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χ Aqr (Chi Aquarii)



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Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. VI. Coupling the light of the VLTI in K band
Aims. Our objective is to prove that integrated optics (IO) is not onlya good concept for astronomical interferometry but also a workingtechnique with high performance. Methods: . We used thecommissioning data obtained with the dedicated K-band integrated opticstwo-telescope beam combiner that now replaces the fiber coupler MONA inthe VLTI/VINCI instrument. We characterize the behavior of this IOdevice and compare its properties to other single mode beam combinerlike the previously used MONA fiber coupler. Results: . The IOcombiner provides a high optical throughput, a contrast of 89% with anight-to-night stability of a few percent. Even if a dispersive phase ispresent, we show that it does not bias the measured Fourier visibilityestimate. An upper limit of 5×10-3 for the cross-talkbetween linear polarization states has been measured. We take advantageof the intrinsic contrast stability to test a new astronomical procedurefor calibrating diameters of simple stars by simultaneously fitting theinstrumental contrast and the apparent stellar diameters. This methodreaches an accuracy with diameter errors on the order of previous onesbut without the need of an already known calibrator. Conclusions:. These results are an important step for IO, since they prove itsmaturity in an astronomical band where the technology has been speciallydeveloped for astronomical convenience. It paves the way to incomingimaging interferometer projects.

First results from the ESO VLTI calibrators program
The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is one of the leadinginterferometric facilities. It is equipped with several 8.2 and 1.8 mtelescopes, a large number of baselines up to 200 m, and with severalsubsystems designed to enable high quality measurements and to improvesignificantly the limits of sensitivities currently available tolong-baseline interferometry. The full scientific potential of the VLTIcan be exploited only if a consistent set of good quality calibrators isavailable. For this, a large number of observations of potentialcalibrators have been obtained during the commissioning phase of theVLTI. These data are publicly available. We briefly describe theinterferometer, the VINCI instrument used for the observations, the dataflow from acquisition to processed results, and we present and commenton the volume of observations gathered and scrutinized. The result is alist of 191 calibrator candidates, for which a total of 12 066observations can be deemed of satisfactory quality. We present a generalstatistical analysis of this sample, using as a starting point theangular diameters previously available in the literature. We derive thegeneral characteristics of the VLTI transfer function, and its trendwith time in the period 2001 through mid-2004. A second paper will bedevoted to a detailed investigation of a selected sample, aimed atestablishing a VLTI-based homogeneous system of calibrators.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.

CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
The Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom.

Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrations
In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr).

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

On the Variability of K5-M Stars
I investigate the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of K5-M stars to seethe pattern of activity of these stars. A few stars for which furtherstudy is desirable are identified.

Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem HIPPARCOS Binaries
The ESA Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 12,000 doublestars and discovered 3406 new systems. In addition to these, 4706entries in the Hipparcos Catalogue correspond to double star solutionsthat did not provide the classical parameters of separation and positionangle (rho,theta) but were the so-called problem stars, flagged ``G,''``O,'' ``V,'' or ``X'' (field H59 of the main catalog). An additionalsubset of 6981 entries were treated as single objects but classified byHipparcos as ``suspected nonsingle'' (flag ``S'' in field H61), thusyielding a total of 11,687 ``problem stars.'' Of the many ground-basedtechniques for the study of double stars, probably the one with thegreatest potential for exploration of these new and problem Hipparcosbinaries is speckle interferometry. Results are presented from aninspection of 848 new and problem Hipparcos binaries, using botharchival and new speckle observations obtained with the USNO and CHARAspeckle cameras.

Stellar radii of M giants
We determine the stellar radii of the M giant stars in the Hipparcoscatalogue that have a parallax measured to better than 20% accuracy.This is done with the help of a relation between a visual surfacebrightness parameter and the Cousins (V - I) colour index, which wecalibrate with M giants with published angular diameters.The radii of(non-Mira) M giants increase from a median value of 50 R_Sun at spectraltype M0 III to 170 R_Sun at M7/8 III. Typical intermediate giant radiiare 65 R_Sun for M1/M2, 90 R_Sun for M3, 100 R_Sun for M4, 120 R_Sun forM5 and 150 R_Sun for M6. There is a large intrinsic spread for a givenspectral type. This variance in stellar radius increases with latertypes but in relative terms, it remains constant.We determineluminosities and, from evolutionary tracks, stellar masses for oursample stars. The M giants in the solar neighbourhood have masses in therange 0.8-4 M_Sun. For a given spectral type, there is a close relationbetween stellar radius and stellar mass. We also find a linear relationbetween the mass and radius of non-variable M giants. With increasingamplitude of variability we have larger stellar radii for a given mass.

