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Multi-periodic oscillations of HD 32887 and HD 81797.
In this paper we present two evolved stars, HD 32887 and HD 81797, whichshow multi-periodic oscillations. We observed the oscillations by meansof the precise radial velocity technique with the simultaneouscalibration method. The high-resolution spectra of each star have beenobtained with FEROS at the 2.2 m-MPG/ESO telescope in La SillaObservatory, Chile. We found variation in the stellar radial velocitiesand spectral line profiles. The periods of the oscillations are fromseveral hours up to few days. The sources of the short-term oscillationsof HD 32887 and HD 81797 are obviously due to stellar pulsations, whichare similar to solar-like oscillations. In particular, in HD 81797 wefound a clear correlation between the variation in the asymmetry of thespectral line profile, measured in the bisector velocity spans, and theradial velocity. Both stars have bisector velocity spans which also showoscillations. The periods of the bisector oscillations are similar tothose of the radial velocity variation. The detection of themulti-periodic oscillations in HD 32887 and HD 81797 makes these star tobe amenable targets for asteroseismology, in particular, of stars in thered giant branch.

Shapes of Spectral Line Bisectors for Cool Stars
The shape of the line bisector for the prototype spectral line Fe Iλ6253 was measured for an array of 54 stars on the cool half ofthe HR diagram. These bisectors are given in tables along with theirerrors. The classic C shape is shown by only a rather restricted rangein effective temperature and luminosity. The detailed change in bisectorshape with effective temperature and luminosity is documented moreprecisely than in previous work. The most blueward point on the bisectorchanges its height systematically with luminosity and can be used as aluminosity or gravity discriminant. The wide range of bisector shapescontains significant information about the velocity fields in theatmospheres of these stars, but extracting that information may requireextensive modeling.

Why are G and K giants radial velocity variables?
Not Available

Predicting accurate stellar angular diameters by the near-infrared surface brightness technique
I report on the capabilities of the near-infrared (near-IR) surfacebrightness technique to predict reliable stellar angular diameters asaccurate as <~2 per cent using standard broad-band Johnson photometryin the colour range -0.1 <= (V-K)O<= 3.7 includingstars of A, F, G, K spectral type. This empirical approach is fast toapply and leads to estimated photometric diameters in very goodagreement with recent high-precision interferometric diametermeasurements available for non-variable dwarfs and giants, as well asfor Cepheid variables. Then I compare semi-empirical diameters predictedby model-dependent photometric and spectrophotometric (SP) methods withnear-IR surface brightness diameters adopted as empirical referencecalibrators. The overall agreement between all these methods is withinapproximately +/-5 per cent, confirming previous works. However, on thesame scale of accuracy, there is also evidence for systematic shiftspresumably as a result of an incorrect representation of the stellareffective temperature in the model-dependent results. I also comparemeasurements of spectroscopic radii with near-IR surface brightnessradii of Cepheids with known distances. Spectroscopic radii are found tobe affected by a scatter as significant as >~9 per cent, which is atleast three times greater than the formal error currently claimed by thespectroscopic technique. In contrast, pulsation radii predicted by theperiod-radius (PR) relation according to the Cepheid period result aresignificantly less dispersed, indicating a quite small scatter as aresult of the finite width of the Cepheid instability strip, as expectedfrom pulsation theory. The resulting low level of noise stronglyconfirms our previous claims that the pulsation parallaxes are the mostaccurate empirical distances presently available for Galactic andextragalactic Cepheids.

Far-Infrared and Millimeter Continuum Studies of K Giants: α Bootis and α Tauri
We have imaged two normal, noncoronal, infrared-bright K giants, αTau and α Boo, in the 1.4 and 2.8 mm continua using BIMA. Thesestars have been used as important absolute calibrators for severalinfrared satellites. Our goals are (1) to establish whether these starsradiate as simple photospheres or possess long-wavelength chromospheresand (2) to make a connection between millimeter-wave and far-infrared(FIR) absolute flux calibrations. To accomplish these goals we alsopresent Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometermeasurements of both these K giants. The FIR and millimeter continuumradiation is produced in the vicinity of the temperature minimum inα Tau and α Boo. We find that current photospheric modelspredict fluxes in reasonable agreement with those observed forwavelengths that sample the upper photosphere, namely, <=125 μm inα Tau and α Boo. We clearly detect chromospheric radiationfrom both stars by 2.8 mm (1.4 mm in the case of α Boo). Onlyadditional observations can determine precisely where beyond 125 μmthe purely radiative models fail. Until then, purely radiative modelsfor these stars can only be used with confidence for calibrationpurposes below 125 μm.

