Home     To Survive in the Universe    
    Why to Inhabit     Top Contributors     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Login  

75 Cyg



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclusters
The availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165}

High-Precision Stellar Radial Velocities in the Galactic Center
We present radial velocities for 85 cool stars projected onto thecentral parsec of the Galaxy. The majority of these velocities haverelative errors of ~1 km s-1, or a factor of ~30-100 smallerthan those previously obtained with proper-motion or other radialvelocity measurements for a similar stellar sample. The error in atypical individual stellar velocity, including all sources ofuncertainty, is 1.7 km s-1. Two similar data sets wereobtained 1 month apart, and the total error in the relative velocitiesis 0.80 km s-1 in the case where an object is common to bothdata sets. The data are used to characterize the velocity distributionof the old population in the Galactic center. We find that the starshave a Gaussian velocity distribution with a mean heliocentric velocityof -10.1+/-11.0 km s-1 (blueshifted) and a standard deviationof 100.9+/-7.7 km s-1 the mean velocity of the sample isconsistent with no bulk line-of-sight motion with respect to the localstandard of rest. At the 1 σ level, the data are consistent with asymmetric velocity distribution about any arbitrary axis in the plane ofthe sky. We find evidence for a flattening in the distribution oflate-type stars within a radius of ~0.4 pc and infer a volume densitydistribution of r-1/4 in this region. Finally, we establish afirst epoch of radial velocity measurements that can be compared withsubsequent epochs to measure small accelerations (1 km s-1yr-1), corresponding to the magnitude expected over a timespan of several years for stars nearest to Sgr A*.Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, whichis operated as a scientific partnership among the California Instituteof Technology, the University of California, and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possibleby the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Wing Near-Infrared, TiO-Band, and V-Band Photometry of Chromospherically Active Star λ Andromedae
As a pilot program, Wing near-IR, TiO-band, and V-band photometry isbeing conducted of the RS Canum Venaticorum type, chromosphericallyactive, G8 IV-III star λ Andromedae. The objective is toinvestigate a possible relationship between variation of the ~54 dayrotationally starspot modulated visual light curve and TiO absorptionstrength. The TiO (γ,0,0) absorption band strength at λ=719nm is very sensitive to temperature for cool stars and manifests itselfin cooler starspot regions (T<=4000 K). TiO photometry has anadvantage over conventional photometry in that it provides unambiguousmeasures of the fractional cool starspot coverage. In addition, as thestars rotate, the variation in the TiO index yields information aboutthe longitudinal distribution of the starspots. Importantly, combiningthe TiO photometry with the V-band and near-IR light curves allows thediscrimination of white-light faculae (=hot spot) and cool starspotcontributions. Initial results of this study indicate that the observedV-band and near-IR continua light variations found for λ Andprimarily arise from bright spot (plage) features rather than darkstarspots as is usually assumed. This is in contrast to current theoriesthat the visual light variation is solely due to dark spots. Modelsusing both bright and dark spot features have been developed and arebeing used to fit the light and TiO-index curves. The models account forcool/hot spot characteristics such as projected filling factor andtemperature. The long-term variation of V light and TiO index have beeninvestigated to search for any activity cycles.

The Evolutionary State of Stars in the NGC 1333S Star Formation Region
We present 2 μm near-IR spectroscopic observations of a sample of 33objects in the NGC 1333S active star-forming cluster centered on thepre-main-sequence star SSV 13. We have previously studied this regionphotometrically in the optical and near-IR, and with the addition ofthese near-IR spectra, we further probe the pre-main-sequence clustermembership and evolutionary state. From the atomic and molecularabsorption features observed, together with the earlier photometry, wederive spectral types, effective temperatures, masses, and ages of thestars and conclude that almost all (90%) the stars observed in thissample are pre-main-sequence objects. This result significantly refinesthe evolutionary information obtained from photometric evidence alone.Comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracks and isochrones suggeststhat our survey has sampled sources with masses in the range 0.2-2Msolar and stellar ages between 7×104 and1×108 yr with a preponderance of sources around3×106 yr. This implies the presence of low- tointermediate-mass T Tauri stars of evolutionary designation Class I toClass III. We conclude that star formation seems to have occurred inlikely several bursts rather than occurring coevally. Star formation insuch a region as NGC 1333S is likely significantly affected by the largenumber of active molecular outflows in the region, which could provide amechanism for cloud turbulence and the onset of subsequent starformation.

