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Physical parameters and wind properties of galactic early B supergiants
We present optical studies of the physical and wind properties, plus CNOchemical abundances, of 25 O9.5-B3 Galactic supergiants. We employnon-LTE, line blanketed, extended model atmospheres, which provide amodest downward revision in the effective temperature scale of early Bsupergiants of up to 1-2 kK relative to previous non-blanketed results.The so-called "bistability jump" at B1 (Teff ˜ 21 kK)from Lamers et al. is rather a more gradual trend (with large scatter)from v&infy;/vesc˜3.4 for B0-0.5 supergiantsabove 24 kK to v&infy;/vesc˜ 2.5 for B0.7-1supergiants with 20 kK ≤ Teff ≤ 24 kK, andv&infy;/vesc˜ 1.9 for B1.5-3 supergiants below20 kK. This, in part, explains the break in observed UV spectralcharacteristics between B0.5 and B0.7 subtypes as discussed by Walbornet al. We compare derived (homogeneous) wind densities with recentresults for Magellanic Cloud B supergiants and generally confirmtheoretical expectations for stronger winds amongst Galacticsupergiants. However, winds are substantially weaker than predictionsfrom current radiatively driven wind theory, especially at mid-Bsubtypes, a problem which is exacerbated if winds are already clumped inthe Hα line forming region. In general, CNO elemental abundancesreveal strongly processed material at the surface of Galactic Bsupergiants, with mean N/C and N/O abundances 10 and 5 times higher thanthe Solar value, respectively, with HD 2905 (BC0.7 Ia) indicating thelowest degree of processing in our sample, and HD 152236 (B1.5Ia+) the highest.

The Complex Interstellar Na I Absorption toward h and χ Persei
Recent high spatial and spectral resolution investigations of thediffuse interstellar medium (ISM) have found significant evidence forsmall-scale variations in the interstellar gas on scales <=1 pc. Tobetter understand the nature of small-scale variations in the ISM, wehave used the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) WIYN Hydramultiobject spectrograph, which has a mapping advantage over thesingle-axis, single-scale limitations of studies using high propermotion stars and binary stars, to obtain moderate-resolution (~12 kms-1) interstellar Na I D absorption spectra of 172 starstoward the double open cluster h and χ Persei. All of the sightlines toward the 150 stars with spectra that reveal absorption from thePerseus spiral arm show different interstellar Na I D absorptionprofiles in the Perseus arm gas. Additionally, we have utilized the KPNOcoudé feed spectrograph to obtain high-resolution (~3 kms-1) interstellar Na I D absorption spectra of 24 of thebrighter stars toward h and χ Per. These spectra reveal an evengreater complexity in the interstellar Na I D absorption in the Perseusarm gas and show individual components changing in number, velocity, andstrength from sight line to sight line. If each of these individualvelocity components represents an isolated cloud, then it would appearthat the ISM of the Perseus arm gas consists of many small clouds.Although the absorption profiles vary even on the smallest scales probedby these high-resolution data (~30", ~0.35 pc), our analysis revealsthat some interstellar Na I D absorption components from sight line tosight line are related, implying that the ISM toward h and χ Per isprobably composed of sheets of gas in which we detect variations due todifferences in the local physical conditions of the gas.

Intermediate scale structure of the interstellar medium towards NGC 6231 in Sco OB1 with FUSE
The FUSE far-ultraviolet interstellar spectra toward seven targets inNGC 6231 show that the molecules H2, HD,and CO as well as various atomic species are distributed in severalclouds. The main absorption component found on the sight lines lies inthe Lupus cloud region at a distance of about 150 pc, and there is aweaker second one, presumably in the Sco OB1 shellsurrounding NGC 6231 (d≃1.8 kpc). H2excitation modelling is used to constrain the radiation field and thedensity in the gas; HD is used to estimate the abundance ofH+. The small angular separation of the target stars allowscolumn density variations to be probed over the field of view, on scalesof 0.05 pc in the case of the Lupus cloud distance. They are 40% forH2 and 60% for H I. A rather strong radiation field insidethe molecular clouds suggests a separation of the gas into smallercloudlets also along the line of sight.Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far UltravioletSpectroscopic Explorer. FUSE is operated for NASA by the Johns HopkinsUniversity under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