Dust-enshrouded giants in clusters in the Magellanic Clouds
We present the results of an investigation of post-Main Sequence massloss from stars in clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, based around animaging survey in the L'-band (3.8 μm) performed with the VLT at ESO.The data are complemented with JHKs (ESO and 2MASS) andmid-IR photometry (TIMMI2 at ESO, ISOCAM on-board ISO, and data fromIRAS and MSX). The goal is to determine the influence of initialmetallicity and initial mass on the mass loss and evolution during thelatest stages of stellar evolution. Dust-enshrouded giants areidentified by their reddened near-IR colours and thermal-IR dust excessemission. Most of these objects are Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) carbonstars in intermediate-age clusters, with progenitor masses between 1.3and ~5 M_ȯ. Red supergiants with circumstellar dust envelopes arefound in young clusters, and have progenitor masses between 13 and 20M_ȯ. Post-AGB objects (e.g., Planetary Nebulae) and massive starswith detached envelopes and/or hot central stars are found in severalclusters. We model the spectral energy distributions of the cluster IRobjects, in order to estimate their bolometric luminosities andmass-loss rates. The IR objects are the most luminous cluster objects,and have luminosities as expected for their initial mass andmetallicity. They experience mass-loss rates in the range from a few10-6 up to 10-4 M_ȯ yr-1 (ormore), with most of the spread being due to evolutionary effects andonly a weak dependence on progenitor mass and/or initial metallicity.About half of the mass lost by 1.3-3 M_ȯ stars is shed during thesuperwind phase, which lasts of order 105 yr. Objects withdetached shells are found to have experienced the highest mass-lossrates, and are therefore interpreted as post-superwind objects. We alsopropose a simple method to measure the cluster mass from L'-band images.

Broad-band photometric colors and effective temperature calibrations for late-type giants. I. Z = 0.02
We present new synthetic broad-band photometric colors for late-typegiants based on synthetic spectra calculated with the PHOENIX modelatmosphere code. The grid covers effective temperatures T_eff=3000dots5000 K, gravities log g=-0.5dots{+3.5}, and metallicities[M/H]=+0.5dots{-4.0}. We show that individual broad-band photometriccolors are strongly affected by model parameters such as molecularopacities, gravity, microturbulent velocity, and stellar mass. Ourexploratory 3D modeling of a prototypical late-type giant shows thatconvection has a noticeable effect on the photometric colors too, as italters significantly both the vertical and horizontal thermal structuresin the outer atmosphere. The differences between colors calculated withfull 3D hydrodynamical and 1D model atmospheres are significant (e.g.,Δ(V-K)˜0.2 mag), translating into offsets in effectivetemperature of up to 70 K. For a sample of 74 late-type giants in theSolar neighborhood, with interferometric effective temperatures andbroad-band photometry available in the literature, we compare observedcolors with a new PHOENIX grid of synthetic photometric colors, as wellas with photometric colors calculated with the MARCS and ATLAS modelatmosphere codes. We find good agreement of the new synthetic colorswith observations and published T_eff-color and color-color relations,especially in the T_eff-(V-K), T_eff-(J-K) and (J-K)-(V-K) planes.Deviations from the observed trends in the T_eff-color planes aregenerally within ±100 K for T_eff=3500 to 4800 K. Syntheticcolors calculated with different stellar atmosphere models agree to±100 K, within a large range of effective temperatures andgravities. The comparison of the observed and synthetic spectra oflate-type giants shows that discrepancies result from the differencesboth in the strengths of various spectral lines/bands (especially thoseof molecular bands, such as TiO, H2O, CO) and the continuum level.Finally, we derive several new T_eff-log g-color relations for late-typegiants at solar-metallicity (valid for T_eff=3500 to 4800 K), based bothon the observed effective temperatures and colors of the nearby giants,and synthetic colors produced with PHOENIX, MARCS and ATLAS modelatmospheres.

