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|A radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures - I. Kinematics of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy|
As part of a radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structuresthat we undertook with the 2dF spectrograph on the Anglo-AustralianTelescope, we present the radial velocities of more than 1500 red giantbranch and red clump stars towards the centre of the Canis Major dwarfgalaxy. With a mean velocity of 72 +/- 7kms-1 at aheliocentric distance of 5.5kpc and 114 +/- 2kms-1 at 8.5kpc,these stars present a peculiar distance - radial velocity relation thatis unlike that expected from thin or thick disc stars. Moreover, theybelong to a kinematically cold population with an intrinsic dispersionthat may be as low as 11+3-1kms-1. Acomparison of the velocity distribution obtained in this work withprevious studies shows the importance of using our new reductionpipeline and averaging the velocities obtained from different templates.The radial velocity distribution is used to select Canis Major stars inthe UCAC2.0 proper motion catalogue and derive proper motions inGalactic coordinates of (μl, μb) = (-3.6 +/-0.8masyr-1, 1.5 +/- 0.4masyr-1) for the dwarfgalaxy, which after correcting for the reflex solar motion along thisline of sight gives (μ'l, μ'b) = (-6.8 +/-0.8masyr-1, 0.8 +/- 0.4masyr-1), corresponding toa prograde orbit with a tangential velocity of ~235kms-1 atthe average distance of ~7.2kpc. All these kinematic constraints can bereproduced in simulations of the accretion of a dwarf on to the Galacticdisc. Such a process could also be responsible for the Monoceros Ringthat has recently been shown to encompass the Galactic disc. However,without constraints on the kinematics of the tidal arms emerging fromthe Canis Major dwarf, it is not yet possible to definitively prove alink between the two structures.
|Dynamical masses of young star clusters in NGC 4038/4039|
In order to estimate the masses of the compact, young star clusters inthe merging galaxy pair, NGC 4038/4039 (``the Antennae''), we haveobtained medium and high resolution spectroscopy using ISAAC on VLT-UT1and UVES on VLT-UT2 of five such clusters. The velocity dispersions wereestimated using the stellar absorption features of CO at 2.29 mu m andmetal absorption lines at around 8500 Å, including lines of theCalcium Triplet. The size scales and light profiles were measured fromHST images. From these data and assuming Virial equilibrium, weestimated the masses of five clusters. The resulting masses range from6.5 x 105 to 4.7 x 106 Msun. Thesemasses are large, a factor of a few to more than 10 larger than thetypical mass of a globular cluster in the Milky Way. The mass-to-lightratios for these clusters in the V- and K-bands in comparison withstellar synthesis models suggest that to first order the IMF slopes areapproximately consistent with Salpeter for a mass range of 0.1 to 100Msun. However, the clusters show a significant range ofpossible IMF slopes or lower mass cut-offs and that these variations maycorrelate with the interstellar environment of the cluster. Comparisonwith the results of Fokker-Planck simulations of compact clusters withproperties similar to the clusters studied here suggest that they arelikely to be long-lived and may lose a substantial fraction of theirtotal mass. This mass loss would make the star clusters obtain masseswhich are comparable to the typical mass of a globular cluster. Based onobservations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile.