Optical Polarization Observations of NGC 6231: Evidence for a Past Supernova Fingerprint
We present the first linear multicolor polarization observations for asample of 35 stars in the direction of the Galactic cluster NGC 6231. Wehave found a complex pattern in the angles of the polarimetric vectors.Near the core of this cluster the structure shows a semicircular patternthat we have interpreted as a reorientation of the dust particlesshowing the morphology of the magnetic field. We propose that asupernova event occurred some time ago and produced a shock on the localISM. We discuss in this paper independent confirmations of this event,both from the studies on the diffuse interstellar absorptions and theresults of the pre-main-sequence stars. We also show that a supernova issupported by the evolutionary status of the cluster.Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico ElLeoncito (CASLEO), operated under agreement between the CONICET and theNational Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan,Argentina.

The total-to-selective extinction ratio determined from near IR photometry of OB stars
The paper presents an extensive list of the total to selectiveextinction ratios R calculated from the infrared magnitudes of 597 O andB stars using the extrapolation method. The IR magnitudes of these starswere taken from the literature. The IR colour excesses are determinedwith the aid of "artificial standards" - Wegner (1994). The individualand mean values of total to selective extinction ratios R differ in mostcases from the average value R=3.10 +/-0.05 - Wegner (1993) in differentOB associations. The relation between total to selective extinctionratios R determined in this paper and those calculated using the "methodof variable extinction" and the Cardelli et al. (1989) formulae isdiscussed. The R values presented in this paper can be used to determineindividual absolute magnitudes of reddened OB stars with knowntrigonometric parallaxes.

Spectroscopic Binaries in Young Open Clusters
We have analysed the binarity and multiplicity characteristics of 120O-type stars in 22 very young open clusters and found marked differencesbetween the "rich" (N >= 6 O-type stars and primaries) and "poor" (N= 1) clusters. In the rich clusters, the binary frequencies vary between14% (1 SB among 7 stars) and 80% (8 SBs among 10 stars). Multiplesystems seem not to be frequent and stars are spread all over thecluster area. In poor clusters, the binary frequency of the O-typeobjects is nearly 100%, with orbital periods around 3 days. Severalbinaries are also eclipsing. Additional companions are always present.They form either hierarchical multiple stars or trapezium systems. Thesemassive multiple systems are generally found close to the clustercenter, although there are exceptions.

The origin of the runaway high-mass X-ray binary HD 153919/4U1700-37
Based on its Hipparcos proper motion, we propose that the high-massX-ray binary HD 153919/4U1700-37 originates in the OB association ScoOB1. At a distance of 1.9 kpc the space velocity of 4U1700-37 withrespect to Sco OB1 is 75 km s-1. This runaway velocityindicates that the progenitor of the compact X-ray source lost about 7Msun during the (assumed symmetric) supernova explosion. Thesystem's kinematical age is about 2 +/- 0.5 million years which marksthe date of the supernova explosion forming the compact object. Thepresent age of Sco OB1 is la 8 Myr; its suggested core, NGC 6231, seemsto be somewhat younger ( ~ 5 Myr). If HD 153919/4U1700-37 was born as amember of Sco OB1, this implies that the initially most massive star inthe system terminated its evolution within la 6 million years,corresponding to an initial mass ga 30 Msun. With theseparameters the evolution of the binary system can be constrained. Basedon data obtained with ESA's astrometric satellite Hipparcos.

High-mass binaries in the very young open cluster NGC 6231. Implication for cluster and star formation
New radial-velocity observations of 37 O- and B stars in the very youngopen cluster NGC 6231 confirm the high frequency of short-periodspectroscopic binaries on the upper main sequence. Among the 14 O-typestars, covering all luminosity classes from dwarfs to supergiants, 8 aredefinitively double-lined systems and all periods but one are shorterthan 7 days. Several additional binaries have been detected among theearly B-type stars. NGC 6231 is an exceptional cluster to constrain thescenarios of cluster- and binary-star formation over a large range ofstellar masses. We discuss the evidences, based on NGC 6231 and 21 otherclusters, with a total of 120 O-type stars, for a clear dichotomy in themultiplicity rate and structure of very young open clusters containingO-type stars in function of the number of massive stars. However, wecannot answer the question whether the observed characteristics resultfrom the formation processes or from the early dynamical evolution.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