First results from the ESO VLTI calibrators program
The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is one of the leadinginterferometric facilities. It is equipped with several 8.2 and 1.8 mtelescopes, a large number of baselines up to 200 m, and with severalsubsystems designed to enable high quality measurements and to improvesignificantly the limits of sensitivities currently available tolong-baseline interferometry. The full scientific potential of the VLTIcan be exploited only if a consistent set of good quality calibrators isavailable. For this, a large number of observations of potentialcalibrators have been obtained during the commissioning phase of theVLTI. These data are publicly available. We briefly describe theinterferometer, the VINCI instrument used for the observations, the dataflow from acquisition to processed results, and we present and commenton the volume of observations gathered and scrutinized. The result is alist of 191 calibrator candidates, for which a total of 12 066observations can be deemed of satisfactory quality. We present a generalstatistical analysis of this sample, using as a starting point theangular diameters previously available in the literature. We derive thegeneral characteristics of the VLTI transfer function, and its trendwith time in the period 2001 through mid-2004. A second paper will bedevoted to a detailed investigation of a selected sample, aimed atestablishing a VLTI-based homogeneous system of calibrators.

Infrared portrait of the nearby massive star-forming region IRAS 09002-4732
We present high-resolution near-infrared and mid-infrared imaging,mid-infrared spectroscopy and millimetre-wavelength continuumobservations of the nearby massive star-forming complex IRAS 09002-4732.A rich cluster of young stars displaying near-infrared excess emissionis detected. We identify the ionising source of the ultracompact H IIregion G268.42-0.85 and show that this star is the dominant heating andilluminating source of the region. Spectral type estimates based ondifferent methods are consistent with a star of spectral type O9. Thecombination of the new observations with literature data allows us toset up the first structural model for the region. We argue that theultracompact H II region is embedded in the rear side of the southern CSclump. Additionally, we detect several interesting objects. Among theseobjects are a network of dark dust filaments, an elongated, externallyheated object with strong infrared excess inside the H II region andobjects seen as silhouettes in the foreground of the large southernreflection nebulosity. The filamentary structures may play an importantrole in the star formation process.

Aldebaran's angular diameter: How well do we know it?
The bright, well-known K5 giant Aldebaran,α Tau, is probably the star with the largestnumber of direct angular diameter determinations, achieved over a longtime by several authors using various techniques. In spite of thiswealth of data, or perhaps as a direct result of it, there is not a verygood agreement on a single angular diameter value. This is particularlyunsettling if one considers that Aldebaran is also used as a primarycalibrator for some angular resolution methods, notably for optical andinfrared long baseline interferometry. Directly connected to Aldebaran'sangular diameter and its uncertainties is its effective temperature,which also has been used for several empirical calibrations. Among theproposed explanations for the elusiveness of an accurate determinationof the angular diameter of Aldebaran are the possibility of temporalvariations as well as a possible dependence of the angular diameter onthe wavelength. We present here a few, very accurate new determinationsobtained by means of lunar occultations and long baselineinterferometry. We derive an average value of 19.96±0.03milliarcsec for the uniform disk diameter. The correspondinglimb-darkened value is 20.58±0.03 milliarcsec, or 44.2±0.9Rȯ. We discuss this result, in connection with previousdeterminations and with possible problems that may affect suchmeasurements.Based on observations collected at TIRGO (Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CNR - CAISMI Arcetri, Italy.

The K-band intensity profile of R Leonis probed by VLTI/VINCI
We present near-infrared K-band interferometric measurements of the Mirastar R Leonis obtained in April 2001 and January 2002 with the VLTI, thecommissioning instrument VINCI, and the two test siderostats. Theseepochs correspond to near-maximum stellar variability phases ~0.08 and~1.02 (one cycle later), respectively. The April 2001 data cover a rangeof spatial frequencies (31 35 cycles/arcsecond) within the first lobe ofthe visibility function. These measurements indicate a center-to-limbintensity variation (CLV) that is clearly different from a uniform disk(UD) intensity profile. We show that these measured visibility valuesare consistent with predictions from recent self-excited dynamic Miramodel atmospheres that include molecular shells close tocontinuum-forming layers. We derive high-precision Rosseland diametersof 28.5 ± 0.4 mas and 26.2 ± 0.8 mas for the April 2001and January 2002 data, respectively. Together with literature estimatesof the distance and the bolometric flux, these values correspond tolinear radii of 350+50-40 R_ȯ and320+50-40 R_ȯ, and to effective temperaturesof 2930 ± 270 K and 3080 ± 310 K, respectively.Based on public commissioning data released from the ESO VLTI(www.eso.org/projects/vlti/instru/vinci/ vinci_data_sets.html)