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

Library of Medium-Resolution Fiber Optic Echelle Spectra of F, G, K, and M Field Dwarfs to Giant Stars
We present a library of Penn State Fiber Optic Echelle (FOE)observations of a sample of field stars with spectral types F to M andluminosity classes V to I. The spectral coverage is from 3800 to 10000Å with a nominal resolving power of 12,000. These spectra includemany of the spectral lines most widely used as optical and near-infraredindicators of chromospheric activity such as the Balmer lines (Hαto Hepsilon), Ca II H & K, the Mg I b triplet, Na I D_1, D_2, He ID_3, and Ca II IRT lines. There are also a large number of photosphericlines, which can also be affected by chromospheric activity, andtemperature-sensitive photospheric features such as TiO bands. Thespectra have been compiled with the goal of providing a set of standardsobserved at medium resolution. We have extensively used such data forthe study of active chromosphere stars by applying a spectralsubtraction technique. However, the data set presented here can also beutilized in a wide variety of ways ranging from radial velocitytemplates to study of variable stars and stellar population synthesis.This library can also be used for spectral classification purposes anddetermination of atmospheric parameters (T_eff, logg, [Fe/H]). A digitalversion of all the fully reduced spectra is available via ftp and theWorld Wide Web (WWW) in FITS format.

Stellar radii of M giants
We determine the stellar radii of the M giant stars in the Hipparcoscatalogue that have a parallax measured to better than 20% accuracy.This is done with the help of a relation between a visual surfacebrightness parameter and the Cousins (V - I) colour index, which wecalibrate with M giants with published angular diameters.The radii of(non-Mira) M giants increase from a median value of 50 R_Sun at spectraltype M0 III to 170 R_Sun at M7/8 III. Typical intermediate giant radiiare 65 R_Sun for M1/M2, 90 R_Sun for M3, 100 R_Sun for M4, 120 R_Sun forM5 and 150 R_Sun for M6. There is a large intrinsic spread for a givenspectral type. This variance in stellar radius increases with latertypes but in relative terms, it remains constant.We determineluminosities and, from evolutionary tracks, stellar masses for oursample stars. The M giants in the solar neighbourhood have masses in therange 0.8-4 M_Sun. For a given spectral type, there is a close relationbetween stellar radius and stellar mass. We also find a linear relationbetween the mass and radius of non-variable M giants. With increasingamplitude of variability we have larger stellar radii for a given mass.

Averaged energy distributions in the stellar spectra.
Not Available

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

Medium-Resolution Spectra of Normal Stars in the K Band
An Atlas of 115 medium-resolution K-band (2.0--2.4 mu m) stellarspectra, spanning spectral types O--M and luminosity types I--V, ispresented. K-band spectra are also presented for one N- and one J-typecarbon star. A time series of spectra is presented for an S-type Miravariable. All the spectra are at a resolution of ~3000 (1.4 cm-1) andhave had the terrestrial absorption removed by dividing by a featurelessspectrum. The spectra are plotted with the major spectral featuresidentified and are available digitally.

Small Amplitude Red Variables in the AAVSO Photoelectric Program: Light Curves and Periods
Small-amplitude red variables (SARVs) are M giants or supergiants whichare pulsating with small amplitudes (up to 2.5 mag) and with time scalesof 20 to 200 days or more. This paper reports on a ten-year study ofabout two dozen SARVs, carried out through the American Association ofVariable Star Observers (AAVSO) photoelectric photometry program. It hasprovided detailed information on the regularity, period and amplitude ofthese stars. Most have well-defined periods in the 20 to 200 day range.Several also have a long secondary period. One (W Boo) appears to havetwo periods with a ratio of 2.3. (SECTION: Stars)