|Stellar populations in Seyfert 2 galaxies. I. Atlas of near-UV spectra|
We have carried out a uniform spectroscopic survey of Seyfert 2 galaxiesto study the stellar populations of the host galaxies. New spectra havebeen obtained for 79 Southern galaxies classified as Seyfert 2 galaxies,7 normal galaxies, and 73 stars at a resolution of 2.2 Å over thewavelength region 3500-5300 Å. Cross-correlation between thestellar spectra is performed to group the individual observations into44 synthesis standard spectra. The standard groups include a solarabundance sequence of spectral types from O5 to M3 for dwarfs, giants,and supergiants. Metal-rich and metal-weak F-K giants and dwarfs arealso included. A comparison of the stellar data with previouslypublished spectra is performed both with the individual spectra and thestandard groups. For each galaxy, two distinct spatial regions areconsidered: the nucleus and the external bulge. Spectroscopic variationsfrom one galaxy to another and from the central to the external regionare briefly discussed. It is found that the central region of a Seyfert2 galaxy, after subtracting the bulge stellar population, always shows anear-UV spectrum similar to one of three representative categories: a)many strong emission lines and only two visible absorption lines (Ca IiK and G band) (Sey2e); b) few emission lines, many absorption lines, anda redder continuum than the previous category (Sey2a); c) an almost flatcontinuum and high-order Balmer lines seen in absorption (Sey2b). Theproportion of Seyfert 2 galaxies belonging to each class is found to be22%, 28%, and 50% respectively. We find no significative differencesbetween morphology distributions of Seyfert 2 galaxies with Balmer linesdetected in absorption and the rest of the sample. This quick lookthrough the atlas indicates that half of Seyfert 2 galaxies harbour ayoung stellar population (about or less than 100 Myr) in their centralregion, clearly unveiled by the high order Balmer series seen inabsorption. Based on observations collected at the European SouthernObservatory, Chile (ESO 65.P-0014(A)). Tables 1-3 and 8 and Fig. A.1(Appendix A) are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition|
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Giants with infrared excess.|
We have correlated optical and infrared catalogs in order to extract alarge sample of luminosity class III stars with known infrared fluxdensities. For a non-negligible fraction of G and K giants, afar-infrared excess emission was found, starting beyond 25μm. Anexplanation in terms of present-day mass loss thus becomes unlikely,since the dust should then be warmer and the excess emission less far inthe infrared. We believe that the far-infrared excesses of theseobjects, most likely first-ascent giants, are related to the Vegaphenomenon. The dusty disks around these stars, gradually cooled downduring their main-sequence phase, could be reheated once the star leavesthe main sequence and enters the luminous post-main-sequence phase. Thefairly large sample we constructed enables us to derive an estimationfor the occurrence of excesses. This fraction of G or K giants withfar-infrared excess appears to be distinctly smaller than amongmain-sequence stars. Since the higher radiation field of giants couldlead to a larger evaporation rate of the circumstellar debris, this factdoes not conflict with our hypothesis.
|Hybrid stars and the reality of "dividing lines" among G to K bright giants and supergiants.|
We present results of pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of 15 hybridstars/candidates, which have been analyzed in a homogenous way. 7 ofthese stars were observed in X-rays for the first time. 12 out of 15hybrid stars have been detected as X-ray sources, some of them close tothe detection limit. We conclude that essentially all hybrid stars asdefined by the simultaneous presence of transition region line emissionand cool stellar winds are X-ray sources if exposed sufficiently deep.The X-ray luminosities of hybrid stars cover a range between 2x10^27^and ~10^30^erg/s. Their X-ray surface fluxes can be as low as =~20erg/cm^2^/s and thus considerably lower than those of normal luminosityclass (LC) III giants. X-ray spectra of hybrid stars tend to be harderthan that of normal LC III giants, moreover, the X-ray brightest starshave the hardest spectra. We find that for K II giants the normalizedX-ray flux versus C IV flux obeys a power law with an exponent a=2.9,steeper than among normal giants (1.5). Hybrid K II stars are X-rayunderluminous by a factor of 5 to 20 compared to LC III giants at thesame level of normalized CIV flux f_CIV_/f_bol_; hybrid G supergiantsare even more X-ray deficient. We reanalyze the CaII wind dividing lineand find it vertical at B-V=1.45 for LC III giants. It is nearlyhorizontal between B-V=1.45 and 1.0 (at M_bol_=~-2...-3), and not welldefined for supergiants with B-V<1.0. We therefore suggest thatpossibly all LC II and Ib G and K giants are hybrid stars and that the"dividing line" concept in its simplest form is not valid for G/K giantsbrighter than M_bol_=~-2. Hybrid stars are supposed to be evolvedintermediate mass stars and their coronal activity may in principle bedetermined by the individual history of each star.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|SANTIAGO 91, a right ascension catalogue of 3387 stars (equinox J2000).|
The positions in right ascension of 3387 stars belonging to the Santiago67 Catalogue, observed with the Repsold Meridian Circle at Cerro Calan,National Astronomical Observatory, during the period 1989 to 1994, aregiven. The average mean square error of a position, for the wholeCatalogue, is +/-0.009 s. The mean epoch of the catalogue is 1991.84.