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

VINCI-VLTI measurements of HR 4049: The physical size of the circumbinary envelope
We present the first detection of the envelope which surrounds thepost-AGB binary source HR 4049. VINCI-VLTI K-band interferometricobservations of this source imply the existence of a large structurewith a Gaussian angular FWHM 22.4 ± 1.4 mas or uniform diskdiameter of 34.9 ± 1.9 mas. With the Hipparcos parallax of 1.50± 0.64 mas these values correspond to a physical size of14.9+11.1-4.4 AU and23.3+17.3-7.0 AU, respectively. Our measurements,covering an azimuth range of ˜60 ° for the sky-projectedbaseline, provide information on the geometry of the emitting region andshow that there is only a slight variation of the measured angularvalues along the different directions sampled. Thus, our results areconsistent with a spherical geometry of the envelope. However, we cannotcompletely rule out the existence of an asymmetric envelope (like thecircumbinary disk envisaged by some recent models) because of thelimited spatial frequency and azimuth range covered by the observations.Based on public shared risk science program data released from the ESOVLTI: http://www.eso.org/projects/vlti/instru/vinci/vinci_data_sets.html

Infrared Irradiance Calibration
Infrared astronomical measurements are calibrated against referencesources, usually primary standard stars that are, in turn, calibratedeither by direct or indirect means. A direct calibration compares thestar with a certified source, typically a blackbody. Indirect methodsextrapolate a direct measurement of the flux at one wavelength to theflux at another. Historically, α Lyr (Vega) has been used as theprimary standard as it is bright, easily accessible from the northernhemisphere, and is well calibrated in the visual. Until recently, thedirect absolute infrared calibrations of α Lyr and those derivedfrom the absolute solar flux scaled to the observed spectral energydistributions of solar type stars increasingly diverged with wavelengthfrom those obtained using a model atmosphere to extrapolate the absolutevisual flux of Vega into the infrared. The exception is the directcalibration by the 1996/97 Midcourse Space Experiment of the absolutefluxes for a number of the commonly used infrared standard stars,including Vega.

Improved Baade-Wesselink surface brightness relations
Recent, and older accurate, data on (limb-darkened) angular diameters iscompiled for 221 stars, as well as BVRIJK[12][25] magnitudes for thoseobjects, when available. Nine stars (all M-giants or supergiants)showing excess in the [12-25] colour are excluded from the analysis asthis may indicate the presence of dust influencing the optical andnear-infrared colours as well. Based on this large sample,Baade-Wesselink surface brightness (SB) relations are presented fordwarfs, giants, supergiants and dwarfs in the optical and near-infrared.M-giants are found to follow different SB relations from non-M-giants,in particular in V versus V-R. The preferred relation for non-M-giantsis compared to the earlier relation by Fouqué and Gieren (basedon 10 stars) and Nordgren et al. (based on 57 stars). Increasing thesample size does not lead to a lower rms value. It is shown that theresiduals do not correlate with metallicity at a significant level. Thefinally adopted observed angular diameters are compared to thosepredicted by Cohen et al. for 45 stars in common, and there isreasonable overall, and good agreement when θ < 6 mas.Finally, I comment on the common practice in the literature to average,and then fix, the zero-point of the V versus V-K, V versus V-R and Kversus J-K relations, and then rederive the slopes. Such a commonzero-point at zero colour is not expected from model atmospheres for theV-R colour and depends on gravity. Relations derived in this way may bebiased.

