overestimated as compared with theVt(OII, NII) values derived from OII and NII lines. Thisdiscrepancy is especially appreciable for hot evolved B giants withVt(He I) = 16-23 km s-1 and may indicate a failureof classical model atmospheres to represent the strong He I lines forthese stars.Two programme stars, HR 1512 and 7651, are found to be helium-weakstars. The remaining 100 stars are divided into three groups accordingto their masses M. The microturbulent parameter Vt(He I) islow for all stars of group A (M= 4.1-6.9 Msolar) and for allstars with the relative ages t/tMS < 0.8 of group B (M=7.0-11.2 Msolar). Their Vt(He I) values are withinthe 0 to 5 km s-1 range, as a rule; the mean value isVt= 1.7 km s-1. Only evolved giants of group B,which are close to the termination of the main-sequence (MS)evolutionary phase (t/tMS > 0.8), show Vt(He I)up to 11 km s-1. The helium abundance He/H is correlated withthe relative age t/tMS in both groups; the averaged He/Henhancement during the MS phase is 26 per cent. For group C, containingthe most massive stars (M= 12.4-18.8 Msolar), theVt(He I) values display a correlation with t/tMS,varying from 4 to 23 km s-1. The He/H determination for hotevolved B giants of the group with Vt(He I) > 15 kms-1 depends on a choice between the Vt(He I) andVt(OII, NII) scales. The mean He/H enrichment by 67 per centduring the MS phase is found, if the abundances He/H are based on theVt(OII, NII) scale; however, two evolved giants withespecially high v sini, HR 7446 and 7993, show the He/H enhancement byabout a factor of 2.5. When using the same Vt scale, we founda trend of He/H with projected rotational velocities v sini a largedispersion for v sini > 150 km s-1 can result fromdifferences in masses M.A comparison with the stellar model computations with rotationallyinduced mixing shows that the observed helium enrichment during the MSphase can be explained by rotation with initial velocities 250-400 kms-1. The He/H distribution on M and v sini based on theVt(OII, NII) scale seems to be in better agreement with thetheory than one based on the Vt(He I) scale. The mean valueHe/H = 0.10 derived for stars in the zero age main sequence (ZAMS)vicinity can be adopted as the typical initial helium abundance forearly B stars in the solar neighbourhood.

Terminal Velocities of Luminous, Early-Type Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Ultraviolet spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)are used to determine terminal velocities for 11 O and B-type giants andsupergiants in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from the Si IV and C IVresonance lines. Using archival data from observations with the GoddardHigh-Resolution Spectrograph and the International Ultraviolet Explorertelescope, terminal velocities are obtained for a further five B-typesupergiants. We discuss the metallicity dependence of stellar terminalvelocities for supergiants, finding no evidence for a significantscaling between Galactic and SMC metallicities forTeff<30,000 K, consistent with the predictions ofradiation-driven wind theory. A comparison of thev&infy;/vesc ratio between the SMC and Galacticsamples, while consistent with the above statement, emphasizes that theuncertainties in the distances to galactic OB-type stars are a seriousobstacle to a detailed comparison with theory. For the SMC sample thereis considerable scatter in v&infy;/vesc at agiven effective temperature, perhaps indicative of uncertainties instellar masses.

A Giant Outburst at Millimeter Wavelengths in the Orion Nebula
Berkely-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) array observations of theOrion nebula discovered a giant flare from a young star previouslyundetected at millimeter wavelengths. The star briefly became thebrightest compact object in the nebula at 86 GHz. Its flux densityincreased by more than a factor of 5 on a timescale of hours, to a peakof 160 mJy. This is one of the most luminous stellar radio flares everobserved. Remarkably, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory was in the midst ofa deep integration of the Orion nebula at the time of the BIMAdiscovery; the source's X-ray flux increased by a factor of 10approximately 2 days before the radio detection. Follow-up radioobservations with the VLA and BIMA showed that the source decayed on atimescale of days, then flared again several times over the next 70days, although never as brightly as during the discovery. Circularpolarization was detected at 15, 22, and 43 GHz, indicating that theemission mechanism was cyclotron. VLBA observations 9 days after theinitial flare yield a brightness temperatureTb>5×107 K at 15 GHz. Infraredspectroscopy indicates that the source is a K5 V star with faint Brγ emission, suggesting that it is a weak-line T Tauri object.Zeeman splitting measurements in the infrared spectrum find B~2.6+/-1.0kG. The flare is an extreme example of magnetic activity associated witha young stellar object. These data suggest that short observationsobtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array will uncover hundredsof flaring young stellar objects in the Orion region.

