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The Homogeneity of Interstellar Elemental Abundances in the Galactic Disk
We present interstellar elemental abundance measurements derived fromSpace Telescope Imaging Spectrograph echelle observations of 47 sightlines extending up to 6.5 kpc through the Galactic disk. These pathsprobe a variety of interstellar environments, covering ranges of nearly4 orders of magnitude in molecular hydrogen fraction f(H2)and more than 2 in mean hydrogen sight-line density. Coupling the current data with Goddard HighResolution Spectrograph data from 17 additional sight lines and thecorresponding Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Copernicusobservations of H2 absorption features, we explore magnesium,phosphorus, manganese, nickel, copper, and germanium gas-phase abundancevariations as a function of : density-dependentdepletion is noted for each element, consistent with a smooth transitionbetween two abundance plateaus identified with warm and cold neutralinterstellar medium depletion levels. The observed scatter with respectto an analytic description of these transitions implies that totalelemental abundances are homogeneous on length scales of hundreds ofparsecs, to the limits of abundance measurement uncertainty. Theprobable upper limit we determine for intrinsic variability at any is 0.04 dex, aside from an apparent 0.10 dexdeficit in copper (and oxygen) abundances within 800 pc of the Sun.Magnesium dust abundances are shown to scale with the amount of siliconin dust, and in combination with a similar relationship between iron andsilicon, these data appear to favor the young F and G star values ofSofia & Meyer as an elemental abundance standard for the Galaxy.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA.

Physical parameters and wind properties of galactic early B supergiants
We present optical studies of the physical and wind properties, plus CNOchemical abundances, of 25 O9.5-B3 Galactic supergiants. We employnon-LTE, line blanketed, extended model atmospheres, which provide amodest downward revision in the effective temperature scale of early Bsupergiants of up to 1-2 kK relative to previous non-blanketed results.The so-called "bistability jump" at B1 (Teff ˜ 21 kK)from Lamers et al. is rather a more gradual trend (with large scatter)from v&infy;/vesc˜3.4 for B0-0.5 supergiantsabove 24 kK to v&infy;/vesc˜ 2.5 for B0.7-1supergiants with 20 kK ≤ Teff ≤ 24 kK, andv&infy;/vesc˜ 1.9 for B1.5-3 supergiants below20 kK. This, in part, explains the break in observed UV spectralcharacteristics between B0.5 and B0.7 subtypes as discussed by Walbornet al. We compare derived (homogeneous) wind densities with recentresults for Magellanic Cloud B supergiants and generally confirmtheoretical expectations for stronger winds amongst Galacticsupergiants. However, winds are substantially weaker than predictionsfrom current radiatively driven wind theory, especially at mid-Bsubtypes, a problem which is exacerbated if winds are already clumped inthe Hα line forming region. In general, CNO elemental abundancesreveal strongly processed material at the surface of Galactic Bsupergiants, with mean N/C and N/O abundances 10 and 5 times higher thanthe Solar value, respectively, with HD 2905 (BC0.7 Ia) indicating thelowest degree of processing in our sample, and HD 152236 (B1.5Ia+) the highest.

Correlation patterns between 11 diffuse interstellar bands and ultraviolet extinction
We relate the equivalent widths of 11 diffuse interstellar bands,measured in the spectra of 49 stars, to different colour excesses in theultraviolet. We find that most of the observed bands correlatepositively with the extinction in the neighbourhood of the2175-Åbump. Correlation with colour excesses in other parts of theextinction curve is more variable from one diffuse interstellar band toanother; we find that some diffuse bands (5797, 5850 and 6376 Å)correlate positively with the overall slope of the extinction curve,while others (5780 and 6284 Å) exhibit negative correlation. Wediscuss the implications of these results on the links between thediffuse interstellar band carriers and the properties of theinterstellar grains.

Profiles of Very Weak Diffuse Interstellar Bands around 6440 Å
Profiles of very weak diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) between 6400 and6470 Å observed with high resolution and very high S/N aredemonstrated. We show that with the increasing quality of reddenedstellar spectra, the whole spectral range is covered with weak or veryweak DIBs-at least one every 2-3 Å. We also present the details ofthe profiles of a few stronger features; the presence of substructuresresembles the profiles of strong DIBs observed in high resolution duringthe last decade and supports the hypothesis of a molecular origin of atleast a majority of DIBs.