B Stars as a Diagnostic of Star Formation at Low and High Redshift
We have extended the evolutionary synthesis models by Leitherer et al.by including a new library of B stars generated from the IUEhigh-dispersion spectra archive. We present the library and show how thestellar spectral properties vary according to luminosity classes andspectral types. We have generated synthetic UV spectra for prototypicalyoung stellar populations varying the IMF and the star formation law.Clear signs of age effects are seen in all models. The contribution of Bstars in the UV line spectrum is clearly detected, in particular forgreater ages when O stars have evolved. With the addition of the newlibrary we are able to investigate the fraction of stellar andinterstellar contributions and the variation in the spectral shapes ofintense lines. We have used our models to date the spectrum of the localsuper-star cluster NGC 1705-1. Photospheric lines of C III λ1247,Si III λ1417, and S V λ1502 were used as diagnostics todate the burst of NGC 1705-1 at 10 Myr. Interstellar lines are clearlyseen in the NGC 1705-1 spectrum. Broadening and blueshifts of severalresonance lines are stronger in the galaxy spectrum than in our modelsand are confirmed to be intrinsic of the galaxy. Si II λ1261 andAl II λ1671 were found to be pure interstellar lines with anaverage blueshift of 78 km s-1 owing to a directed outflow ofthe interstellar medium. We have selected the star-forming galaxy1512-cB58 as a first application of the new models to high-z galaxies.This galaxy is at z=2.723, it is gravitationally lensed, and its highsignal-to-noise ratio Keck spectrum shows features typical of localstarburst galaxies, such as NGC 1705-1. Models with continuous starformation were found to be more adequate for 1512-cB58 since there arespectral features typical of a composite stellar population of O and Bstars. A model with Z=0.4 Zsolar and an IMF with α=2.8reproduces the stellar features of the 1512-cB58 spectrum.

Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Two-colour photometry for 9473 components of close Hipparcos double and multiple stars
Using observations obtained with the Tycho instrument of the ESAHipparcos satellite, a two-colour photometry is produced for componentsof more than 7 000 Hipparcos double and multiple stars with angularseparations 0.1 to 2.5 arcsec. We publish 9473 components of 5173systems with separations above 0.3 arcsec. The majority of them did nothave Tycho photometry in the Hipparcos catalogue. The magnitudes arederived in the Tycho B_T and V_T passbands, similar to the Johnsonpassbands. Photometrically resolved components of the binaries withstatistically significant trigonometric parallaxes can be put on an HRdiagram, the majority of them for the first time. Based on observationsmade with the ESA Hipparcos satellite.

UBVI imaging photometry of NGC 6231
CCD UBVI photometry in the field of the open cluster NGC 6231 wasobtained for 1060 stars down to V~ 19 mag. Memberships, reddening,distance and age of this cluster were investigated. Its lower sequencedisplays a notorious bend at V~ 13.5 mag followed by a high number offaint stars showing a large magnitude spread at constant colour. Thisdistribution of stars does not seem to be produced by a mereaccumulation of field stars seen in the direction of the cluster but bya real star excess in the zone. The evidence suggests these stars areserious candidates to be cluster members caught in their way towards theZAMS. Fitting them with pre main sequence isochrones an age spread ofabout 10 Myr is obtained. The luminosity and mass functions were foundto be flat for -7.5 < MV < 1.5 and from 3 to 80 {calMsun} respectively. Based on observations collected at theUniversity of Toronto Southern Observatory, Las Campanas, Chile. Table 1is available only in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Five-colour photometry of OB-stars in the Southern Hemisphere
Observations of OB-stars, made in 1959 and 1960 at the Leiden SouthernStation near Hartebeespoortdam, South Africa, with the VBLUW photometerattached to the 90 cm light-collector, are given in this paper. They arecompared with photometry obtained by \cite[Graham (1968),]{gra68}\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977),]{wal77} \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} and \cite[Van Genderen et al. (1984).]{gen84} Formulaefor the transformation of the present observations to those of\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977)]{wal77} and \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} are given. Table 4 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. XIX - an astrometric/spectroscopic survey of O stars
We present the results of a speckle interferometric survey made with theCHARA speckle camera and 4 m class telescopes of Galactic O-type starswith V less than 8. We can detect with the speckle camera binaries inthe angular separation range 0.035-1.5 arcsec with delta M less than 3,and we have discovered 15 binaries among 227 O-type systems. We combinedour results on visual binaries with measurements of wider pairs from theWashington Double Star Catalog and fainter pairs from the HipparcosCatalog, and we made a literature survey of the spectroscopic binariesamong the sample. We then investigated the overall binary frequency ofthe sample and the orbital characteristics of the known binaries.Binaries are common among O stars in clusters and associations but lessso among field and especially runaway stars. There are many triplesystems among the speckle binaries, and we discuss their possible rolein the ejection of stars from clusters. The period distribution of thebinaries is bimodal in log P, but we suggest that binaries with periodsof years and decades may eventually be found to fill the gap. The massratio distribution of the visual binaries increases toward lower massratios, but low mass ratio companions are rare among close,spectroscopic binaries. We present distributions of the eccentricity andlongitude of periastron for spectroscopic binaries with ellipticalorbits, and we find strong evidence of a bias in the longitude ofperiastron distribution.