The Infrared Spectral Classification of Oxygen-rich Dust Shells
This paper presents infrared spectral classifications for a flux-limitedsample of 635 optically identified oxygen-rich variables includingsupergiants and sources on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Severalclasses of spectra from oxygen-rich dust exist, and these can bearranged in a smoothly varying sequence of spectral shapes known as thesilicate dust sequence. Classification based on this sequence revealsseveral dependencies of the dust emission on the properties of thecentral star. Nearly all S stars show broad emission features fromalumina dust, while most of the supergiants exhibit classic featuresfrom amorphous silicate dust. Mira variables with symmetric light curvesgenerally show broad alumina emission, while those with more asymmetriclight curves show classic silicate emission. These differences may arisefrom differences in the photospheric C/O ratio.

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

Small Amplitude Red Variables in the AAVSO Photoelectric Program: Light Curves and Periods
Small-amplitude red variables (SARVs) are M giants or supergiants whichare pulsating with small amplitudes (up to 2.5 mag) and with time scalesof 20 to 200 days or more. This paper reports on a ten-year study ofabout two dozen SARVs, carried out through the American Association ofVariable Star Observers (AAVSO) photoelectric photometry program. It hasprovided detailed information on the regularity, period and amplitude ofthese stars. Most have well-defined periods in the 20 to 200 day range.Several also have a long secondary period. One (W Boo) appears to havetwo periods with a ratio of 2.3. (SECTION: Stars)

The pulsation, temperatures and metallicities of Mira and semiregular variables in different stellar systems
Data on angular diameters and infrared photometry for late-type starsare assembled. It is shown that a consistent T_eff scale can beestablished, combining results for Mira and non-Mira M-type stars. Thelog T_eff versus (J-K) relation is much steeper than previously adopted,but is consistent with predictions from model stellar atmospheres.Comparison of the linear diameters of Miras measured in the red spectralregion with those measured in the infrared shows that modelssuccessfully predict the extension observed in the red, and the combineddata provide strong evidence that Miras are pulsating in their firstovertone. Data on Miras and semiregular (SR) variables in globularclusters are compared with predictions from stellar evolution andpulsation theory. These data also support a steep log T_eff versus (J-K)relation at low temperatures. The Miras and SR variables in 47 Tucconform to theoretical expectation if they are undergoing an averagemass loss of ~3x10^-7 M_ yr^-1. SR variables in both metal-rich andmetal-poor globular clusters are probably pulsating, like the Miras intheir first overtone. The general agreement between observations andtheory now found suggests that infrared colour-period relations can beused to investigate overall metallicity differences between Miras indifferent stellar systems, at least at the shorter periods wherecircumstellar extinction is probably negligible. A comparison of Mirasin Galactic globular clusters of known metallicity with those in the LMCand in the SgrI window of the Galactic Bulge indicates that Miras ofperiods 100 to 300d in the LMC have a mean metallicity log z~-0.6,whilst those in SgrI have log z~-0.2, close to that of K giants in theNGC 6522 Bulge window. No evidence has yet been found for a dependenceof the Mira period-luminosity relation on metallicity, and it is pointedout that theory does not at present give a definitive prediction of suchan effect. Some stars of special interest are discussed in an appendix.

Radii and Effective Temperatures for K and M Giants and Supergiants
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111.1705D&db_key=AST

M giants at high galactic latitudes: an old metal-rich population?
Spectroscopic and photometric observations are presented for a sample of227 late-M giants in the extended solar neighbourhood, catalogued byStephenson using objective prism plates. The kinematics and scaleheightof these stars suggest that they belong to a mixed population, extendingfrom the old thin disc to the thick disc. They show evidence of thedifferential galactic rotation predicted theoretically. Metallicitieshave been determined from a comparison of TiO band strengths andinfrared colours with model atmospheres for late-type stars, and suggesta mean metallicity close to solar.

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

Observations of lunar occultations at Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur.
The results of 114 photoelectric observations are analysed. They wereobtained at the two stations of O.C.A.: Calern and Nice Observatories.We first give a short description of the two photometers used and thenwe present the interactive reduction method. The astrometric andphotometric parameters are derived from each light-curve. Finally wesummarize the results and discuss about the non point-like occultedstars: we present 38 double star measurements, for 16 objects, and 11determinations of angular diameters, for 4 objects.

On the spectra and photometry of M-giant stars
From a sample of 97 very bright M-giant stars in the Solarneighbourhood, high-quality "intrinsic" spectra in the spectral range380 <~ λ[nm] <~ 900 for all M-spectral subtypes of the Caseand MK classification systems are obtained. The results are fitted tophotospheric synthetic spectra in the range 99 <~ λ [nm]<=12500 in order to infer the corresponding continua. The syntheticspectra are also compared to the intrinsic spectra. The effectivetemperatures are derived and mathematical spectral classificationcriteria are found. The (UB)_j_(VRI)_c_(JHKLM)_ESO_ photometric data ofthe sample are also given. The data are available on the StrasbourgAstronomical Data Centre (CDS).