On the massive stellar population of the super star cluster Westerlund 1
We present new spectroscopic and photometric observations of the youngGalactic open cluster Westerlund 1 (Wd 1) that reveala unique population of massive evolved stars. We identify ~200 clustermembers and present spectroscopic classifications for ~25% of these. Wefind that all stars so classified are unambiguously post-Main Sequenceobjects, consistent with an apparent lack of an identifiable MainSequence in our photometric data to V˜ 20. We are able to identifyrich populations of Wolf Rayet stars, OB supergiants and short livedtransitional objects. Of these, the latter group consists of both hot(Luminous Blue Variable and extreme B supergiant) and cool (YellowHypergiant and Red Supergiant) objects - we find that half the knownGalactic population of YHGs resides within Wd 1. We obtain a meanV-MV ~ 25 mag from the cluster Yellow Hypergiants, implying aMain Sequence turnoff at or below MV =-5 (O7 V or later).Based solely on the masses inferred for the 53 spectroscopicallyclassified stars, we determine an absolute minimum mass of ~1.5 ×10^3~Mȯ for Wd 1. However, considering the completephotometrically and spectroscopically selected cluster population andadopting a Kroupa IMF we infer a likely mass for Wd 1 of~10^5~Mȯ, noting that inevitable source confusion andincompleteness are likely to render this an underestimate. As such, Wd 1is the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the LocalGroup, with a mass exceeding that of Galactic Centre clusters such asthe Arches and Quintuplet. Indeed, the luminosity, inferred mass andcompact nature of Wd 1 are comparable with those of Super Star Clusters- previously identified only in external galaxies - and is consistentwith expectations for a Globular Cluster progenitor.

Correlations between diffuse interstellar bands and atomic lines
We present and discuss correlations between strengths of the well-known,strong interstellar atomic lines of KI and CaII, and four selected,strong unidentified diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs): 5780, 5797, 5850and 6614. In order to analyse a homogeneous sample of echellehigh-resolution spectra it has been chosen to use measurements fromTerskol Observatory in Northern Caucasus plus a selected number ofhigher resolution observations performed using other instruments. Wedemonstrate that the strength of certain DIBs correlate well withneutral potassium lines and to a much lower degree with ionized calciumlines. This fact suggests that the degree of irradiation of a cloud withUV photons, capable to ionize interstellar atoms, plays a crucial rolein the formation/maintenance of certain molecular species: possiblecarriers of DIBs.

The Optical Spectrum of an LBV Candidate in the Cyg OB2 Association
We have obtained the first high-spectral-resolution (R=15000 and 60000)optical spectra for the extremely luminous star No. 12, identified withthe IR source IRAS 20308+4104 in the Cyg OB2 association. We haveidentified about 200 spectral features at 4552 7939 Å, includingthe interstellar NaI, KI lines and numerous DIBs, which are thestrongest absorption lines in the spectrum, along with the HeI, CII, andSiII lines. A two-dimensional spectral classification indicates that thestar's spectral type is B5±0.5 Ia+. Our analysis of theradial-velocity pattern shows the presence of a radial-velocity gradientin the stellar atmosphere, due to the infall of matter onto the star.The strong Hα emission line displays broad Thompson wings andtime-variable core absorption, providing evidence that the stellar windis inhomogeneous, and a slightly blue-shifted P Cygni absorptionprofile. We conclude that the wind is time-variable.