Determination of fundamental characteristics for stars of the F, G, and K spectral types. The surface gravities and metallicity parameters.
Not Available

A near-infrared stellar spectral library: I. H-band spectra.
This paper presents the H band near-infrared (NIR) spectral library of135 solar type stars covering spectral types O5-M3 and luminosityclasses I-V as per MK classification. The observations were carried outwith 1.2 meter Gurushikhar Infrared Telescope (GIRT), at Mt. Abu, Indiausing a NICMOS3 HgCdTe 256 x 256 NIR array based spectrometer. Thespectra have a moderate resolution of 1000 (about 16 A) at the H bandand have been continuum shape corrected to their respective effectivetemperatures. This library and the remaining ones in J and K bands oncereleased will serve as an important database for stellar populationsynthesis and other applications in conjunction with the newly formedlarge optical coude feed stellar spectral library of Valdes et al.(2004). The complete H-Band library is available online at: http://vo.iucaa.ernet.in/~voi/NIR_Header.html

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

Synthetic Lick Indices and Detection of α-enhanced Stars. II. F, G, and K Stars in the -1.0 < [Fe/H] < +0.50 Range
We present an analysis of 402 F, G, and K solar neighborhood stars, withaccurate estimates of [Fe/H] in the range -1.0 to +0.5 dex, aimed at thedetection of α-enhanced stars and at the investigation of theirkinematical properties. The analysis is based on the comparison of 571sets of spectral indices in the Lick/IDS system, coming from fourdifferent observational data sets, with synthetic indices computed withsolar-scaled abundances and with α-element enhancement. We useselected combinations of indices to single out α-enhanced starswithout requiring previous knowledge of their main atmosphericparameters. By applying this approach to the total data set, we obtain alist of 60 bona fide α-enhanced stars and of 146 stars withsolar-scaled abundances. The properties of the detected α-enhancedand solar-scaled abundance stars with respect to their [Fe/H] values andkinematics are presented. A clear kinematic distinction betweensolar-scaled and α-enhanced stars was found, although a one-to-onecorrespondence to ``thin disk'' and ``thick disk'' components cannot besupported with the present data.

The hot core-ultracompact H II connection in G10.47+0.03
We present infrared imaging and spectroscopic data of the complexmassive star-forming region G10.47+0.03. The detection of sevenmid-infrared (MIR) sources in our field combined with a sensitiveKs/ISAAC image allows to establish a very accurate astrometry, at thelevel of 0.3 arcsec. Two MIR sources are found to be coincident with twoultracompact H II regions (UCH II s) within our astrometric accuracy.Another MIR source lies very close to three other UCH II regions and tothe hot molecular core (HMC) in G10.47+0.03. Spectroscopy of two of themost interesting MIR sources allows to identify the location andspectral type of the ionizing sources. We discuss in detail therelationship between the HMC, the UCH II regions and the nearby MIRsource. The nature of the other MIR sources is also investigated.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Prop.ID:67.C-0359(A) and Prop.ID:69.C-0189(A).

Unveiling Mira stars behind the molecules. Confirmation of the molecular layer model with narrow band near-infrared interferometry
We have observed Mira stars with the FLUOR beamcombiner on the IOTAinterferometer in narrow bands around 2.2 μm wavelength. We findsystematically larger diameters in bands contaminated by water vapor andCO. The visibility measurements can be interpreted with a modelcomprising a photosphere surrounded by a thin spherical molecular layer.The high quality of the fits we obtain demonstrates that this simplemodel accounts for most of the star's spatial structure. For each starand each period we were able to derive the radius and temperature of thestar and of the molecular layer as well as the optical depth of thelayer in absorption and continuum bands. The typical radius of themolecular layer is 2.2 R* with a temperature ranging between1500 and 2100 K. The photospheric temperatures we find are in agreementwith spectral types of Mira stars. Our photospheric diameters are foundsmaller than in previous studies by several tens of percent. We believeprevious diameters were biased by the use of unsuited geometrical modelsto explain visibilities. The conclusions of this work are various.First, we offer a consistent view of Mira stars over a wide range ofwavelengths. Second, the parameters of the molecular layer we find areconsistent with spectroscopic studies. Third, from our diametermeasurements we deduce that all Mira stars are fundamental modepulsators and that previous studies leading to the conclusion of thefirst-overtone mode were biased by too large diameter estimates.Based on observations collected at the IOTA interferometer, WhippleObservatory, Mount Hopkins, Arizona.Table 3 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Spatially and spectrally resolved 10 μm emission in Herbig Ae/Be stars
We present new mid-infrared spectroscopy of the emission from warmcircumstellar dust grains in the Herbig Ae stars HD 100546, HD 97048 andHD 104237, with a spatial resolution of ≈0.9 arcsec. We find that theemission in the UIR bands at 8.6, 11.3 and (HD 97048 only) 12.7 μm isextended in the first two sources. The continuum emission is resolved inHD 97048 and possibly in HD 100546. HD 104237 is not spatially resolvedin our observations. We find that the UIR emission in HD 100546 and HD97048 is extended on a scale of (several) 100 AU, corresponding to theouter disk scale in flaring disk models. Small carbonaceous particlesare the dominant source of opacity in the HD 97048 disk.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla, and on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participationof ISAS and NASA.