Observations of Star-Forming Regions with the Midcourse Space Experiment
We have imaged seven nearby star-forming regions, the Rosette Nebula,the Orion Nebula, W3, the Pleiades, G300.2-16.8, S263, and G159.6-18.5,with the Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope on the Midcourse SpaceExperiment (MSX) satellite at 18" resolution at 8.3, 12.1, 14.7, and21.3 μm. The large angular scale of the regions imaged (~7.2-50deg2) makes these data unique in terms of the combination ofsize and resolution. In addition to the star-forming regions, twocirrus-free fields (MSXBG 160 and MSXBG 161) and a field near the southGalactic pole (MSXBG 239) were also imaged. Point sources have beenextracted from each region, resulting in the identification over 500 newsources (i.e., no identified counterparts at other wavelengths), as wellas over 1300 with prior identifications. The extended emission from thestar-forming regions is described, and prominent structures areidentified, particularly in W3 and Orion. The Rosette Nebula isdiscussed in detail. The bulk of the mid-infrared emission is consistentwith that of photon-dominated regions, including the elephant trunkcomplex. The central clump, however, and a line of site toward thenorthern edge of the cavity show significantly redder colors than therest of the Rosette complex.

High Spectral Resolution H2 Measurements of Herbig-Haro Objects 38, 46/47, and 120
We report high spectral resolution (R~=20,000) measurements of theH2 1-0S(1) line in Herbig-Haro objects 38, 46/47, and 120.The long-slit spectra reveal complex velocity structure with evidencefor bow-shock structures, as well as prompt entrainment and shockheating of ambient molecular gas. Individual knots within HH 38 showdistinct double-peaked velocity structure, consistent with that expectedfrom spatially unresolved bow shocks. A portion of the HH 47A bow shockis resolved in our measurements, and the kinematics of the H2trace closely that found for Hα emission. The evidence indicatesthat the preshock medium for HH 47A that formed in the wake of aprevious ejection contains molecular clumps. The HH 46C jet A feature inthe HH 46/47 counterflow is suggestive of a bow shock emerging from nearthe base of the flow, with H2 emission arising from ambientcloud material excited in the oblique flanks of the bow shock. HH 46F issituated downstream at the boundary between the ovoid cavity and theambient cloud material, and represents either entrainment by a stellarwind that fills the cavity or entrainment in the far wing of a giant bowshock. For HH 120, the H2 velocity results also corroboratethose found from atomic emission, and there is substantial evidence thatthe preshock medium is inhomogeneous, producing clumps of H2emission on the wings of a bow shock that has an apex at HH 120A.

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

STELIB: A library of stellar spectra at R ~ 2000
We present STELIB, a new spectroscopic stellar library, available athttp://webast.ast.obs-mip.fr/stelib. STELIB consists of an homogeneouslibrary of 249 stellar spectra in the visible range (3200 to 9500Å), with an intermediate spectral resolution (la 3 Å) andsampling (1 Å). This library includes stars of various spectraltypes and luminosity classes, spanning a relatively wide range inmetallicity. The spectral resolution, wavelength and spectral typecoverage of this library represents a substantial improvement overprevious libraries used in population synthesis models. The overallabsolute photometric uncertainty is 3%.Based on observations collected with the Jacobus Kaptein Telescope,(owned and operated jointly by the Particle Physics and AstronomyResearch Council of the UK, The Nederlandse Organisatie voorWetenschappelijk Onderzoek of The Netherlands and the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias of Spain and located in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos on La Palma which is operated bythe Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias), the 2.3 mtelescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring,Australia, and the VLT-UT1 Antu Telescope (ESO).Tables \ref{cat1} to \ref{cat6} and \ref{antab1} to A.7 are onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. The StellarLibrary STELIB library is also available at the CDS, via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/402/433

The relation between far-UV and visible extinctions
For directions of sufficient reddening (/E(B-V)>~0.25), there is asimple relation between the slope of the extinction curve in the far-UVand /E(B-V). Regardless of direction, the far-UV extinction curve isproportional to 1/λn e-2E(B-V)/λ(/λ in μm, /n=4), in accordance with the idea that reddenedstars spectra are contaminated by scattered light (Zagury, 2001b). Thisrelation is not compatible with the standard theory of extinction whichstates that far-UV and visible extinctions are due to different classesof particle. In that model the two (far-UV and visible) extinctions varythus independently according to the proportion of each type of particle.In preceding papers I have shown that the standard theory cannot explainUV observations of nebulae, and is contradicted by the UV spectra ofstars with very low reddening: for how long shall the standard theory beconsidered as the interpretation of the extinction curve?

Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - II. Basic parameters of 107 stars
Effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities logg andinterstellar extinctions AV are found for 107 B stars.Distances d of the stars, which are based on the derivedTeff, logg and AV values, show good agreement withthose obtained from the Hipparcos parallaxes. Comparing theTeff and logg values with evolutionary computations, we infermasses, radii, luminosities, ages and relative ages of the stars.Empirical relations between the Teff and logg parameters, onthe one hand, and the photometric indices Q, [c1] and β,on the other hand, are constructed; these relations give a fast methodfor the Teff and logg estimation of early and medium B stars.Inclusion of the infrared J, H and K colours into the Teff,logg and AV determination shows that (i) the Teffand logg parameters are altered only slightly; (ii) the AVvalue is rather sensitive to these colours, so an accuracy better than0.05mag in the JHK data is necessary for precise AVevaluation.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

Wind variability of B supergiants. IV. A survey of IUE time-series data of 11 B0 to B3 stars
We present the most suitable data sets available in the InternationalUltraviolet Explorer (IUE) archive for the study of time-dependentstellar winds in early B supergiants. The UV line profile variability in11 B0 to B3 stars is analysed, compared and discussed, based on 16separate data sets comprising over 600 homogeneously reducedhigh-resolution spectrograms. The targets include ``normal'' stars withmoderate rotation rates and examples of rapid rotators. A gallery ofgrey-scale images (dynamic spectra) is presented, which demonstrates therichness and range of wind variability and highlights differentstructures in the winds of these stars. This work emphasises thesuitability of B supergiants for wind studies, under-pinned by the factthat they exhibit unsaturated wind lines for a wide range of ionization.The wind activity of B supergiants is substantial and has highly variedcharacteristics. The variability evident in individual stars isclassified and described in terms of discrete absorption components,spontaneous absorption, bowed structures, recurrence, and ionizationvariability and stratification. Similar structures can occur in stars ofdifferent fundamental parameters, but also different structures mayoccur in the same star at a given epoch. We discuss the physicalphenomena that may be associated with the spectral signatures. Thediversity of wind patterns evident likely reflects the role of stellarrotation and viewing angle in determining the observationalcharacteristics of azimuthally extended structure rooted at the stellarsurface. In addition, SEI line-synthesis modelling of the UV wind linesis used to provide further information about the state of the winds inour program stars. Typically the range, implied by the line profilevariability, in the product of mass-loss rate and ion fraction (mdotq_i) is a factor of ~ 1.5, when integrated between 0.2 and 0.9 v_infty ;it can however be several times larger over localised velocity regions.At a given effective temperature the mean relative ion ratios can differby a factor of 5. The general excess in predicted (forward-scattered)emission in the low velocity regime is discussed in terms of structuredoutflows. Mean ion fractions are estimated over the B0 to B1 spectralclasses, and trends in the ionic ratios as a function of wind velocityare described. The low values obtained for the ion fractions of UVresonance lines may reflect the role of clumping in the wind.

The stellar composition of the star formation region CMa R1 - II. Spectroscopic and photometric observations of nine young stars
We present new high- and low-resolution spectroscopic and photometricdata of nine members of the young association CMa R1. All the stars havecircumstellar dust at some distance, as could be expected from theirassociation with reflection nebulosity. Four stars (HD52721, HD53367,LkHα220 and LkHα218) show Hα emission and we arguethat they are Herbig Be stars with discs. Our photometric andspectroscopic observations of these stars reveal new characteristics oftheir variability. We present first interpretations of the variabilityof HD52721, HD53367 and the two LkHα stars in terms of a partiallyeclipsing binary, a magnetic activity cycle and circumstellar dustvariations, respectively. The remaining five stars show no clearindications of Hα emission in their spectra, although theirspectral types and ages are comparable with those of HD52721 andHD53367. This indicates that the presence of a disc around a star in CMaR1 may depend on the environment of the star. In particular we find thatall Hα emission stars are located at or outside the arc-shapedborder of the Hii region, which suggests that the stars inside the archave lost their discs through evaporation by UV photons from nearby Ostars, or from the nearby (<25pc) supernova, about 1Myr ago.