The Homogeneity of Interstellar Oxygen in the Galactic Disk
We present an analysis of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST)Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of O Iλ1356 and H I Lyα absorption in 36 sight lines that probe avariety of Galactic disk environments and include paths that range overnearly 4 orders of magnitude in f(H2), over 2 orders ofmagnitude in , and that extend up to 6.5 kpc inlength. Since the majority of these sight lines have also been observedby the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), we have undertakenthe study of gas-phase O/H abundance ratio homogeneity using the currentsample and previously published Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph(GHRS) results. Two distinct trends are identified in the 56 sight linesample: an apparent decrease in gas-phase oxygen abundance withincreasing mean sight-line density () and a gapbetween the mean O/H ratio for sight lines shorter and longer than about800 pc. The first effect is a smooth transition between two depletionlevels associated with large mean density intervals; it is centered near=1.5cm-3 and is similar to trendsevident in gas-phase abundances of other elements. Paths less dense thanthe central value exhibit a mean O/H ratio of log10(O/H)=-3.41+/-0.01 (or 390+/-10ppm), which is consistent with averages determined for several longlow-density paths observed by STIS (André et al. 2003) and shortlow-density paths observed by FUSE (Moos et al. 2002). Sight lines ofhigher mean density exhibit an average O/H value of log10(O/H)=-3.55+/-0.02 (284+/-12ppm). The data points for low- paths are scatteredmore widely than those for denser sight lines, because O/H ratios forsuch paths shorter than 800 pc are generally about 0.10 dex lower thanthe values for longer ones. Scenarios that would be consistent withthese results include a recent infall of metal-poor gas onto the localGalactic disk and an interstellar environment toward Orion that isconducive to reducing the apparent gas-phase oxygen abundance.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) andthe NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). HSTspectra were obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555 FUSE is operated for NASA by theJohns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

Toward an adequate method to isolate spectroscopic families of diffuse interstellar bands
We divide some of the observed diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) intofamilies that appear to have the spectral structure of single species.Three different methods are applied to separate such families, exploringthe best approach for future investigations of this type. Starting witha statistical treatment of the data, we found that statistical methodsby themselves give insufficient results. Two other methods of dataanalysis (`averaging equivalent widths' and `investigating the figureswith arranged spectrograms') were found to be more useful as tools forfinding the spectroscopic families of DIBs. On the basis of thesemethods, we suggest some candidates as `relatives' of 5780- and5797-Å bands.

High-Resolution Observations of Interstellar Ca I Absorption-Implications for Depletions and Electron Densities in Diffuse Clouds
We present high-resolution (FWHM~0.3-1.5 km s-1) spectra,obtained with the AAT UHRF, the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m coudéspectrograph, and/or the KPNO coudé feed, of interstellar Ca Iabsorption toward 30 Galactic stars. Comparisons of the column densitiesof Ca I, Ca II, K I, and other species-for individual componentsidentified in the line profiles and also when integrated over entirelines of sight-yield information on relative electron densities anddepletions (dependent on assumptions regarding the ionizationequilibrium). There is no obvious relationship between the ratio N(CaI)/N(Ca II) [equal to ne/(Γ/αr) forphotoionization equilibrium] and the fraction of hydrogen in molecularform f(H2) (often taken to be indicative of the local densitynH). For a smaller sample of sight lines for which thethermal pressure (nHT) and local density can be estimated viaanalysis of the C I fine-structure excitation, the average electrondensity inferred from C, Na, and K (assuming photoionizationequilibrium) seems to be independent of nH andnHT. While the electron density (ne) obtained fromthe ratio N(Ca I)/N(Ca II) is often significantly higher than the valuesderived from other elements, the patterns of relative nederived from different elements show both similarities and differencesfor different lines of sight-suggesting that additional processesbesides photoionization and radiative recombination commonly andsignificantly affect the ionization balance of heavy elements in diffuseinterstellar clouds. Such additional processes may also contribute tothe (apparently) larger than expected fractional ionizations(ne/nH) found for some lines of sight withindependent determinations of nH. In general, inclusion of``grain-assisted'' recombination does reduce the inferred ne,but it does not reconcile the ne estimated from differentelements; it may, however, suggest some dependence of ne onnH. The depletion of calcium may have a much weakerdependence on density than was suggested by earlier comparisons with CHand CN. Two appendices present similar high-resolution spectra of Fe Ifor a few stars and give a compilation of column density data for Ca I,Ca II, Fe I, and S I.

The Homogeneity of Interstellar Krypton in the Galactic Disk
We present an analysis of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope SpaceTelescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of Kr I λ1236absorption in seven sight lines that probe a variety of interstellarenvironments. In combination with krypton and hydrogen column densitiesderived from current and archival STIS and Far-Ultraviolet SpectroscopicExplorer data, the number of sight lines with reliable Kr/H ISMabundance ratios has been increased by 50% to 26-including paths thatsample a range of nearly 5 orders of magnitude in f(H2) andover 2 orders of magnitude in , and extend up to4.8 kpc in length. For sight lines contained entirely within the localspiral arm (the Orion spur), the spread of Kr/H ratios about the mean oflog10[N(Kr)/N(H)]ISM=-9.02+/-0.02is remarkably tight (0.06 dex), less than the typical data-pointuncertainty. Intriguingly, the only two sight lines that extend throughneighboring structures, in particular gas associated with theCarina/Sagittarius arm, exhibit relatively large, near-solar kryptonabundances (log10[N(Kr)/N(H)]combined=-8.75+0.09-0.11).Although these deviations are only measured at the 2 σ level, theysuggest the possibility that krypton abundances beyond the Orion spurmay differ from the local value.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) andthe NASA-CNES-CSA Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). HSTspectra were obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555 FUSE is operated for NASA by theJohns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS-32985.