Evolution of mass segregation in open clusters: some observational evidences
On the basis of the best available member list and duplicityinformation, we have studied the radial structure of Praesepe and of thevery young open cluster NGC 6231. We have found mass segregation amongthe cluster members and between binaries and single stars, which isexplained by the greater average mass of the multiple systems. However,the degree of mass segregation for stars between 1.5 and 2.3 M_sun isless pronounced in Praesepe than in the Pleiades. Furthermore, masssegregation is already present in the very young open cluster NGC 6231although this cluster is likely still not dynamically relaxed. Wediscuss the implications of these results and propose a qualitativescenario for the evolution of mass segregation in open clusters. InPraesepe the mass function of single stars and primaries appears to besignificantly different, like in the Pleiades. We observe an absence ofellipticity of the outer part of Praesepe. Tables 2 and 3 are availableonly in electronic form from the Strasbourg ftp server at

UV Spectral Classification of O and B Stars in the Small Magellanic =
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1951N&db_key=AST

Cross-correlation characteristics of OB stars from IUE spectroscopy
We present a catalogue of homogeneous measures of the linewidthparameter, v_esin i, for 373 O-type stars and early B supergiants(including the separate components of 25 binary and three triplesystems), produced by cross-correlating high-resolution,short-wavelength IUE spectra against a `template' spectrum of tauSco. Wealso tabulate terminal velocities. There are no O supergiants in oursample with v_esin i<65 km s^-1, and only one supergiant earlier thanB5 has v_esin i<50 km s^-1, confirming that an important linebroadening mechanism in addition to rotation must be present in theseobjects. A calibration of the area under the cross-correlation peakagainst spectral type is used to obtain estimates of continuum intensityratios of the components in 28 spectroscopically binary or multiplesystems. At least seven SB2 systems show evidence for the `Struve-Sahadeeffect', a systematic variation in relative line strength as a functionof orbital phase. The stellar wind profiles of the most rapid rotator inour sample, the O9III:n* star HD 191423 (v_esin i=436km s^-1), show itto have a `wind-compressed disc' similar to that of HD 93521; this starand other rapid rotators are good candidates for studies of non-radialpulsation.

MSC - a catalogue of physical multiple stars
The MSC catalogue contains data on 612 physical multiple stars ofmultiplicity 3 to 7 which are hierarchical with few exceptions. Orbitalperiods, angular separations and mass ratios are estimated for eachsub-system. Orbital elements are given when available. The catalogue canbe accessed through CDS (Strasbourg). Half of the systems are within 100pc from the Sun. The comparison of the periods of close and widesub-systems reveals that there is no preferred period ratio and allpossible combinations of periods are found. The distribution of thelogarithms of short periods is bimodal, probably due to observationalselection. In 82\% of triple stars the close sub-system is related tothe primary of a wide pair. However, the analysis of mass ratiodistribution gives some support to the idea that component masses areindependently selected from the Salpeter mass function. Orbits of wideand close sub-systems are not always coplanar, although thecorresponding orbital angular momentum vectors do show a weak tendencyof alignment. Some observational programs based on the MSC aresuggested. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Geneva photometry in the young open cluster NGC 6231.
We present photoelectric (127 stars) and CCD (168 stars) Genevaphotometry for the very young open cluster NGC 6231. We have searchedfor new cluster members out to a distance of ~13['arc], extending theSeggewiss area (~8['arc]), and we found at least 64 new probable membersin this extended field. Differential reddening is clearly measuredacross the cluster area. We determine the cluster distance (1800 pc) andage (3.8+/-0.6x10^6^yr). The probable presence of PMS stars and theconsequence of this population on the cluster formation history isanalysed. We also found that the O8.5III star S161 is a long termvariable and we present its light curve extending over more than 20years. Finally we discuss the existence of Ap stars in the cluster.