Optical studies of two Large Magellanic Cloud X-ray transients: RX J0544.1-7100 and RX J0520.5-6932
We report observations that confirm the identities of the opticalcounterparts to the transient sources RX J0544.1-7100 and RXJ0520.5-6932. The counterparts are suggested to be B-type stars. Opticaldata from the observations carried out at ESO and SAAO, together withresults from the OGLE data base, are presented. In addition, X-ray datafrom the RXTE All-Sky Monitor are investigated for long-termperiodicities. A strong suggestion for a binary period of 24.4d is seenin RX J0520.5-6932 from the OGLE data.

MSX Observations of Diffuse UV Emission in Orion
We have observed intense diffuse radiation in the UV (1400 Å -2600 Å) from three fields around M42 in Orion. Intensities of20000 photons cm-2 sr-1 s-1 Å-1 were observed to the east and westof M42 with 8000 photons cm-2 sr-1 s-1 Å-1 south of the nebula.Enhanced emission, perhaps associated with a nearby complex of molecularclouds observed in CO, was detected in one of the fields. The IRAS 1000μm emission in that region is highly correlated with the UV intensitywith a UV-IR ratio of 40 photons cm-2 sr-1 s-1 Å-1 (MJy sr-1)-1.In the other two fields there was no structure in the diffuse emissionnor was there any correlation with the IRAS emission.

ι Orionis-Evidence for a Capture Origin Binary
The star ι Ori (HD 37043, HR 1899) is a 29.1338 day period,double-lined O-type spectroscopic binary with a highly eccentric orbit.The classification of the primary (O9 III) is well established. Thesecondary, roughly 2 mag fainter, is generally acknowledged as anearly-type B star, but claims about its luminosity class have been madeonly from its estimated light contribution and not from its spectrum. Wehave collected visual data with the 1 m Multiple-Telescope Telescope(MTT at the Center for High Angular Resolution at Georgia StateUniversity) in four wave bands well distributed in orbital phase, withthe periastron passage particularly well covered. We presentreconstructed component spectra from our tomographic reconstructiontechnique. According to three Morgan-Keenan (MK) luminosity criteria, wecan unambiguously characterize the secondary as a B1 III-IV giant (MKtype or B0.8 III-IV interpolated type). We also have constructed threeline-strength indices from eighteen observed individual lines for thesecondary and a grid of comparison stars. These results confirm thetyping from the MK luminosity criteria. Furthermore, we argue, from themass ratio (q=0.5), evolutionary considerations, the orbital scale, andthe unremarkable CNO element equivalent widths of the secondary, thatthis system is not coevolved nor has it undergone significant masstransfer. We postulate an origin for the system in a binary-binarycollision and suspect that the runaway stars μ Col and AE Aur mayhave been the original partners for the current ι Ori secondary andprimary, respectively.

Boron Abundances in Early B Stars: Results from the B III Resonance Line in IUE Data
We have used archival International Ultraviolet Explorer high-dispersionSWP spectra to study the B III resonance line at 2065.8 Å in 44early B stars. We find a median boron abundance about half that of solarsystem meteoritic material, consistent with the values found fromprevious studies of boron in early B stars. About one-third of the starsstudied appear to have boron abundances that are a factor of 4 or morelower than this median. Many of these are stars with enhanced nitrogenabundances, confirming the belief that deep envelope mixing can occur inmain-sequence B stars. A few stars with low boron abundances have normalN/C ratios. It is unclear whether all of these can be explained as starswhere mixing depleted the boron but did not go deep enough to bringCN-processed material to the surface or if some stars were actuallyformed with an unusually low boron abundance.