A Method for Simultaneous Determination of AV and R and Applications
A method for the simultaneous determination of the interstellarextinction (AV) and of the ratio of total to selectiveextinction (R), derived from the 1989 Cardelli, Clayton, & Mathisfitting of the interstellar extinction law, is presented and applied toa set of 1900 color excesses derived from observations of stars inUBVRIJHKL. The method is used to study the stability of AVand R within selected regions in Perseus, Scorpius, Monoceros, Orion,Sagittarius, Ophiuchus, Carina, and Serpens. Analysis shows that R isapproximately constant and peculiar to each sector, with mean valuesthat vary from 3.2 in Perseus to 5.6 in Ophiuchus. These results aresimilar to published values by Aiello et al., He et al., Vrba &Rydgren, O'Donnell, and Cardelli, Clayton, & Mathis.

Some Diffuse Interstellar Bands Related to Interstellar C2 Molecules
We have investigated the correlations between the equivalent widths of21 selected diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) and the correspondinginterstellar column densities N(C2), N(CN), and N(CH), toward53 stars with color excesses 0.11<=E(B-V)<=1.99. The observationaldata were derived primarily from echelle spectra acquired at R=38,000 aspart of our extensive, continuing survey of the bands. All but six ofthe 53 final spectra show signal-to-noise ratios >=800 at 5780Å. The principal result presented here is that seven of the 21bands prove to be examples of ``the C2 DIBs,'' a class ofweak, narrow bands whose normalized equivalent widthsWλ(X)/Wλ (λ6196) are wellcorrelated specifically with N(C2)/E(B-V) via power laws. Incontrast, the similarly normalized equivalent widths of the 14 other,well-known DIBs analyzed here are uncorrelated, or weaklyanticorrelated, with N(C2)/E(B-V), to within theobservational uncertainties. Thus, the polyatomic molecule(s) presumedto cause these seven C2 DIBs may bear a direct chemicalrelation to C2 that is not shared by the polyatomic moleculesputatively responsible for the other 14 bands. The C2 DIBsalso show positive correlations with N(CN)/E(B-V) and N(CH)/E(B-V) inour particular sample of light paths, although generally with shallowerslopes in the case of N(CN) and with greater scatter in the case ofN(CH). Eleven additional C2 DIBs are also identified but arenot analyzed here. Among the 18 C2 DIBs identified, fourapparently have not been previously detected. The λ4963 band isgenerally the strongest of the 18 C2 DIBs, while theλ4734 band shows the most sensitive correlation withN(C2).Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium.

The total-to-selective extinction ratio determined from near IR photometry of OB stars
The paper presents an extensive list of the total to selectiveextinction ratios R calculated from the infrared magnitudes of 597 O andB stars using the extrapolation method. The IR magnitudes of these starswere taken from the literature. The IR colour excesses are determinedwith the aid of "artificial standards" - Wegner (1994). The individualand mean values of total to selective extinction ratios R differ in mostcases from the average value R=3.10 +/-0.05 - Wegner (1993) in differentOB associations. The relation between total to selective extinctionratios R determined in this paper and those calculated using the "methodof variable extinction" and the Cardelli et al. (1989) formulae isdiscussed. The R values presented in this paper can be used to determineindividual absolute magnitudes of reddened OB stars with knowntrigonometric parallaxes.

Grey extinction in the solar neighbourhood?
Some of the close O and B dwarfs appear to be fainter than indicated bytheir Hipparcos distances, intrinsic absolute magnitudes attributed totheir spectral types, and estimated selective interstellar extinction.This discrepancy is explained in the paper by the grey (neutral)interstellar extinction in the visual range of spectrum. The measure ofsuch an effect is related to discrete features of the interstellarmatter.