High S/N Echelle spectroscopy in young stellar groups. II. Rotational velocities of early-type stars in SCO OB2.
We investigate the rotational velocities of early-type stars in the ScoOB2 association. We measure v.sin(i) for 156 established and probablemembers of the association. The measurements are performed with threedifferent techniques, which are in increasing order of expectedv.sin(i): 1) converting the widths of spectral lines directly tov.sin(i), 2) comparing artificially broadened spectra of low v.sin(i)stars to the target spectrum, 3) comparing the HeI λ4026 lineprofile to theoretical models. The sample is extended with literaturedata for 47 established members of Sco OB2. Analysis of the v.sin(i)distributions shows that there are no significant differences betweenthe subgroups of Sco OB2. We find that members of the binary populationof Sco OB2 on the whole rotate more slowly than the single stars. Inaddition, we find that the B7-B9 single star members rotatesignificantly faster than their B0-B6 counterparts. We test varioushypotheses for the distribution of v.sin(i) in the association. Theresults show that we cannot clearly exclude any form of randomdistribution of the direction and/or magnitude of the intrinsicrotational velocity vector. We also investigate the effects of rotationon colours in the Walraven photometric system. We show that positions ofB7-B9 single dwarfs above the main sequence are a consequence ofrotation. This establishes the influence of rotation on the Walravencolours, due primarily to surface gravity effects.

The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.

Diffuse interstellar bands: resolved rotational band structure at 5850A.
The only candidate of what may be a resolved rotational vibrational bandin the DIB Survey of Jenniskens & Desert (1994), the triplet ofbands at 5844, 5850 and 5852 A, is examined in detail in order toestablish the nature of these DIBs. We find that superposed on the broadλ5844 are four weak features, reminiscent of substructure foundon top of the broad λ5778. The relative band strength of DIBsλ5844 and λ5850 correlates with the rotational temperaturein the J=0 and J=1 levels of molecular hydrogen. However, we do not findvariations in band shape that are consistent with substructure of aresolved rotational band profile. Instead, the narrow λ5850 isfound to have a shoulder on the red and blue side of the main band,which can imply that this band itself is an unresolved rovib band withP, Q and R branches.

Ultra-high-resolution observations of the intrinsic line profiles of interstellar CH, CH^+ and CN
Ultra-high-resolution (0.3 km s^-1 FWHM) observations of interstellar CHand CH^+ are presented for five southern stars (HD 110432, 152234,152235, 152236 and 152270); CN spectra were also obtained for HD 152236and 152270, and CaK and KI spectra for HD 110432. These observationshave enabled us to resolve the intrinsic line profiles towards thesestars for the first time, and have made possible the accuratemeasurement of the velocity dispersions (b-values) of the various atomicand molecular velocity components. The line profiles are found to beinconsistent with shock theories for the production of CH^+ in diffusemolecular clouds, and favour the view that this molecule is produced inwarm (T>~2000K) gas at the interfaces between cool dense clouds andthe hot interior of the Sco-Cen bubble. In the case of one star (HD152270) the b-value measurements conclusively demonstrate anonion-shell-like structure for the absorbing cloud, with CN occurring inthe coolest/least turbulent region (presumably the deep interior), CH ina somewhat hotter/more turbulent region (presumably the outer regions),and CH^+ in the warmest/most turbulent region of all (as expected for aninterface with a hot intercloud medium.

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

An IUE survey of interstellar H I LY alpha absorption. 1: Column densities
We measure Galactic interstellar neutral hydrogen column densities byanalyzing archival interstellar Ly alpha absorption line data toward 554B2 and hotter stars observed at high resolution with the IUE satellite.This study more than doubles the number of lines of sight with measuresof N(H I) based on Ly alpha. We have included the scattered lightbackground correction algorithm of Bianchi and Bohlin in our datareduction. We use the correlation between the Balmer discontinuity(c1) index and the stellar Ly alpha absorption in order toassess the effects of stellar Ly alpha contamination. Approximately 40%of the B stars with measured (c1) index, exhibit seriousstellar Ly alpha contamination. One table contains the derived values ofthe interstellar N(H I) for 393 stars with at most small amounts ofstellar contamination. Another lists the observed values of total N(H I)for 161 stars with suspected stellar Ly alpha contamination and/oruncertain stellar parameters.