Analysis of AAVSO visual observations of ten small-amplitude red variables
We have studied the periodicity of the following ten small-amplitude redvariables, using Fourier analysis and autocorrelation analysis of AAVSOvisual observations: RZ Arietis, Rho Persei, IN Hydrae, FS ComaeBerenices, W Bootis, EU Delphini, R Lyrae, U Delphini, W Cygni, and ChiAquarii. All of the M giants show variability on time scales of severaltens of days; the degree of regularity varies from star to star. Inaddition, most of the stars show variability on time scales of severalhundreds of days. The cause of the latter variability is not known.

The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) Photoelectric Photometry Archive
Not Available

Asymptotic giant branch stars near the sun
Available red and near-infrared photometry and apparent motions of M, S,and C asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Bright Star Catalogueare tabulated and discussed. It is shown that the red and near infraredindices normally used for late-type stars are interchangeable except forcarbon stars. The M-type giants are variable with visual amplitudegreater than 0.05 mag. The reddening-free parameter m2 from Genevaphotometry is essentially a temperature parameter for M giants, whilethe reddening-free parameter d is a sensitive detector of blue stellarcompanions. The space density of AGB stars near the sun decreases by afactor of 35 in a temperature range 3800 to 3400 K. Two of the S starsnear the sun were found to have nearly equal space motions and may becomembers of the Arcturus group.

CA II H and K measurements made at Mount Wilson Observatory, 1966-1983
Summaries are presented of the photoelectric measurements of stellar CaII H and K line intensity made at Mount Wilson Observatory during theyears 1966-1983. These results are derived from 65,263 individualobservations of 1296 stars. For each star, for each observing season,the maximum, minimum, mean, and variation of the instrumental H and Kindex 'S' are given, as well as a measurement of the accuracy ofobservation. A total of 3110 seasonal summaries are reported. Factorswhich affect the ability to detect stellar activity variations andaccurately measure their amplitudes, such as the accuracy of the H and Kmeasurements and scattered light contamination, are discussed. Relationsare given which facilitate intercomparison of 'S' values with residualintensities derived from ordinary spectrophotometry, and for convertingmeasurements to absolute fluxes.

Photoelectric photometry of G-M stars in the Vilnius system
Not Available

M Giant Populations and Galactic Structure
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990MNRAS.247..227F&db_key=AST

Lunar occultations of IRAS point sources, 1991-2000
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1989ApJS...69..651C&db_key=AST

New LRS spectra for 356 bright IRAS sources
The low-resolution spectra of all IRAS point sources with F(nu) (12microns) greater than 40 Jy that were not included in the Atlas ofLow-Resolution Spectra are presented. These have been classified intoeight groups based upon the spectral morphology. Silicate emissionspectra and red-continuum spectra associated with H II region sourcesform about 60 percent of this sample. All types of spectra in the LRSAtlas are represented in the sample except for emission-line sources.The sample is used to test a recent classification scheme for IRASsources based on broadband colors. The spectra is used to test a recentclassification scheme for IRAS sources based on broadband colors. Thespectra are consistent with the classifications from the colors in mostcases.

A comparative study of NA I and CA II infrared lines in stars, star clusters and galaxy nuclei - an alternative to the dwarf-enriched population
A comparative study is made of the near-infrared Na I doublet and the CaII triplet, among sets of stars, star clusters and galaxy nuclei. Inparticular, the semistellar nucleus of M31 is studied. Evidence is foundthat the enhancement of the absorption feature around 8200 A in galaxynuclei is not due to a strengthening of the Na I lines, but rather toanother absorber, possibly a molecular band at about 8205 A which variesstrongly with Theta(eff) and metallicity. Therefore, an alternativeexplanation to the classical discussion about dwarf/giant star contentin M31, is that of an increased metallicity in the semistellar nucleusof M31, with respect to its bulge or to the nucleus of M32. A similarresult is found from molecular bands in the visible part of thespectrum, like CN and C2 which show highly nonlinear dependences on themetallicity.

Miscellaneous spectroscopic notes
Results of slit-spectrograph observations are reported for approximately260 stars. The data presented range from recognition of many new Ap, Am,and other unusual stars to H-alpha observations of early-typesupergiants and Be stars. The material discussed was obtained over thepast 40 years at a number of U.S. observatories and at the DominionAstrophysical Observatory in Victoria, B.C.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:23h16m50.90s
Apparent magnitude:5.06
Distance:196.464 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-19.6
Proper motion Dec:-13.6
B-T magnitude:7.003
V-T magnitude:5.169

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesChi Aquarii
Bayerχ Aqr
Flamsteed92 Aqr
HD 1989HD 219576
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 5821-1478-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0750-21431898
BSC 1991HR 8850
HIPHIP 114939

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