New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectra
We present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033

An atlas of 2.4 to 4.1 mu m ISO/SWS spectra of early-type stars
We present an atlas of spectra of O- and B-type stars, obtained with theShort Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) during the Post-Helium program ofthe Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). This program is aimed at extendingthe Morgan & Keenan classification scheme into the near-infrared.Later type stars will be discussed in a separate publication. Theobservations consist of 57 SWS Post-Helium spectra from 2.4 to 4.1 μm, supplemented with 10 spectra acquired during the nominal mission witha similar observational setting. For B-type stars, this sample providesample spectral coverage in terms of subtype and luminosity class. ForO-type stars, the ISO sample is coarse and therefore is complementedwith 8 UKIRT Larcmin -band observations. In terms of the presence ofdiagnostic lines, the Larcmin -band is likely the most promising of thenear-infrared atmospheric windows for the study of the physicalproperties of B stars. Specifically, this wavelength interval containsthe Bralpha , Pfgamma , and other Pfund lines which are probes ofspectral type, luminosity class and mass loss. Here, we present simpleempirical methods based on the lines present in the 2.4 to 4.1 mu minterval that allow the determination of i) the spectral type of Bdwarfs and giants to within two subtypes; ii) the luminosity class of Bstars to within two classes; iii) the mass-loss rate of O stars and Bsupergiants to within 0.25 dex. Based on observations with ISO, an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The appendix is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin.qcat?J/A+A/384/473

Far-ultraviolet extinction and diffuse interstellar bands
We relate the equivalent widths of the major diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) near 5797 and 5780Å with different colour excesses,normalized by E(B-V), which characterize the growth of interstellarextinction in different wavelength ranges. It is demonstrated that thetwo DIBs correlate best with different parts of the extinction curve,and the ratio of these diffuse bands is best correlated with thefar-ultraviolet (UV) rise. A number of peculiar lines of sight are alsofound, indicating that the carriers of some DIBs and the far-UVextinction can be separated in certain environments, e.g. towards thePer OB2 association.

Profiles of blue and infrared diffuse interstellar bands
The paper presents a survey of profiles of reasonably strong diffuseinterstellar bands (DIBs) based on the extensive set of high-resolutionspectra acquired with the aid of echelle spectrographs installed at the2-m Terskol, 2-m Pic du Midi and 1-m SAO telescopes. The surveyeddiffuse interstellar bands cover the spectral ranges of blue andnear-infrared, i.e the DIBs not surveyed by Krełowski &Schmidt. The possible modifications caused by stellar and telluric linesare discussed. The very broad features such as 4430 are not discussedbecause the shapes of their profiles, extracted from echelle spectra,are very uncertain. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of the spectra arenot high enough to enable discussion of the profiles of numerous weakinterstellar features discovered recently.

A High-Resolution Survey of Interstellar K I Absorption
We present high-resolution (FWHM ~0.4-1.8 km s-1) spectra,obtained with the AAT UHRF, the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m coudéspectrograph, and/or the KPNO coudé feed, of interstellar K Iabsorption toward 54 Galactic stars. These new K I spectra revealcomplex structure and narrow, closely blended components in many linesof sight. Multicomponent fits to the line profiles yield estimates forthe column densities, line widths, and velocities for 319 individualinterstellar cloud components. The median component width (FWHM) and thetrue median separation between adjacent components are both <~1.2 kms-1. The median and maximum individual component K I columndensities, about 4×1010 and 1012cm-2, correspond to individual component hydrogen columndensities of about 2×1020 and 1021cm-2 and E(B-V)~0.03 and 0.17, respectively. If T istypically ~100 K, then at least half the individual components havesubsonic internal turbulent velocities. We also reexamine therelationships between the column densities of K I, Na I, C I, Li I,Htot, H2, and CH. The four trace neutral speciesexhibit essentially linear relationships with each other over wideranges in overall column density. If C is uniformly depleted by 0.4 dex,then Li, Na, and K are each typically depleted by 0.6-0.7 dex. The totalline of sight values for N(K I) and N(Na I) show roughly quadraticdependences on N(Htot), but the relationships for theensemble of individual clouds could be significantly steeper. Thesequadratic (or steeper) dependences appear to rule out significantcontributions to the ionization from cosmic rays, X-rays, and/or chargeexchange with C II in most cases. Charge exchange with negativelycharged large molecules may often be more important than radiativerecombination in neutralizing most singly ionized atomic species in coolH I clouds, however-suggesting that the true ne,nH, and thermal pressures may be significantly smaller thanthe values estimated by considering only radiative recombination. BothN(CH) and N(H2) are nearly linearly proportional to N(K I)and N(Na I) [except for 1015cm-2<~N(H2)<~1019cm-2, over which H2 makes the transition to theself-shielded regime]. Those relationships appear also to hold for manyindividual components and component groups, suggesting thathigh-resolution spectra of K I and Na I can be very useful forinterpreting lower resolution molecular data. The scatter about allthese mean relationships is generally small (<~0.1-0.2 dex), ifcertain consistently ``discrepant'' sight lines are excluded-suggestingthat both the relative depletions and the relative ionization of Li, C,Na, and K are generally within factors of 2 of their mean values.Differences noted for sight lines in Sco-Oph, in the Pleiades, near theOrion Trapezium, and in the LMC and SMC may be due to differences in thestrength and/or shape of the ambient radiation fields, perhaps amplifiedby the effects of charge transfer with large molecules.