BCD spectrophotometry of stars with the B[e] phenomenon. I. Fundamental parameters
Low resolution spectra in the lambda lambda3500 -4600 Å wavelengthrange of 23 stars with the B[e] phenomenon are presented. Spectralclassification of 15 program stars was performed using the BCDspectrophotometric system, based on the study of the Balmerdiscontinuity, which is independent of interstellar and circumstellardust extinctions and of circumstellar gas emissions and/or absorptions.From calibrations of the (lambda1 ,D) BCD parameters wedetermined the (Teff,log g, Mbol) of the studiedstars. For stars where this method could not be applied, we tried toestimate the temperature of the central star by using the Balmer and Hei emission lines and/or their visible energy distribution. The colourtemperature and the temperatures obtained from the study of Balmer andHe i lines are consistent with each other. The new results are comparedwith those obtained previously by other authors and discussed for eachstar individually. For some stars, differences between the effectivetemperatures derived using the BCD classification system and thoseobtained elsewhere, based on photometric or spectroscopic analysis,imply spectral-type classification disagreements ranging from 2-3 up to6 B sub-spectral types. The fundamental parameters of AS 119,CD-24°5721, Hen2-91, HD 316375 and BD-11°4747 were determinedfor the first time. A simple method was introduced to calculate total(interstellar+circumstellar) dust extinction towards the studied stars.For HD 53179, which is a double stellar system, and for HD 45677 and HD50138, which are suspected to be binaries, we predicted thecharacteristics of the components that are consistent with the observed(lambda1 ,D) parameters. However, the possible binarity of HD45677 and HD 50138 still needs to be confirmed spectroscopically. Dataobtained in CASLEO operated under agreement between the CONICET and theUniversities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.Partially based on observations done at ESO La Silla, Chili.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - I. Spectral observations of 123 stars; measurements of hydrogen and helium lines; infrared photometry
High-resolution spectral observations of 123 B0-B5 stars in the mainsequence evolutionary phase were obtained at two observatories, namelythe McDonald Observatory (McDO) and the Crimean AstrophysicalObservatory (CrAO). Accurate equivalent widths W of two Balmer lines,Hβ and Hγ, and ten Hei lines were obtained for all the stars,as well as of the Heiiλ4686 line for the hottest ones. A carefulanalysis of the measured equivalent widths was performed. It is shownthat there is a very good agreement between the W values derived fromthe McDO and CrAO spectra for 14 common stars. A comparison withpublished data leads to the conclusion that the W values measuredearlier by some authors for strong Hei lines are very likely to beunderestimated. Infrared photometric observations in the J, H, and Kbands were performed for 70 programme stars. All these data will be usedin other papers: in particular for the Teff and loggdetermination and for the He, C, N and O abundance analyses.

In-Flight Calibration of the ROSAT HRI Ultraviolet Sensitivity
Comparing measured and estimated count rates of a few selected samplestars, we confirm the validity and provide the in-flight calibration ofthe ROSAT HRI UV/visible effective area model in Zombeck et al. Thecount rate estimates for Betelgeuse derived with this model are inagreement with the measured HRI upper limit. This result is alsoconfirmed in an erratum by Berghöfer et al. aimed at revising theirprevious calculation, which was overestimated by more than 2 orders ofmagnitude. Adopting this ROSAT HRI UV/visible effective area model andmeasured UV/visible spectra of a set of sample stars covering the rangeof Teff 3000-40,000 K, we have built the calibration curvesto estimate UV/visible contamination count rates for any star of knownTeff, mv, and NH.

An analysis of the Johnson et al. Catalina UBVRI photometry for second order extinction effects.
Not Available

Determining the Physical Properties of the B Stars. I. Methodology and First Results
We describe a new approach to fitting the UV-to-optical spectra of Bstars to model atmospheres and present initial results. Using a sampleof lightly reddened stars, we demonstrate that the Kurucz modelatmospheres can produce excellent fits to either combined low-dispersionIUE and optical photometry or HST FOS spectrophotometry, as long as thefollowing conditions are fulfilled: (1) an extended grid of Kuruczmodels is employed; (2) the IUE NEWSIPS data are placed on the FOSabsolute flux system using the Massa & Fitzpatrick transformation;(3) and all of the model parameters and the effects of interstellarextinction are solved for simultaneously. When these steps are taken,the temperatures, gravities, abundances, and microturbulence velocitiesof lightly reddened B0-A0 V stars are determined to high precision. Wealso demonstrate that the same procedure can be used to fit the energydistributions of stars that are reddened by any UV extinction curve thatcan be expressed by the Fitzpatrick & Massa parameterization scheme.We present an initial set of results and verify our approach throughcomparisons with angular diameter measurements and the parametersderived for an eclipsing B-star binary. We demonstrate that themetallicity derived from the ATLAS9 fits to main-sequence B stars isessentially the Fe abundance. We find that a near zero microturbulencevelocity provides the best fit to all but the hottest or most luminousstars (where it may become a surrogate for atmospheric expansion) andthat the use of white dwarfs to calibrate UV spectrophotometry is valid.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h31m55.80s
Apparent magnitude:4.62
Distance:473.934 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-1.2
Proper motion Dec:-6.5
B-T magnitude:4.281
V-T magnitude:4.565

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesThabit
Bayerυ Ori
Flamsteed36 Ori
HD 1989HD 36512
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 4778-1407-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0825-01560500
BSC 1991HR 1855
HIPHIP 25923

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