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# 14 Ari (14 Arietis)

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 Lithium abundances for early F stars: new observational constraints for the Li dilutionAims.To investigate any correlation between Li abundances and rotationalvelocities among F-G evolved stars, we study a large sample of early Fstars from the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC), most of them classified inthe literature as giant stars.Methods.Physical parameters and Liabundances are estimated for each star, often for the first time, bycomparing observed and synthetic spectra. We analyse the position of thestars in the H-R Diagram based on Hipparcos data using stellarevolutionary tracks and we discuss their Li abundances and projectedrotational velocities.Results.Observed stars are mostly on theturnoff, with masses between 1.5 and 2.0 Mȯ. The starswith measured A(Li) abundance show high Li content, most of them withabundance near the cosmic value. The A(Li) versus V sin i diagram showsthe same trend as reported in previous studies: fast rotators (V sinigse 30 km s-1) are also stars with high Li content, whereasslow rotators present a wide range of values of A(Li), ranging from nodetected Li to the cosmic value. Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear MotionUseful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr). The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of 14 000 F and G dwarfsWe present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989 Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable starsThe data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297 Are metallic A-F giants evolved AM stars? Rotation and rate of binaries among giant F starsWe test the hypothesis of Berthet (1992) {be91} which foresees that Amstars become giant metallic A and F stars (defined by an enhanced valueof the blanketing parameter Delta m_2 of the Geneva photometry) whenthey evolve. If this hypothesis is right, Am and metallic A-FIII starsneed to have the same rate of binaries and a similar distribution ofvsin i. From our new spectroscopic data and from vsin i and radialvelocities in the literature, we show that it is not the case. Themetallic giant stars are often fast rotators with vsin i larger than 100kms(-1) , while the maximum rotational velocity for Am stars is about100 kms(-1) . The rate of tight binaries with periods less than 1000days is less than 30% among metallic giants, which is incompatible withthe value of 75% for Am stars - [Abt & Levy 1985] {ab85}).Therefore, the simplest way to explain the existence of giant metallic Fstars is to suggest that all normal A and early F stars might go througha short metallic" phase when they are finishing their life on the mainsequence. Besides, it is shown that only giant stars with spectral typecomprised between F0 and F6 may have a really enhanced Delta m_2 value,while all A-type giants seem to be normal. Based on observationscollected at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP), France. The absolute magnitude of the early type MK standards from HIPPARCOS parallaxesWe analyse the standards of the MK system with the help of Hipparcosparallaxes, using only stars for which the error of the absolutemagnitude is <= 0.3 mag. We find that the main sequence is a wideband and that, although in general giants and dwarfs have differentabsolute magnitudes, the separation between luminosity classes V and IIIis not clear. Furthermore, there are a number of exceptions to thestrict relation between luminosity class and absolute magnitude. Weanalyse similarly the system of standards defined by Garrison & Gray(1994) separating low and high rotational velocity standards. We findsimilar effects as in the original MK system. We propose a revision ofthe MK standards, to eliminate the most deviant cases. Based on datafrom the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite Spectroscopic survey of delta Scuti stars. I. Rotation velocities and effective temperaturesProjected rotational velocities and effective temperatures for 68 deltaSct stars as well as 41 non-variable stars of similar spectral type andluminosity are presented here. The rotational velocities have beencalculated following the method developed in \cite[Gray (1992)]{ref38}and effective temperatures have been derived using the Balmer lineprofiles. The temperatures obtained from this method are shown to be inreasonable agreement with those calculated using the Infrared FluxMethod (IRFM) or spectrophotometric methods. This result has allowed usto use our temperatures to compare different uvby beta photometriccalibrations. We find that the calibration given by \cite[Moon \&Dworetsky (1985)]{ref72} is the most consistent. In the second part ofthis paper we have studied the relation between the pulsationalproperties (periods and amplitudes) and the physical parameters (v sin iand Teff). Where pulsation modes have been determined, thelow amplitude $\delta$ Scutis tend to be multimode (radial andnon-radial) pulsators, consistent with the theory that non-linearcoupling between modes acts to limit the amplitude in these stars. Wehave compared the distribution of v sin i for low amplitude $\delta$Scutis and non-variable stars. This shows the $\delta$ Scutis have abroader distribution in v sin i suggesting that a high rotation velocitymay favour pulsation. We find that the large amplitude delta Scuti starstend to have longer periods, cooler temperatures and lower rotationvelocities. Given that the large amplitude stars are also relativelyrare all the above are consistent with the hypothesis that these starsare more evolved (sub-giants) than the low amplitude delta Scutis (mainsequence or early post-main sequence). The Pulkovo Spectrophotometric Catalog of Bright Stars in the Range from 320 TO 1080 NMA spectrophotometric catalog is presented, combining results of numerousobservations made by Pulkovo astronomers at different observing sites.The catalog consists of three parts: the first contains the data for 602stars in the spectral range of 320--735 nm with a resolution of 5 nm,the second one contains 285 stars in the spectral range of 500--1080 nmwith a resolution of 10 nm and the third one contains 278 stars combinedfrom the preceding catalogs in the spectral range of 320--1080 nm with aresolution of 10 nm. The data are presented in absolute energy unitsW/m(2) m, with a step of 2.5 nm and with an accuracy not lower than1.5--2.0%. The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51. Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. The determination of T_eff_ of B, A and F main sequence stars from the continuum between 3200 A and 3600 A.A method of determination of the effective temperature of B, A and Fmain sequence stars is proposed, using the slope of the continuumbetween 3200A and 3600A. The effective temperature calibration is basedon a sample of stars with energy distributions known from UV to the red.We have determined the Balmer jump and the effective temperatures for235 main sequence stars. The temperatures found have been compared withthose derived by Underhill et al. (1979), Kontizas & Theodossiou(1980), Theodossiou (1985), Morossi & Malagnini (1985). Thecomparison showed good agreement for most of the stars in common. On theother hand, the temperatures derived from the reddening-free colourfactor QUV, from the colour index (m1965-V) and from (B-V), given inGulati et al. (1989), are systematically lower than our temperatures,however the differences are within one-sigma error. Radio continuum emission from stars: a catalogue update.An updated version of my catalogue of radio stars is presented. Somestatistics and availability are discussed. An atlas of southern MK standards from 5800 to 10200 AAn atlas of stellar spectra covering the wavelength range from 5800 to10,200 A is presented of 126 southern MK standard stars, covering theluminosity classes I, III, and V. Some peculiar stars are included forcomparison purposes. The spectra were obtained at a resolution of 4.3 Aper pixel using a Cassegrain-mounted Boller and Chivens spectrographequipped with a Reticon detector. The quality and utility of the dataare discussed and examples of the spectra are presented. The atlas isavailable in digital format through the NSSDC. Spectral classifications in the near infrared of stars with composite spectra. I. The study of MK standards.Up to now the spectral classifications of the cool components ofcomposite spectra obtained in the 3800-4800A wavelength region have beenvery disparate. These disparities are due to the fact that the spectraof the evolved cool component are strongly veiled by that of the hotterdwarf component, which makes a classification very difficult. We proposeto study these systems in the near infrared (8380-8780A). In thisspectral domain the magnitude difference between the spectra of thecomponents is in general sufficiently large so that one observespractically only the spectrum of the cool component. In this first paperwe provide, for a sample of MK standards, the relations between theequivalent width (Wlambda_ ) of certain lines and thespectral classifications. For the cool G, K and M type stars, the linesconsidered are those of the calcium triplet (Ca II 8498, 8542 and 8662),of iron (Fe I 8621 and 8688), of titanium (Ti I 8426 and 8435) and ofthe blend λ8468. The use of certain line intensity ratiospermits, after eliminating partially the luminosity effects, a firstapproach to the spectral type. For the hotter stars of types O, B, A andF we study the behavior of the hydrogen lines (P12 and P14), the calciumlines (Ca II 8498 and 8542) as well as those of the oxygen (O I 8446).The latter line presents a very characteristic profile for stars of lowrotation and therefore in Am stars, which are frequently found among thecomposite spectrum binaries. Among the cooler stars of our sample, only6% present real anomalies with respect to the MK classifications. Thisresult is very encouraging for undertaking the classification of asample of composite spectra. The spectra were taken at the Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP) with the CARELEC spectrograph at the 193 cmtelescope, with a dispersion of 33 A/mm. The Spacelab-1 Very Wide Field Survey of UV-excess objects. IV. The performance of the instrument in combination with optical photometry as a means of identifying stars with peculiar properties.UV (195 nm) and Stroemgren uvby photometry of a 110 square degree fieldat high southern galactic latitudes are analyzed through a comparison ofi) UV magnitudes for 57 stars of various types common to the publishedTD1 catalogue and the Very Wide Field Camera (VWFC); and ii) observedand theoretical two-colour diagrams. The higher sensitivity of the VWFC(=~0.5magnitude) and its more complete survey are exemplified by thedetection and UV measurement of a series of objects with moderateUV-excess in addition to detection of some very blue objects of variousnature down to fainter than 12th magnitude in the optical domain. Adeeper survey with a VWFC-type instrument could provide a completesample for studies of the group properties of faint blue stars. Duringthe uvby reductions it was found that the usual procedure of plottingresiduals as functions of declination, hour angle and airmass can be apowerful and diagnostic test of photometer rigidity. Observations of the CA II infrared triplet in chromospherically active single and binary starsSpectroscopic observations of the Ca II infrared triplet (8498, 8542,8662 A) have been obtained for 45 stars which are known or suspected tobe chromospherically active. The sample includes both single and binarystars of spectral types from F2 to M5 spanning luminosity classes III,IV, and V. Several different types of activity diagnostics weremeasured, and their relative merits