A possible sets of diffuse bands originating at the same carrier
This paper discusses measurements of eight selected diffuse interstellarbands (DIBs): lambda lambda 5793, 5809, 5819, 5828, 6196, 6397, 6614 and6660 performed in high resolution, high S/N spectra of 41 reddenedstars. Central depths, considered less error-prone than equivalentwidths, are measured and mutual correlations between the selected DIBsare analyzed. Tight correlations between the DIBs: 5809, 6196, 6614 and6660 may suggest their common origin despite their widths differing by afactor of up to 2. The performed simulations prove that this fact doesnot preclude a common, molecular carrier of such features.

Multicomponent radiatively driven stellar winds. II. Gayley-Owocki heating in multitemperature winds of OB stars
We show that the so-called Gayley-Owocki (Doppler) heating is importantfor the temperature structure of the wind of main sequence stars coolerthan the spectral type O6. The formula for Gayley-Owocki heating isderived directly from the Boltzmann equation as a direct consequence ofthe dependence of the driving force on the velocity gradient. SinceGayley-Owocki heating deposits heat directly on the absorbing ions, wealso investigated the possibility that individual components of theradiatively driven stellar wind have different temperatures. This effectis negligible in the wind of O stars, whereas a significant temperaturedifference takes place in the winds of main sequence B stars for starscooler than B2. Typical temperature differences between absorbing ionsand other flow components for such stars is of the order 103K. However, in the case when the passive component falls back onto thestar, the absorbing component reaches temperatures of order106 K, which allows for emission of X-rays. Moreover, wecompare our computed terminal velocities with the observed ones. Wefound quite good agreement between predicted and observed terminalvelocities. The systematic difference coming from the using of the socalled ``cooking formula'' has been removed.

Th4-4: A Be star which has turned into a planetary nebula within 30 years
The first optical spectra of Th4-4, obtained by the author in 1970,showed strong continuum and broad HI emission lines. In other words, atthis time the object looked like a Be star. Some years later, [OIII]emission lines appeared in the spectrum indicating the existence of agaseous envelope. Today the optical spectrum of Th4-4 is quite similarto that of a moderate excitation planetary nebula. The magnitude of theobject has dropped from V=14fm 4 to 16fm 6, and the effectivetemperature of the central star has increased from 22 000 K up to 40 000K within the last 30 years.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

On the identification of the C60+ interstellar features
The identity of the carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) isone of the most fascinating puzzles of modern spectroscopy. Over thelast few years the number of known DIBs has grown substantially. In thispaper we discuss the two recently discovered near-infrared weakinterstellar features which have already been proposed as fingerprintsof the buckminsterfullerene [formmu2] We present and discussmeasurements of the two related DIBs within a larger sample of reddenedtargets, observed with different spectrometers, telescopes and siteconditions. We provide additional arguments in favour of theinterstellar origin of the two bands. We find evidence around the9577-Å DIB of far-wing structures, which may affect broad-bandmeasurements. We estimate corrections and errors for telluric andstellar blends, and show that the cores of the two DIBs are wellcorrelated with a ratio near unity within 20per cent. Finally, wediscuss their relation to the laboratory spectra of [formmu3] and thesearch for two expected weaker [formmu4] transitions.