Onset of Mass Loss in Red Giants: Association with an Evolutionary Event
Stencel & Mullan used asymmetries in the Mg II k emission lineprofile to determine the location of a ``velocity dividing line'' (VDL)in the H-R diagram. Stars to the right of (and above) the VDL wereobserved to have asymmetries that are consistent with the presence ofcool massive winds. Stars to the left of (and below) the VDL showed noevidence for winds. We show that the VDL lies close to a certain eventof stellar evolution on the red giant branch (RGB). The event occurswhen the hydrogen-burning shell evolves outward through a discontinuityin molecular weight. In some low-mass stars, this event causes a kink inthe evolutionary track of an individual low-mass star. In a cluster, thecombined effects of such kinks create a ``bump'' in the luminosityfunction. Our result suggests that evolution through the kink (or bump)on the RGB is associated with the onset of a cool massive wind.Theoretical possibilities to explain this association will be exploredin a subsequent paper.

Structure of the Mid-Infrared-emitting Disk around WL 16
WL 16 is a unique member of the embedded young stellar population in thenearby ρ Ophiuchi cloud core: its extended, high surface brightnessdisk is visible only at mid-infrared wavelengths. We presentdiffraction-limited images, from 7.9 to 24.5 μm, of WL 16 acquired atthe Keck II telescope. We take advantage of the ~0.3" angular resolutionof the mid-infrared images to derive physical parameters for the centralobject by self-consistently combining them with available near-infraredspectroscopy, point-spread function fit photometry, andpre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks. We find the central star to be a250 Lsolar, 4 Msolar, Herbig Ae star, seen throughforeground material of the ρ Oph cloud core that provides anextinction of AV=31+/-1 mag. WL 16's disk is detected throughall nine observed passbands, not only those four that sample polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. We confirm, therefore,that the emitting particles are composed of both PAHs and very small(5-100 Å) graphitic grains. The disk size as observed through thefour PAH filters is 7''×3.5", corresponding to a diskdiameter of ~900 AU. The disk's major axis is at a position angle of60deg+/-2deg and is viewed at an inclination angleof 62.2d+/-0.4d to our line of sight. Our derived inclination angle isin excellent agreement with the inclination previously inferred for theinner disk (R<=30 Rsolar) from kinematic modeling of thenear-infrared spectral lines of CO. We can distinguish structure withinthe PAH disk at unprecedented resolution. We confirm a resolved (1.5"diameter) core component at 7.9 and 8.8 μm due to emission frompositively charged PAHs. An enhancement in the emission at 12.5 μm atthe disk's edges is found for the first time and signals the presence oflarger (>=50-80 carbon atoms) and/or more hydrogenated PAHs thanthose found in the bulk of the disk. We find a disk asymmetry, observedat all nine mid-infrared wavelengths, at projected radii 1"-2.5"(corresponding to 125AU<=r<=300AU) from the central source.