Photometry of SS Cyg in 1993
Not Available

The luminous starburst galaxy UGC 8387
We present broad-band J, H, and K images and K-band spectroscopy of theluminous starburst galaxy UGC 8387. The images show a disturbedmorphology, tidal tails, and a single elongated nucleus. Near infraredcolor maps constructed from the images reveal that the nucleus region ishighly reddened. Strong emission from the central 3 arcseconds in the2.166 micrometer Brackett gamma, 2.122 micrometer H2 v = 1-0 S(1), and2.058 micrometer He I lines is present in the K-band spectrum. From theBrackett gamma and published radio fluxes, we find an optical depthtoward the nucleus of tauV approximately 24. The CO bandheads produce strong absorption in the spectral region long-ward of 2.3micrometers. We measure a 'raw' CO index of 0.17 +/- 0.02 mag,consistent with a population of K2 supergiants of K4 giants. The nuclearcolors, however, are not consistent with an obscured population ofevolved stars. Instead, the red colors are best explained by an obscuredmixture of stellar and warm dust emission. The amount of dust emissionpredicted by the near-infrared colors exceeds that expected fromcomparisons to galactic H II regions. After correcting the spectrum ofUGC 8387 for dust emission and extinction, we obtain a CO index ofgreater than or equal to 0.25 mag. This value suggests the stellarcomponent of the 2.2 micrometer light is dominated by young supergiants.The infrared excess, LIR/LLy alpha derived for UGC8387 is lower than that observed in galactic H II regions and M82. Thisimplies that either the lower or upper mass cutoff of the initial massfunction must be higher than those of local star-forming regions andM82. The intense nuclear starburst in this galaxy is presumably theresult of merger activity; and we estimate the starburst age to be atleast a few times 107 yr.

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

Photometric surveys of suspected small-amplitude red variables. 3: an AAVSO photometric photometry survey
We have carried out a survey of the photometric (V) variability of 61'known' or suspected small-amplitude red variables, mostly M giants.Approximately two-thirds appear to be variable; several suspectedvariable comparison stars have also been identified. The incidence andaverage amplitude of variability increase rapidly from spectral type M0III to M6 III.

Spectral classifications in the near infrared of stars with composite spectra. I. The study of MK standards.
Up to now the spectral classifications of the cool components ofcomposite spectra obtained in the 3800-4800A wavelength region have beenvery disparate. These disparities are due to the fact that the spectraof the evolved cool component are strongly veiled by that of the hotterdwarf component, which makes a classification very difficult. We proposeto study these systems in the near infrared (8380-8780A). In thisspectral domain the magnitude difference between the spectra of thecomponents is in general sufficiently large so that one observespractically only the spectrum of the cool component. In this first paperwe provide, for a sample of MK standards, the relations between theequivalent width (Wlambda_ ) of certain lines and thespectral classifications. For the cool G, K and M type stars, the linesconsidered are those of the calcium triplet (Ca II 8498, 8542 and 8662),of iron (Fe I 8621 and 8688), of titanium (Ti I 8426 and 8435) and ofthe blend λ8468. The use of certain line intensity ratiospermits, after eliminating partially the luminosity effects, a firstapproach to the spectral type. For the hotter stars of types O, B, A andF we study the behavior of the hydrogen lines (P12 and P14), the calciumlines (Ca II 8498 and 8542) as well as those of the oxygen (O I 8446).The latter line presents a very characteristic profile for stars of lowrotation and therefore in Am stars, which are frequently found among thecomposite spectrum binaries. Among the cooler stars of our sample, only6% present real anomalies with respect to the MK classifications. Thisresult is very encouraging for undertaking the classification of asample of composite spectra. The spectra were taken at the Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP) with the CARELEC spectrograph at the 193 cmtelescope, with a dispersion of 33 A/mm.

Asymptotic giant branch stars near the sun
Available red and near-infrared photometry and apparent motions of M, S,and C asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Bright Star Catalogueare tabulated and discussed. It is shown that the red and near infraredindices normally used for late-type stars are interchangeable except forcarbon stars. The M-type giants are variable with visual amplitudegreater than 0.05 mag. The reddening-free parameter m2 from Genevaphotometry is essentially a temperature parameter for M giants, whilethe reddening-free parameter d is a sensitive detector of blue stellarcompanions. The space density of AGB stars near the sun decreases by afactor of 35 in a temperature range 3800 to 3400 K. Two of the S starsnear the sun were found to have nearly equal space motions and may becomembers of the Arcturus group.