Differential O and Si Abundances in M33 Early B Supergiants
We present non-LTE analyses of four M33 early B supergiant stars andfive Galactic counterparts. This is the first time that B supergiantsbeyond the Magellanic Clouds are analyzed by means of detailed non-LTEtechniques. Among the M33 stars, new spectroscopic observations of B38(ob21-108) are presented and the object is classified as B1 Ia. Theclassification of another M33 star, B133, is changed with respect to aformer study. Equivalent widths of O and Si lines are measured for theM33 objects. Stellar temperatures, gravities, microturbulences, and Siabundances are derived for all objects using the Si ionizationequilibrium and the Balmer line wings. O abundances are then alsoderived. Important approximations made during the calculations aredescribed, and their influence on the results is analyzed (namely, weset the Lyman resonance lines in detailed balance during the calculationof the atmospheric structure for stars cooler than 20,000 K, and we setthe Si III resonance lines in detailed balance during the line formationcalculations for all models). It is found that these approximations haveno significant effect on the results at any microturbulence. We found adifference in the derived temperatures of the earlier Galactic stars ascompared to those obtained by other authors, which we attribute to thedifferent lines used for their derivation. A difference can also bepresent in the results when using the Si II/Si III and the Si III/Si IVionization equilibria. We conclude that a strict differential analysisis needed to detect abundance differences. Thus, we compare results lineby line in M33 and Galactic stars of stellar parameters as similar aspossible. Three of the four M33 stars turned out to be O deficient ascompared to their Galactic counterparts, and only one, close to thecenter of M33 (M33 1054), is found to be moderately O enriched. Fromthese differential analyses we find that our data are compatible with aradial O gradient in M33 as that derived from H II region data: weobtain -0.19+/-0.13 or -0.20+/-0.07 dex kpc-1, depending onwhether B133 is included or not. Our data are also consistent with otherpossibilities such as a steep increase of the O abundance in the innerregion (at projected distances less than 9' from the center of M33),followed by a flat O abundance profile toward the outer parts of M33. Sishows the same pattern, and it is shown that Si and O correlate well, asexpected for α-elements, supporting then the high value of the Oabundance gradient in M33 as compared to the Milky Way and other nearbyspiral galaxies. The results are compared with those of a moreapproximate technique, and it is concluded that this last can be used,attention being drawn to certain problems that are indicated. As animportant additional point, it is shown that M33 1054 is most probably asingle object, in spite of the bright absolute magnitude found in theliterature.

Gas-Phase Electronic Spectra of Carbon-Chain Radicals Compared with Diffuse Interstellar Band Observations
This paper compares laboratory gas-phase spectra of neutral and cationiclinear carbon-chain radicals with astronomical diffuse interstellar band(DIB) spectra. The origin bands of the strong electronic transitions ofthe studied species, C2nH (n=3-6),HC2nH+ (n=2-4), NC2n-2N+(n=3, 4), do not coincide with detectable DIBs, except forHC2n-1N+ (n=3), which possibly matches a weakfeature. It is concluded that the column densities of these speciesthrough the observed diffuse clouds are below 2x1012cm-2. The profile change and the shift of the maxima of theabsorption bands with temperature are illustrated. The relation toradio-astronomical detection of carbon chains in diffuse media is alsodiscussed.

1-m spectroscopy of normal OB stars
We have obtained spectra of 70 normal OB stars in the near-IR I(1-μm) band. The strongest features are those due to lines of thehydrogen Paschen series and neutral and ionized helium, which are, forthe most part, in absorption. The information content in this spectralrange is sufficient for only a rough classification of hot stars into`early O', `late O' and `B' types. Curiously, the leading He i tripletline, He i λ1.0830 μm, is usually not detectable, although ina few stars it is in emission; its behaviour generally correlates withthe leading helium singlet line, He i λ 2.058 μ m. These twofeatures appear to be present in emission only in stars with extremes ofmass loss or wind extension.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:20h48m56.30s
Apparent magnitude:4.84
Distance:689.655 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-4.1
Proper motion Dec:-1.8
B-T magnitude:5.241
V-T magnitude:4.89

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names
Flamsteed55 Cyg
HD 1989HD 198478
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3575-6709-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1350-12966733
BSC 1991HR 7977
HIPHIP 102724

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