|Radio continuum emission from stars: a catalogue update.|
An updated version of my catalogue of radio stars is presented. Somestatistics and availability are discussed.
|An atlas of southern MK standards from 5800 to 10200 A|
An atlas of stellar spectra covering the wavelength range from 5800 to10,200 A is presented of 126 southern MK standard stars, covering theluminosity classes I, III, and V. Some peculiar stars are included forcomparison purposes. The spectra were obtained at a resolution of 4.3 Aper pixel using a Cassegrain-mounted Boller and Chivens spectrographequipped with a Reticon detector. The quality and utility of the dataare discussed and examples of the spectra are presented. The atlas isavailable in digital format through the NSSDC.
|Spectroscopic investigation of cool giants and the authenticity of their reported microwave emission|
Surface velocities and metal abundances for 19 red giant stars in thespectral range G5 to M3 are derived on the basis of AAT echellespectroscopy data. Attention is given to the question of whether thestars reported to emit radio bursts had different physical properties(rotation rate, macroturbulence, microturbulence, and metal abundance)from those without the radio bursts, which might explain why they wereradio emitters. The various velocities had values consistent with thosepreviously found for other similar stars. There was an observed increasein both macroturbulent and, less definitely, microturbulent velocitieswith lateness of spectral type at K3 and later. A weak correlationbetween surface velocities and 8.4-GHz radio surface fluxes was found.No connection between iron abundances and radio surface fluxes wasdetected. It is concluded that few, if any, of the cool giants are radioemitters.
|Non-thermal radio emission from post-main-sequence stars|
The Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) has been used to make4.8-GHz observations of 24 fields containing post-main-sequence stars.These stars were selected from a sample of late-type (spectral types G,K and M) giants and bright giants within 30 pc claimed by Slee et al.,from observations with the Parkes radio telescope, to be variablenon-thermal radio emitters. No significant 4.8-GHz radio emission wasdetected from these stars. Non-detection of any stars with the ATCA isan improbable result, and calls for a re-analysis of the original Parkes8.4-GHz observations. A re-analysis suggests that the majority of theclaimed Parkes detections with S less than about 8 mJy are false. Thefive claimed Parkes detections with S greater than 8 mJy are discussedindividually on the basis of the ATCA and Molonglo Observatory SynthesisTelescope (MOST) observations. It is concluded that the Parkes, ATCA,and MOST observations do not invalidate the concept of a 'coronalboundary line' between stars exhibiting chromospheric and coronalemission, and more evolved stars displaying only cool winds.
|On the DDO absolute magnitudes of K giants|
DDO and BV photometry from the open cluster data base of Mermilliod(1988) and recent main sequence based estimates of cluster distances areused in order to check the absolute magnitudes of K giants derived fromDDO photometry. The DDO system is shown to have no zero point error andit is shown that the absolute magnitudes of a sample of K giants byEgret et al. (1985) are systematically too bright by approximately 1magnitude. The results of Robin (1989) for a mean absolute magnitude ofK giants of M(v) = 1.0 rather than that of Egret et al. (1985), whofound M(v) = 0.0, are therefore supported.
|Mass-losing M supergiants in the solar neighborhood|
A list of the 21 mass-losing red supergiants (20 M type, one G type; Lgreater than 100,000 solar luminosities) within 2.5 kpc of the sun iscompiled. These supergiants are highly evolved descendants ofmain-sequence stars with initial masses larger than 20 solar masses. Thesurface density is between about 1 and 2/sq kpc. As found previously,these stars are much less concentrated toward the Galactic center thanW-R stars, which are also highly evolved massive stars. Although withconsiderable uncertainty, it is estimated that the mass return by the Msupergiants is somewhere between 0.00001 and 0.00003 solar mass/sq kpcyr. In the hemisphere facing the Galactic center there is much less massloss from M supergiants than from W-R stars, but, in the anticenterdirection, the M supergiants return more mass than do the W-R stars. Theduration of the M supergiant phase appears to be between 200,000 and400,000 yr. During this phase, a star of initially at least 20 solarmasses returns perhaps 3-10 solar masses into the interstellar medium.