Angular Diameters of Stars from the Mark III Optical Interferometer
Observations of 85 stars were obtained at wavelengths between 451 and800 nm with the Mark III Stellar Interferometer on Mount Wilson, nearPasadena, California. Angular diameters were determined by fitting auniform-disk model to the visibility amplitude versus projected baselinelength. Half the angular diameters determined at 800 nm have formalerrors smaller than 1%. Limb-darkened angular diameters, effectivetemperatures, and surface brightnesses were determined for these stars,and relationships between these parameters are presented. Scatter inthese relationships is larger than would be expected from themeasurement uncertainties. We argue that this scatter is not due to anunderestimate of the angular diameter errors; whether it is due tophotometric errors or is intrinsic to the relationship is unresolved.The agreement with other observations of the same stars at the samewavelengths is good; the width of the difference distribution iscomparable to that estimated from the error bars, but the wings of thedistribution are larger than Gaussian. Comparison with infraredmeasurements is more problematic; in disagreement with models, coolerstars appear systematically smaller in the near-infrared than expected,warmer stars larger.

Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE Data
For a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-[12]<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima.

Kinematics and Luminosity Function of Dwarf Populations in Three Areas of the Calán-ESO Proper-Motion Catalog
We have completed the analysis of a sample of 112 stars in the solarneighborhood taken from the statistically complete Calán-ESOcatalog. From medium-resolution spectroscopy we classified every star,both by direct comparison with spectroscopic standards and by usingspectral indices. The latter also allowed discrimination betweenmain-sequence (MS) dwarfs and subdwarfs. Several useful spectral typeversus color relations were obtained from CCD photometry of the sample(observed magnitudes were dereddened). Distances and absolute magnitudeswere determined. From measured radial velocities and proper motions, wedetermined the kinematics [Galactocentric velocity components (U,V,W)],which allowed the classification of each star as belonging to the diskor halo population. Luminosity functions (LFs) were then obtained usingthe 1/Vmax method for the different populations. The maximumin the LF for MS dwarfs was found to be near MV=12.5+/-0.5,in accord with previous determinations. On the other hand, we found anincrease in the LF of the subdwarf at its faint end, which is in strongdisagreement with determinations by other authors. A mass density of MSdwarfs of ~0.047+/-0.021 Msolar pc-3 was derived,while the contribution of subdwarfs was found to be negligible.Based on observations obtained with the VLT (ESO), project 67.D-0224A.

Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. XIII. ``Supertemplates'' and On-Orbit Calibrators for the SIRTF Infrared Array Camera
We describe the technique that will be used to develop a set of on-orbitcalibrators for the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and demonstrate thevalidity of the method for stars with spectral types either K0-M0 III orA0-A5 V. For application to SIRTF, the approach is intended to operatewith all available optical, near-infrared (NIR), and mid-infrared (MIR)photometry and to yield complete absolute spectra from UV to MIR. Oneset of stars is picked from Landolt's extensive network of optical(UBVRI) calibrators, the other from the Carter-Meadows set of faint IRstandards. Traceability to the ``Cohen-Walker-Witteborn'' framework ofabsolute photometry and stellar spectra is assured. The method is basedon the use of either ``supertemplates,'' which represent the intrinsicshapes of the spectra of K0-M0 III stars from far-UV (1150 Å) toMIR (35 μm) wavelengths, or Kurucz synthetic spectra for A0-A5 Vstars. Each supertemplate or Kurucz model is reddened according to theindividual star's extinction and is normalized using availablecharacterized optical photometry. This paper tests our capability topredict NIR (JHK) magnitudes using supertemplates or models constrainedby Hipparcos/Tycho or precision ground-based optical data. We provideabsolutely calibrated 0.275-35.00 μm spectra of 33 Landolt andCarter-Meadows optical standard stars to demonstrate the viability ofthis technique, and to offer a set of IR calibrators 100-1000 timesfainter than those we have previously published. As an indication ofwhat we can expect for actual IRAC calibration stars, we have calculatedthe absolute uncertainties associated with predicting the IRACmagnitudes for the faintest cool giant and hot dwarf in this new set ofcalibration stars.