Chemical transitions for interstellar C2 and CN in cloud envelopes
Observations were made of absorption from CH, C2, and CN towardmoderately reddened stars in Sco, OB2, Ceo OB3, and Taurus/Auriga. Forthese directions, most of the reddening is associated with a singlecloud complex, for example, the rho Ophiuchus molecular cloud, and as aresult, the observations probe moderately dense material. When combinedwith avaliable data for nearby directions, the survey provides the basisfor a comprehensive analysis of the chemistry for these species. Thechemical transitions affecting C2 and CN in cloud envelopes wereanalyzed. The depth into a cloud at which a transition takes place wascharacterized by tauuv, the grain optical depth at 1000 A.One transition at tauuv approx. = 2, which arises from, theconversion of C(+) into CO, affects the chemistries for both moleculesbecause of the key role this ion plays. A second one involvingproduction terms in the CN chemistry occurs at tauuv ofapprox. = 3; neutral reactions which C2 and CH is more important atlarger values for tauuv. The transition fromphotodissociation to chemical destruction takes place attauuv approx. = 4.5 for C2 and CN. The observational data forstars in Sco OB2, Cep OB3, and Taurus/Auriga were studied with chemicalrate equations containing the most important production and destructionmechanisms. Because the sample of stars in Sco OB2 includes sight lineswith Av ranging from 1-4 mag, sight lines dominated byphotochemistry could be analyzed separately from those controlled bygas-phase destruction. The analysis yielded values for two poorly knownrate constants for reactions involved in the production of CN; thereactions are C2 + N yields CN + C and C(+) + NH yields all products.The other directions were analyzed with the inferred values. Thepredicted column densities for C2 and CN agree with the observed valuesto better than 50%, and in most instances 20%. When combining theestimates for density and temperature derived from chemical modeling andmolecular excitation for a specific cloud, such as the rho Ophiuchusmolecular cloud, the portion of the cloud envelope probed by C2 and CNabsorption was found to be in pressure equilibrium.

CH(+) in the interstellar medium
This paper describes observations of interstellar CH(+) along the linesof sight to O and B stars with E(B-V)s up to +1.13. Along some lines ofsight with strong detections of CH(+), we find distinct radial velocityshifts between the CH(+) lines and other neutral species, such as Ca Iand CH. The shifts are small but are predicted by shock models of CH(+)formation in which the shock is inclined with respect to the observer.We have also found no column densities exceeding approximately1013.8/sq cm. When these data are examined along with theother CH(+) data collected from the literature, the previously seentendency of CH(+) column density to increase with E(B-V) does notcontinue beyond reddenings of about +0.6. These findings offer supportto the shock model of CH(+) formation for at least some lines of sight.

Classical H II regions in the Magellanic Clouds. 2: Stellar content
In this second in a series of papers on the nature of classical H IIregions in the Magellanic Clouds I investigate the properties of theunderlying stellar content of the nebulae. Particular emphasis is placedon identifying and classifying the ionizing source(s) for each H IIregion. With the exception of the LMC H II regions DEM 20 and DEM 8c, Ifind that all of the objects in this sample are ionized by more than oneO or B star. Even the faintest H II regions reflect the formation of ahandful of massive, albeit early B type, stars. Typically, one staraccounts for 60% - 70% of the ionizing photons and 2 - 5 less massivestars provide the remaining 30% - 40%. From the statistics of thehottest stars in these H II regions, and from considering all the bluestars contained within each region, the distribution of massive starswith spectral type is consistent with results found in similar galacticH II regions.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:16h54m01.80s
Apparent magnitude:5.45
Distance:1818.182 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-2.8
Proper motion Dec:-1.5
B-T magnitude:5.64
V-T magnitude:5.466

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names
HD 1989HD 152234
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 7876-2191-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0450-25922562
BSC 1991HR 6260
HIPHIP 82676

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