|Activity in a Complete Sample of Red Giants|
|A microwave survey of southern red giants|
The Parkes 64-m telescope has been used to survey a complete sample ofnearby red giants. The sample consisted of all 82 stars within 30 pc inthe Bright Star Catalogue having spectral types G, K, M and luminosityclasses I, II, III and occurring south of the celestial equator.Twenty-four stars, consisting of 19 G or K giants, two G or K brightgiants (luminosity class II) and three of the five M-type giants weredetected in the sample. The emitted 8.4-GHz power and surface fluxdistributions of the 24 detections have medians two orders of magnitudelower than those of the active radio emitters in close binaries andother rapidly rotating single stars. It is shown that the field redgiants with their low rotation velocities probably fit into thesurface-flux/rotation-velocity relation derived for the faster rotators.
|A list of MK standard stars|
|The Perkins catalog of revised MK types for the cooler stars|
A catalog is presented listing the spectral types of the G, K, M, and Sstars that have been classified at the Perkins Observatory in therevised MK system. Extensive comparisons have been made to ensureconsistency between the MK spectral types of stars in the Northern andSouthern Hemispheres. Different classification spectrograms have beengradually improved in spite of some inherent limitations. In thecatalog, the full subclasses used are the following: G0, G5, G8, K0, K1,K2, K3, K4, K5, M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M7, and M8. Theirregularities are the price paid for keeping the general scheme of theoriginal Henry Draper classification.
|Transformation equations and other aids for VRI photometry|
Transformations among VRI systems are commonly beset by Paschen-jumpeffects, for which fully satisfactory allowance has not previously beenmade. This paper describes two new techniques which are based on thework of Gutierrez-Moreno, and which allow fully for the effects of thePaschen jump. Values of E(V-R)/E(B-V) and E(R-I)/E(B-V) are also givenfor the Cousins system for a wide range of temperatures. These and thenew techniques contribute to a set of new transformation relations whichapply for most VRI systems; the status of the remaining systems isreviewed, and future work needed for them is described. Two majorsources of Cousins VRI data underlie the new relations; the consistencyof these sources is reviewed and found to be generally satisfactory,although more work on this question is needed. Finally, three tables oftransformed standard-star and other data are given for the Cousins andJohnson systems, and a description of ways to reproduce the latter ispresented.
|The absolute magnitudes of G5-M3 stars near the giant branch|
The absolute magnitudes of stars on the red giant branch (G-K-M) havebeen determined using both trigonometric and statistical parallaxes,from a sample of 212 stars classified in the Revised MK System (Keenanand Pitts, 1980). The results of both methods are summarized in a table.A good agreement is found and the difference between trigonometric andstatistical parallaxes is found not to be greater than + or - 0.002. Thecomputed absolute magnitudes and space motions are tabulated.
|Revised MK spectral types for G, K, and M stars|
A catalog of spectral types of 552 G, K, and M stars is presented, whichis classified on the revised MK system. Stellar representatives of thehalo, disk, and arm populations in all parts of the sky are included.Photoelectric V magnitudes are given, as are intensity estimates of anyfeatures which make the spectrum appear peculiar as compared to thespectrum of a similar normal star. Abundance indices are also providedin the following lines or bands: CN, barium, Fe, calcium, and CH.
|Catalogue of stars with CaII H and K emissions|
|Absolute magnitudes of stars from widths of chromospheric CaII emission lines.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976ApJ...205..823W&db_key=AST
|A Luminosity Index for Bright K0-K5 Stars|
|Luminosity and velocity distribution of high-luminosity stars near the sun. II. The young disk giants|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973PASP...85..379E&db_key=AST
|Narrow-Band and Broad-Band Photometry of Red Stars. III. Southern Giants|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1970ApJ...161..199E&db_key=AST
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