Infrared observations of NGC 3603. II. A 11.9 mu m and 18 mu m survey
We present results of the first sub-arcsec resolution mid infraredsurvey of the southern hemisphere giant H II region NGC 3603. We haveobserved selected fields in the vicinity of the OB cluster atwavelengths of 11.9 mu m and 18 mu m using TIMMI 2 mounted on the ESO3.6 m telescope. These fields comprise areas with dense molecular cores,embedded near infrared sources as well as several OH, H2O andCH3OH maser sources, which give indications of ongoing starformation processes. We report the detection of 36 mid infrared pointsources and additionally provide flux measurements for 42 knots ofdiffuse emission. In the area surveyed the protostar IRS 9A is foundto be the most luminous source at both 11.9 mu m and 18 mu m. Located inits immediate vicinity two more sources (IRS 9B and IRS 9C) also exhibitsignificant 11.9 mu m and 18 mu m emission, thus providing furtherindications for IRS 9 being an association of protostars in its ownright. Several other 11.9 mu m point sources are related to nearinfrared sources with strong K-band excess emission and/or to masersources, which classifies them as young sources, too. In contrast, thesecond strongest 11.9 mu m source, IRS 4, appears to be in a moreevolved stage. Towards the center of the OB cluster we observe midinfrared emission arising from the three Wolf-Rayet stars WR 43abc,providing evidence for dust production and/or the presence of plasma intheir circumstellar envelopes. Spread all over the cluster, we detect anumber of sources with mid infrared fluxes close to the sensitivitylimit ( ~ 0.01 Jy) of our 11.9 mu m data, which apparently have very redK-N colours. We suggest that these sources are circumstellar disks whichare externally heated by the nearby massive stars. Towards the southand west of the OB cluster, large amounts of diffuse emission are foundclosely correlated with ionized material. We identify at least 7 shocksand ionization fronts, reflecting the enormous impact of the faststellar winds and ionizing photons, originating from the massive clusterstars, on the adjacent gas and dust. This is impressively emphasized bythe shocked and ionized material associated with the heads of the twoprominent pillars. Both pillars are easily seen in our 11.9 mu m and 18mu m data: the western one rather prominent in emission, the eastern onemore pronounced in absorption against a strong diffuse mid infraredbackground. Among those sources, for which our data do not reveal anypoint-like mid infrared counterpart, are IRS 1 as well as the three``proplyds''. However, at least for ``proplyd'' 3 we detect extended,rim-like 11.9 mu m emission. Therefore, we consider it likely that NGC3603's ``proplyds'' simply represent scaled-down versions of theneighbouring pillars, i.e. remnant density enhancements of the pristinemolecular cloud which to date were able to resist the ionizing andphotoevaporating radiation from the nearby OB stars.Based on data sets obtained at the European Southern Observatory on LaSilla, Chile.

Precise radial velocity measurements of G and K giants. First results
We present the first results of our precise radial velocity (RV)measurements of G and K giants. A number of stars from our list of 80targets have been observed for 14 months using the fibre-fed echellespectrograph FEROS at the 1.52 m ESO telescope in La Silla, Chile. Thissample increases the number of giants surveyed with precise stellarradial velocity measurements at least by a factor of 10. During thisperiod we are able to estimate the long-term accuracy of our measurementas better than 11 m s-1. We use the simultaneous Th-Arcalibration and cross-correlation technique to compute the radialvelocity by applying a numerical template for K-type stars. Standarddeviation sigma of mean radial velocity variations between 3 ms-1 and 4 km s-1 with timescales between severaldays and years are measured for 21 of G and K giants which are presentedin this paper. Fifteen stars show definite variability above 3 sigma ofour measurement uncertainties. Two stars with RV variations above 800 ms-1 are tentatively identified as new binaries. Althoughdefinitive trends between RV variations and stellar evolutionary statuscannot yet be established, all the luminous cool giants of our sampleseem to have significant radial velocity variations, while those starsin the giant's clump region can be either variable or constant.Based on observations collected at the ESO 1.52 m telescope at the LaSilla Observatory under program ESO No. 64.L-0047, 65.L-0571, 66.D-0592and from Nov. 99 to Feb. 01 under the ESO-Observatório Nacional,Brazil, agreement.}

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:09h27m35.20s
Apparent magnitude:1.98
Distance:54.348 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-14.4
Proper motion Dec:33.3
B-T magnitude:3.879
V-T magnitude:2.14

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesAlphard
Alfard, Alphart, Kalbelaphard, Cor Hydrae
Bayerα Hya
Flamsteed30 Hya
HD 1989HD 81797
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 5460-1592-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0750-06884210
BSC 1991HR 3748
HIPHIP 46390

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