are discussed. Dependence ofchromospheric emission upon rotation period, luminosity, temperature,and duplicity are analyzed. Synchronous binaries show a slight trend ofincreased emission with decreasing period while the asynchronousbinaries show abnormally high activity levels for their rotationperiods. Several stars exhibit rotationally modulated emission which isanticorrelated with the stellar brightness. Finally, estimates ofchromospheric energy losses are presented with the result that the totalloss in the infrared triplet is about twice that of the H and K lines. The calibration of the Stromgren photometric system for A, F and early G supergiants. I - The observational dataAn empirical calibration of the Stromgren uvby-beta photometric systemfor the A, F, and early G supergiants is being derived. This paperexplains the observational program and the photometric reductiontechniques used and presents a catalog of new Stromgren photometry forover 600 A, F, and G supergiants. An uvby-beta catalogue of F0-K0 supergiant stars brighter than V = 6.5Photoelectric uvby-beta photometry is reported for 111 F0-K0 supergiantstars which are brighter than V = 6.5 mag and located betweendeclination of -15 and +61 deg. A comparison with previous observationsis made. A few stars which are suspected to present light variations arementioned. Six centimetre VLA radio survey of compact planetary nebulaeThe results are presented of a radio continuum survey of 174 objectsclassified as possible or true planetary nebulae (Acker et al, 1983).Intensity contour plots, radio flux densities at 5 GHz, diameters, andaccurate positions are presented for the detected objects. Many of thedetected sources have high radio surface brightness temperaturesindicative of young planetary nebulae. Also, for each of the programsources, the IRAS Point Source Catalog is used to extract the fourphotometric flux densities and derive the total infrared flux, a dusttemperature, and the infrared excess. Third preliminary catalogue of stars observed with the photoelectric astrolabe of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory.Not Available A list of MK standard starsNot Available The early F-type stars - Refined classification, confrontation with Stromgren photometry, and the effects of rotationThe classification for early F-type stars in the MK spectralclassification system presented by Gray and Garrison (1987) is refined.The effect of rotation on spectral classification and ubvy-betaphotometry of early F-type stars is examined. It is found that theclassical luminosity criterion, the 4417 A/4481 A ratio givesinconsistent results. It is shown that most of the stars in the DeltaDelphini class of metallic-line stars are either normal or areindistinguishable from proto-Am stars. It is suggested that thedesignation Delta Delphini should be dropped. The classifications arecompared with Stromgren photometry. The effects of rotation on thedelta-c1 index in the early-F field dwarfs is demonstrated. Energy Distribution in the Stellar Spectra of Different Spectral Types and Luminosities - Part Five - Normal StarsNot Available Magnetic structure in cool stars. XV - The evolution of rotation rates and chromospheric activity of giantsFor cool giants and subgiants the observed dependence of rotationalvelocity and Ca II H and K line-core emission on color B-V isinterpreted in terms of changes in the moment of inertia by stellarevolution. Modeling of the rotational velocity during the evolution ofcool giants with masses between 2.0 and 3.0 solar masses, by taking intoaccount the change in the moment of inertia and assuming rigid-bodyrotation and conservation of angular momentum, describes the observeddecrease of v sin i with B-V. The computed evolution of the rotationalvelocity, together with the empirical relation between the Ca IIline-core emission and the rotation rate, explain the observed drop inthe Ca II line-core emission for giants at B-V = about 0.95. Forsubgiants with masses of about 1.5 solar mass, the change in the momentof inertia by itself cannot explain the observed v sin i distribution:there are indications of loss of angular momentum, presumably bymagnetic braking. A catalog of bright UVBY beta standard starsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1987PASP...99.1184P&db_key=AST H-alpha and near-infrared spectra of late-type Be and A F-type shell starsProfiles of H-alpha and the near-infrared lines of O I and Ca II in thespectra of a number of bright Be stars of later type, and A - F shellstars were obtained with a CCD detector at the Kitt Peak coude feedtelescope in November 1984. The lines studied show sharp absorptioncores in the shell stars, as expected, and there appears to be a smoothtransition from the late-type Be stars to the A-type shell stars.However, the H-alpha line changes from emission to absorption ratherabruptly from the late Be stars to the early A-type shell stars. The ages and dimensions of Trapezium systemsMK spectral types and memberships were obtained for 120 stars in 31systems thought to be Trapezium systems. Twenty-eight optical componentswere found, after the removal of which, 17 systems are hierarchical andthree have no companions. Practically all of the remaining Trapeziumsystems are either the same age or younger than the Hyades, i.e., lessthan 10 to the 8.9th years old. The maximum radii of Trapezium combinedwith hierarchical systems exhibit a dramatic decrease with primaryspectral type or age T, ranging from about 50,000 AU for OB primaries to1000 AU for G dwarfs. If stars have an observed binary separation ofabout 5000 AU, it is unlikely that the sun would have a stellarcompanion at 92,000 AU. A Ba II star with a physical companion, a starwith strong double Ca II emission lines, and a chance projection of anearby quadruple hierarchical system on a distant triple hierarchicalsystem is discussed.
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