Fifth fundamental catalogue. Part 2: The FK5 extension - new fundamental stars
The mean positions and proper motions for 3117 new fundamental starsessentially in the magnitude range about 4.5 to 9.5 are given in thisFK5 extension. Mean apparent visual magnitude is 7.2 and is on average2.5 magnitudes fainter then the basic FK5 which has a mean magnitude of4.7. (The basic FK5 gives the mean positions and proper motions for theclassical 1535 fundamental stars). The following are discussed: theobservational material, reduction of observations, star selection, andthe system for the FK5 extension. An explanation and description of thecatalog are given. The catalog of 3117 fundamental stars for the equinoxand epoch J2000.0 and B1950.0 is presented. The parallaxes and radialvelocities for 22 extension stars with large forecasting effects aregiven. Catalogs used in the compilation of the FK5 fundamental catalogare listed.

The correction in right ascension of 508 stars determinated with PMO photoelectric transit instrument.
Not Available

Third preliminary catalogue of stars observed with the photoelectric astrolabe of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory.
Not Available

A list of MK standard stars
Not Available

The Perkins catalog of revised MK types for the cooler stars
A catalog is presented listing the spectral types of the G, K, M, and Sstars that have been classified at the Perkins Observatory in therevised MK system. Extensive comparisons have been made to ensureconsistency between the MK spectral types of stars in the Northern andSouthern Hemispheres. Different classification spectrograms have beengradually improved in spite of some inherent limitations. In thecatalog, the full subclasses used are the following: G0, G5, G8, K0, K1,K2, K3, K4, K5, M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M7, and M8. Theirregularities are the price paid for keeping the general scheme of theoriginal Henry Draper classification.

Energy Distribution in the Stellar Spectra of Different Spectral Types and Luminosities - Part Five - Normal Stars
Not Available

1988 Revised MK Spectral Standards for Stars GO and Later
Not Available

Spectra of late-type standard stars in the region 2.0-2.5 microns
The present atlas of K-band spectra for 26 near-solar abundance stars inthe F8 to M7 spectral type range and dwarf to supergiant luminosityrange is the basis of a comparison of the integrated absorptionstrengths of selected features with narrowband filter photometry. Thecomparison indicates that the filter photometric CO index of Frogel etal. (1978) in dwarfs is significantly diminished by H2O absorption inthe reference band used to estimate the continuum. Temperature andluminosity dependencies of the strong atomic and molecular featuresreveal significant differences which are partly due to the higherexcitation of the atomic features and partly to the differences insensitivities of the atomic lines and molecular bands tomicroturbulence.

E. W. Fick Observatory stellar radial velocity measurements. I - 1976-1984
Stellar radial velocity observations made with the large vacuumhigh-dispersion photoelectric radial velocity spectrometer at FickObservatory are reported. This includes nearly 2000 late-type starsobserved during 585 nights. Gradual modifications to this instrumentover its first eight years of operation have reduced the observationalerror for high-quality dip observations to + or - 0.8 km/s.

IRAS catalogues and atlases - Atlas of low-resolution spectra
Plots of all 5425 spectra in the IRAS catalogue of low-resolutionspectra are presented. The catalogue contains the average spectra ofmost IRAS poiont sources with 12 micron flux densities above 10 Jy.

1985 revised MK spectral standards : stars GO and later
Not Available

Visual multiples. VIII - 1000 MK types
A total of 1000 new classifications are given for stars brighter than B= 8.0 mag in the Aitken double star catalog. The classificationssupplement 865 classifications obtained in 1981 and 1984. Among thenewly discovered stars are 12 new Ap stars, eight Lambda Bootis stars,one Ba II star, and 60 Am stars. A detailed list of the newclassifications is given.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:21h40m11.10s
Apparent magnitude:5.11
Distance:124.069 parsecs
Proper motion RA:62.8
Proper motion Dec:13.3
B-T magnitude:7.201
V-T magnitude:5.28

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names
Flamsteed75 Cyg
HD 1989HD 206330
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3196-2204-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1275-16242537
BSC 1991HR 8284
HIPHIP 106999

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR