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 The Puzzle of the Metallic Line StarsIn the puzzle of the metallic line (Am) stars, there still seem to bemissing pieces. While the normal'' A stars have elemental abundancesclose to solar, the classical Am stars show stronger absorption linesfor most heavy elements in their spectra. Elements with ionizationpotentials that nearly agree with those of hydrogen or helium havereduced abundances. The Ca II and Sc II lines are especially weak. TheAm stars have no ultraviolet emission lines. They are binaries that,with very few exceptions, have rotational velocities vsini lower than100 km s-1. Of the main-sequence A stars, 20% to 30% are Amstars. Here we rediscuss previous suggestions that tried to explain thepeculiar line strengths in the Am star spectra. In particular, wecompare the well-studied properties of Hyades A and Am stars in order toidentify reasons that can or cannot explain the differences. We findthat accretion of interstellar material by A stars with distortedmagnetic fields, which are weaker than those in peculiar A (Ap) stars,has the best chance of explaining the main characteristics of thepeculiar heavy-element abundances in Am star photospheres.Charge-exchange reactions also seem to be important. Observed Orbital EccentricitiesFor 391 spectroscopic and visual binaries with known orbital elementsand having B0-F0 IV or V primaries, we collected the derivedeccentricities. As has been found by others, those binaries with periodsof a few days have been circularized. However, those with periods up toabout 1000 or more days show reduced eccentricities that asymptoticallyapproach a mean value of 0.5 for the longest periods. For those binarieswith periods greater than 1000 days their distribution of eccentricitiesis flat from 0 to nearly 1, indicating that in the formation of binariesthere is no preferential eccentricity. The binaries with intermediateperiods (10-100 days) lack highly eccentric orbits. Tidal Effects in Binaries of Various PeriodsWe found in the published literature the rotational velocities for 162B0-B9.5, 152 A0-A5, and 86 A6-F0 stars, all of luminosity classes V orIV, that are in spectroscopic or visual binaries with known orbitalelements. The data show that stars in binaries with periods of less thanabout 4 days have synchronized rotational and orbital motions. Stars inbinaries with periods of more than about 500 days have the samerotational velocities as single stars. However, the primaries inbinaries with periods of between 4 and 500 days have substantiallysmaller rotational velocities than single stars, implying that they havelost one-third to two-thirds of their angular momentum, presumablybecause of tidal interactions. The angular momentum losses increase withdecreasing binary separations or periods and increase with increasingage or decreasing mass. A Reevaluation of the Super-LITHIUM-rich Star in NGC 6633We present a new abundance analysis of the super-Li-rich star J37 and acomparison star in NGC 6633. We confirm the result of Deliyannis et al.that J37 has a Li abundance well above the meteoritic value, and we alsoconfirm that Al, S, Si, Ca, Fe, and Ni are supersolar and that C issubsolar. We additionally find that Na, Sc, Ti are supersolar, while Ois subsolar. The abundance pattern of metals in J37 is generallyconsistent with the bulk composition of the Earth. We propose thataccretion of circumstellar matter is the best explanation for theseabundance anomalies, although we cannot rule out a secondarycontribution from diffusion. IR observations of Am starsThe IR observations of chemically peculiar stars are carried out andcompared with the previous data in IR and far IR from IRAS. The fluxredistribution appears to be a common phenomenon in all the stars ofthis class. The observed energy distribution and a model fit based oneffective temperature estimates show slight excess in the IR. What Is Happening at Spectral Type F5 in Hyades F Stars?Aiming at a better understanding of the mechanisms heating thechromospheres, transition regions, and coronae of cool stars, we studyultraviolet, low-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Space TelescopeImaging Spectrograph spectra of Hyades main-sequence F stars. We studythe B-V dependence(s) of the chromospheric and transition layer emissionline fluxes and their dependences on rotational velocities. We find thatthe transition layer emission line fluxes and also those of strongchromospheric lines decrease steeply between B-V=0.42 and 0.45, i.e., atspectral type F5, for which the rotational velocities also decreasesteeply. The magnitude of the line-flux decrease increases for lines ofions with increasing degree of ionization. This shows that the line-fluxdecrease is not due to a change in the surface filling factor but ratherdue to a change of the relative importance of different heatingmechanisms. For early F stars with B-V<0.42 we find for thetransition layer emission lines increasing fluxes for increasing vsini,indicating magnetohydrodynamic heating. The vsini dependence isstrongest for the high-ionization lines. On the other hand, the lowchromospheric lines show no dependence on vsini, indicating acousticshock heating for these layers. This also contributes to the heating ofthe transition layers. The Mg II and Ca II lines show decreasing fluxesfor increasing vsini, as long as vsini is less than ~40 kms-1. The coronal X-ray emission also decreases for increasingvsini, except for vsini larger than ~100 km s-1. We have atpresent no explanation for this behavior. For late F stars thechromospheric lines show vsini dependences similar to those observed forearly F stars, again indicating acoustic heating for these layers. Wewere unable to determine the vsini dependence of the transition layerlines because of too few single star targets. The decrease of emissionline fluxes at the spectral type F5, with steeply decreasing vsini,indicates, however, a decreasing contribution of magnetohydrodynamicheating for the late F stars. The X-ray emission for the late F starsincreases for increasing vsini, indicating magnetohydrodynamic heatingfor the coronae of the late F stars, different from the early F stars.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated,under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associationsRadial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446 The core-wing anomaly of cool Ap stars. Abnormal Balmer ProfilesThe profiles of Hα in a number of cool Ap stars are anomalous.Broad wings, indicative of temperatures in the range 7000-8000 K endabruptly in narrow cores. The widths of these cores are compatible withthose of dwarfs with temperatures of 6000 K or lower. This profile hasbeen known for Przybylski's star, but it is seen in other cool Ap stars.The Hβ profile in several of these stars shows a similar core-winganomaly (CWA). In Przybylski's star, the CWA is probably present athigher Balmer members. We are unable to account for these profileswithin the context of LTE and normal dwarf atmospheres. We conclude thatthe atmospheres of these stars are not normal''. This is contrary to anotion that has long been held. Based on observations obtained at theEuropean Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programme No.65.I-0644) and the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO).} Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable starsThe data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297 A Hipparcos study of the Hyades open cluster. Improved colour-absolute magnitude and Hertzsprung-Russell diagramsHipparcos parallaxes fix distances to individual stars in the Hyadescluster with an accuracy of ~ 6 percent. We use the Hipparcos propermotions, which have a larger relative precision than the trigonometricparallaxes, to derive ~ 3 times more precise distance estimates, byassuming that all members share the same space motion. An investigationof the available kinematic data confirms that the Hyades velocity fielddoes not contain significant structure in the form of rotation and/orshear, but is fully consistent with a common space motion plus a(one-dimensional) internal velocity dispersion of ~ 0.30 kms-1. The improved parallaxes as a set are statisticallyconsistent with the Hipparcos parallaxes. The maximum expectedsystematic error in the proper motion-based parallaxes for stars in theouter regions of the cluster (i.e., beyond ~ 2 tidal radii ~ 20 pc) isla 0.30 mas. The new parallaxes confirm that the Hipparcos measurementsare correlated on small angular scales, consistent with the limitsspecified in the Hipparcos Catalogue, though with significantly smalleramplitudes'' than claimed by Narayanan & Gould. We use the Tycho-2long time-baseline astrometric catalogue to derive a set of independentproper motion-based parallaxes for the Hipparcos members. The newparallaxes provide a uniquely sharp view of the three-dimensionalstructure of the Hyades. The colour-absolute magnitude diagram of thecluster based on the new parallaxes shows a well-defined main sequencewith two gaps''/turn-offs''. These features provide the first directobservational support of Böhm-Vitense's prediction that (the onsetof) surface convection in stars significantly affects their (B-V)colours. We present and discuss the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram (log L versus log T_eff) for an objectively defined set of 88high-fidelity members of the cluster as well as the delta Scuti startheta 2 Tau, the giants delta 1, theta1, epsilon , and gamma Tau, and the white dwarfs V471 Tau andHD 27483 (all of which are also members). The precision with which thenew parallaxes place individual Hyades in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram is limited by (systematic) uncertainties related to thetransformations from observed colours and absolute magnitudes toeffective temperatures and luminosities. The new parallaxes providestringent constraints on the calibration of such transformations whencombined with detailed theoretical stellar evolutionary modelling,tailored to the chemical composition and age of the Hyades, over thelarge stellar mass range of the cluster probed by Hipparcos. Does Rotation Alone Determine Whether an A-Type Star's Spectrum Is Abnormal or Normal?As noted by Abt & Morrell, virtually all of the metallic line (Am)and peculiar A (Ap) stars have equatorial rotational velocities lessthan 120 km s-1, and most of the normal A0-F0 main-sequencestars have equatorial rotational velocities greater than 120 kms-1. However, at all spectral types there are some (10%-20%)of the normal stars that have smaller rotational velocities. If thisoverlap is real, then a star's rotational velocity is insufficient toexplain its abnormal or normal spectra. We studied the A5-F0 and A2-A4stars and found in both cases that there are stars classified asnormal'' that have unusually weak Ca II K lines and/or that occur inshort-period binaries. Therefore, the overlap seems to be due toundetected marginal abnormal stars. Among the A0-A1 stars we find thatour inability to distinguish consistently the class IV from the class Vstars can explain the overlap because the class IV stars have lowerrotational velocities than class V stars. We conclude from statisticalarguments that rotation alone can explain the appearance of an A star aseither abnormal or normal. The Evolution of AMFM Stars, Abundance Anomalies, and Turbulent TransportStellar evolution models of stars of 1.45-3.0 Msolar havebeen calculated, including the atomic diffusion of metals and radiativeaccelerations for all species in the OPAL opacities. As the abundanceschange, the opacities and radiative accelerations are continuouslyrecalculated during evolution. These models develop iron-peak convectionzones centered at a temperature of approximately 200,000 K. If one thenassumes that there is sufficient overshoot to homogenize the surfaceregions between the hydrogen, helium, and iron-peak convection zones, itis shown here that the surface abundance variations that are produced,without any arbitrary parameter, closely resemble the abundanceanomalies of AmFm stars, except that they are larger by a factor ofabout 3. Detailed evolutionary model calculations have been carried out,varying the turbulence in the outer stellar regions in order to improvethe agreement with the observed anomalies in AmFm stars. The outer massmixed by turbulence has been varied, as well as the density dependenceof the turbulent diffusion coefficient. It is shown that the anomaliesdepend on only one parameter characterizing turbulence, namely, thedepth of the zone mixed by turbulence. The calculated surface abundancesare compared to observations of a number of recently observed AmFmstars. For Sirius A, 16 abundances (including four upper limits) areavailable for comparison. Of these, 12 are well reproduced by the model,while three are not so well reproduced, and one is a very uncertainobservation. In cluster AmFm stars, the age and initial abundances areknown. There is then less arbitrariness in the calculations, but fewerchemical species have been observed than in Sirius. The availableobservations (Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe stars are compared) agreereasonably well with the calculated models for the five stars that arecompared. The zone mixed by turbulence is deeper than the ironconvection zone, reducing the abundance anomalies to values that are toosmall for iron-peak convection zones to develop in many of the models.The origin of the mixing process then remains uncertain. There isconsiderable scatter in the observations between different observers, soit is premature to conclude that hydrodynamical processes other thanturbulence are needed to explain the observations. We do not rule outthe possibility that this might be the case, but the observations do notappear to us to be good enough to establish it. A temperature calibration for MK-class III giants from high-resolution spectral line-depth ratiosA high-resolution spectroscopic survey in the 6380-6460 Å \ regionof 224 slowly-rotating M-K class III giants is presented. Spectralline-depth ratios are calibrated against effective temperature obtainedfrom B-V and V-I color indices in the range 3200-7500 K (M6-A9). A tableof polynomial coefficients for 12 line-ratio-T_eff relations can be usedto derive T_eff of F-M stars to within 33 K (rms), and of early-F andmid-to-late M stars to within 77-106 K (rms). X-ray flares on zero-age- and pre-main sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga-PerseusWe present the results of a systematic search for X-ray flares on youngstars observed during ROSAT PSPC observations of theTaurus-Auriga-Perseus sky region. All pointed PSPC observationscurrently available from the ROSAT Public Data Archive with knownpre-main sequence T Tauri Stars or young Pleiads or Hyads in the fieldof view are analyzed. A study of the activity of late-type stars ofdifferent ages provides information on the evolution of their coronalactivity, which may be linked to their angular momentum. We develop acriterion for the detection of flares based on the shape of the X-raylightcurve. Applying our detection method to all 104 PSPC pointings fromthe archive we find 52 flares. Among them 15 are detected on T TauriStars, 20 on Pleiads, and 17 on Hyads. Only the 38 events which candefinitely be attributed to late-type stars (i.e. stars of spectral typeG and later) are considered in the statistical analysis of theproperties of flaring stars. We investigate the influence of stellarparameters such as age, rotation and multiplicity on individual flareparameters and flare frequency. From the total exposure time falling tothe share of each sample and the duration of the individual flares wecompute a flare rate. We take into account that the detectionsensitivity for large X-ray flares depends on the S/N and hence on thestellar distance. The values we derive for the flare rates are 0.86 +/-0.16% for T Tauri Stars, 0.67 +/- 0.13% for Pleiads and 0.32 +/- 0.17%for Hyads. The flare rate of classical T Tauri Stars may be somewhathigher than that of weak-line T Tauri Stars (F_c = 1.09 +/- 0.39% versusF_w = 0.65 +/- 0.16%). Hardness ratios are used to track the heatingthat takes place during stellar flares. Hardness ratios are evaluatedfor three distinct phases of the flare: the rise, the decay, and thequiescent (pre- and post-flare) stage. In most cases the hardnessincreases during the flares as compared to the quiescent state. Duringboth quiescence and flare phase TTSs display the largest hardnessratios, and the Hyades stars show the softest spectrum. Binarity of Am stars in Praesepe and HyadesCORAVEL radial-velocity observations of Am stars in the Hyades andPraesepe have allowed the determination of orbital elements for 10spectroscopic binaries, among which 3 are first determinations. One Amstar (KW 40) is found to be a well hierarchisedtriple system. KW 538 has a rather long period (435days) for an Am star. Orbits of systems with periods shorter than 8.5days are circularized, or present eccentricities smaller than 0.04. For19 Am stars, the number of quadruple-, triple-, double-, single systemsis 1:2:14(10+4?):(2?). The Am stars in a (beta , B-V) diagram clearlystand away by 0.03 mag from the sequence defined by normal main-sequencestars. This diagram could be a powerful method to identify Am stars inmore distant open clusters, provided there is no differential reddening.In the colour-magnitude diagram (M_V, beta ), double-lined binaries are0.6 - 0.7 mag above the ZAMS as expected, while most single-lined areclose to or on the ZAMS because the secondary does not contribute muchlight. The absence of X-ray detection of 4 systems in the Hyades is anargument for the presence of a white dwarf secondary. based onobservations collected at the Haute-Provence Observatory(France)}\fnmsep \thanks{Table~2 is available only in electronic form atCDS by ftp at 130.79.128.5 or on the Web athttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/CDS.html The Pleiades, Coma, Hyades, and Praesepe open clusters: Li, Al, Si, S, Fe, Ni, and Eu abundances compared in A starsIn the third of a series of papers on the A stars in open clusters, theComa and Hyades clusters are revisited; in the first and second papers,the Pleiades and Praesepe were respectively investigated. All thespectra were secured with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope at highspectral resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios. Photosphericabundances have been determined for Li, Al, Si, S, Fe, Ni, and Eu frommodel atmosphere abundance analysis. All the A stars with enough-sharplines to be studied for Li were observed in the four clusters. Abundanceresults are summarized for 31 cluster members, including 21 Am, 7 normalA, and 3 early-A stars. The Am stars have very uniform Li, Al, Si, S,and Fe abundances in a large temperature range of nearly 1000 K.Compared to normal A stars, Li is significantly deficient in Am stars(by a factor of 3), Al marginally overabundant, Si, S, and Fe are thesame, Ni and Eu (with only a few results) overabundant. Those uniformabundances of Li, Al, Si, S, or Fe in Am stars involve that abundancesare little affected by the magnitude of the rotational velocity. Forboth Am and normal A samples, no abundance trend as a function of ageand/or evolution is detected in the case of Li, Al, Si, S, or Fe. Theages considered are in the range 0.8 - 7 108 years; theevolution is limited from the ZAMS to the cluster turn-off. The build-upof the chemical abundances studied, in particular the Li differentiationbetween Am and normal A stars, could have taken place very early whenthe stars arrive on the Main Sequence. The spread in lithium found forthe A stars is reminiscent of that reported in the field and one opencluster for stars of nearly the same mass and slightly evolved out ofthe Main Sequence. The Li abundance does not change as soon as the starevolves through the subgiant phase and the convection zone becomesdeeper. There are two exceptional Am stars: one, in the Hyades, isLi-deficient and the other, in Praesepe, Li-overabundant. They are noobvious circumstances that can distinguish both stars from others in thevery same region of their respective cluster sequence. In each of thefour clusters, the maximum Li abundance is found in A stars, generallyin normal A stars. The Fe abundance of both Am and normal A groups isfound to be twice the original Fe value (on the ZAMS) in each of thefour clusters, independently of their age or metallicity. It is wellestablished for the Am group and in only a narrow range of Teff for thenormal A group. This behavior is unexpected for normal A stars which arethought to have their original abundances and Fe abundance differentfrom that of Am stars. A larger normal A sample is needed to concludeanything. Our abundance results for cluster Am stars quantitativelyagree with predictions of new models coupling atomic diffusion withturbulent transport (Richer et al. \cite{richer99}). Based onobservations collected at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope (Hawaii) Absolute declinations with the photoelectric astrolabe at Calern Observatory (OCA)A regular observational programme with a photoelectric astrolabe havebeen performed at Observatoire du Calern" (Observatoire de laCôte d'Azur, OCA, phi = +43() o44′55.011″; lambda =-0() h27() m42.44() s, Calern, Caussols, France) for the last twentyyears. It has been almost fully automatized between 1984 and 1987. Since1988 the photoelectric astrolabe was used without any modification. Inaddition to determining the daily orientation of the local vertical, theyearly analysis of the residuals permits to derive corrections to theused star catalogue \cite[(Vigouroux et al. 1992)]{vig92}. A globalreduction method was applied for the ASPHO observations. The new form ofthe equations \cite[(Martin & Leister 1997)]{mar97} give us thepossibility of using the entire set of the observing program using datataken at two zenith distances (30() o and 45() o). The program containsabout 41648 stars' transits of 269 different stars taken atObservatoire du Calern" (OCA). The reduction was based on theHIPPARCOS system. We discuss the possibility of computing absolutedeclinations through stars belonging simultaneously to the 30() o and45() o zenith distances programmes. The absolute declination correctionswere determined for 185 stars with precision of 0.027arcsec and thevalue of the determined equator correction is -0.018arcsec +/-0.005arcsec . The instrumental effects were also determined. The meanepoch is 1995.29. Catalogue only available at CDS in electronic from viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Chemical abundances of A and F-type stars: the Hyades open clusterAbundances of 11 chemical elements have been determined for 29 F and 19A dwarfs (normal'' and chemically peculiar with apparent rotationalvelocities ranging from 11 to 237 km.s^{-1}) members of the Hyadescluster using Takeda's (1995) iterative procedure well suited for fastrotators. High quality spectra of high to moderate resolution have beensynthesized to derive the apparent rotational velocities, microturbulentvelocities and abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba.For the F stars, the found abundances are compared to the predictions ofTurcotte et al.'s (1998) evolutionary models for the age of the Hyades.We fail to find the expected underabundances for light elements nor theoverabundances for the iron-peak elements for stars having effectivetemperatures greater than 6500 K. This suggests that diffusion alonecannot account for the derived abundances: other transport processeswhich counteract diffusion are probably at play. For the A stars,abundances of Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni and Ba are anticorrelated(correlated for O) with the apparent equatorial velocities forve\sin i higher than ~ 100 km.s^{-1}. Below this value, wefind no correlation in agreement with the predictions of Charbonneau& Michaud (1991) except possibly for the abundance of Ni which mightbe anticorrelated with ve\sin i. The fastest rotators(ve\sin i >= 150 km.s^{-1}) are strongly depletted in Mg,Si, Ca, Fe, Ni and Ba (between -0.3 dex and -0.94 dex) while their Oabundance is normal. Based on observations collected at Observatoire deHaute Provence (France) Testing convection theories using Balmer line profiles of A, F, and G starsWe consider the effects of convection on the Balmer line profiles({H_α} and {H_β}) of A, F, and G stars. The standardmixing-length theory (MLT) atlas9 models of Kurucz (1993), with andwithout overshooting, are compared to atlas9 models based on theturbulent convection theory proposed by Canuto & Mazzitelli (1991,1992) and implemented by Kupka (1996), and the improved version of thismodel proposed by Canuto et al. (1996) also implemented by Kupka. TheBalmer line profiles are a useful tool in investigating convectionbecause they are very sensitive to the parameters of convection used inthe stellar atmosphere codes. The {H_α} and {H_β} lines areformed at different depths in the atmosphere. The {H_α} line isformed just above the convection zone. The {H_β} line, however, ispartially formed inside the convection zone. We have calculated the{T_eff} of observed stars by fitting Balmer line profiles to syntheticspectra and compared this to: (i) the {T_eff} of the fundamental stars;(ii) the {T_eff} of stars determined by the Infra-Red Flux Method and(iii) the {T_eff} determined by Geneva photometry for the stars in theHyades cluster. We find that the results from the {H_α} and{H_β} lines are different, as expected, due to the differing levelsof formation. The tests are inconclusive between three of the fourmodels; MLT with no overshooting, CM and CGM models, which all giveresults in reasonable agreement with fundamental values. The resultsindicate that for the MLT theory with no overshooting it is necessary toset the mixing length parameter alpha equal to 0.5 for stars with {T_eff<= 6000} K or {T_eff >= 7000} K. However for stars with {6000}K{<= T_eff <= 7000} K the required value for the parameter is{alpha >= 1.25}. Models with overshooting are found to be clearlydiscrepant, consistent with the results with uvby photometry by Smalley& Kupka (1997). Based on observations made at the Observatorio delRoque de los Muchachos using the Richardson-Brealey Spectrograph on the1.0m Jacobs Kapteyn Telescope. Effective temperatures from A5 to G5 spectral types, using Balmer line profilesWe show how previous works (Fuhrmann et al., van 't Veer-Menneret &Megessier) demonstrate the efficiency of the use of Balmer line profilesfor effective temperature determination. In agreement with them, weinsist on the physical interest of this method based on the behaviour ofthese lines with the variations of the parameters involved in thetreatment of the convective transport. The comparison between Fuhrmann'sresults and ours, independently obtained, exhibits a quite goodagreement. We show new results of effective temperature, gravity andmetallicities for a few of our programme stars, ranging from solar tooverabundant metallicities. Color indices of the Sun and Hyades stars in the WBVR systemUsing an original setup at high altitudes, we measured the color indicesof the Sun in the WBVR photometric system relative to standard stars: (W- B)_solar = -0.05, (B - V)_solar = +0.67, and (V - R)_solar = +0.53. Wepresent the WBVR photometry for the Hyades members selected by vanBueren by their space velocities. The solar position is shown intwo-color diagrams relative to Hyades stars and bright G2 V stars. Acomparison of our results with Kurucz's models reveals a discrepancybetween the metallicities of the models and the Hyades members. The Multiplicity of the Hyades and Its Implications for Binary Star Formation and EvolutionA 2.2 μm speckle imaging survey of 167 bright (K < 8.5 mag) Hyadesmembers reveals a total of 33 binaries with separations spanning 0.044"to 1.34" and magnitude differences as large as 5.5 mag. Of thesebinaries, 9 are new detections and an additional 20 are now spatiallyresolved spectroscopic binaries, providing a sample from which dynamicalmasses and distances can be obtained. The closest three systems,marginally resolved at Palomar Observatory, were reobserved with the 10m Keck Telescope in order to determine accurate binary star parameters.Combining the results of this survey with previous radial velocity,optical speckle, and direct-imaging Hyades surveys, the detectedmultiplicity of the sample is 98 singles, 59 binaries, and 10 triples. Astatistical analysis of this sample investigates a variety of multiplestar formation and evolution theories. Over the binary separation range0.1"-1.07" (5-50 AU), the sensitivity to companion stars is relativelyuniform, with = 4 mag, equivalent to a mass ratio = 0.23. Accounting for the inability to detect high fluxratio binaries results in an implied companion star fraction (CSF) of0.30 +/- 0.06 in this separation range. The Hyades CSF is intermediatebetween the values derived from observations of T Tauri stars (CSF_TTS =0.40 +/- 0.08) and solar neighborhood G dwarfs (CSF_SN = 0.14 +/- 0.03).This result allows for an evolution of the CSF from an initially highvalue for the pre-main sequence to that found for main-sequence stars.Within the Hyades, the CSF and the mass ratio distribution provideobservational tests of binary formation mechanisms. The CSF isindependent of the radial distance from the cluster center and theprimary star mass. The distribution of mass ratios is best fitted by apower law q^-1.3+/-0.3 and shows no dependence on the primary mass,binary separation, or radial distance from the cluster center. Overall,the Hyades data are consistent with scale-free fragmentation, butinconsistent with capture and disk-assisted capture in small clusters.Without testable predictions, scale-dependent fragmentation and diskfragmentation cannot be assessed with the Hyades data. The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright main-sequence stars and subgiant starsWe present X-ray data for all main-sequence and subgiant stars ofspectral types A, F, G, and K and luminosity classes IV and V listed inthe Bright Star Catalogue that have been detected as X-ray sources inthe ROSAT all-sky survey; several stars without luminosity class arealso included. The catalogue contains 980 entries yielding an averagedetection rate of 32 percent. In addition to count rates, sourcedetection parameters, hardness ratios, and X-ray fluxes we also listX-ray luminosities derived from Hipparcos parallaxes. The catalogue isalso available in electronic form via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html On the HIPPARCOS photometry of chemically peculiar B, A, and F starsThe Hipparcos photometry of the Chemically Peculiar main sequence B, A,and F stars is examined for variability. Some non-magnetic CP stars,Mercury-Manganese and metallic-line stars, which according to canonicalwisdom should not be variable, may be variable and are identified forfurther study. Some potentially important magnetic CP stars are noted.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are available only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Metal abundances of A-type stars in galactic clusters. II. Pleiades, Coma Berenices, Hyades, and PraesepeA study of chemical composition for 23 A-type stars in four nearby openclusters (Pleiades, Coma, Hyades and Praesepe) has derived detailedabundances for Mg, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, and Ni from high resolutionspectroscopy. These results are discussed using the microscopicdiffusion model, which yields time-dependent element stratifications asin the case of Am stars. For the Pleiades, the youngest cluster, we findseveral atypical abundance patterns, which may be transient phases ofthe Am phenomenon. The members of the older clusters show globally moreclassical patterns. Based on observations collected at the Observatoirede Haute-Provence (France) The Hyades: distance, structure, dynamics, and age{We use absolute trigonometric parallaxes from the Hipparcos Catalogueto determine individual distances to members of the Hyades cluster, fromwhich the 3-dimensional structure of the cluster can be derived.Inertially-referenced proper motions are used to rediscuss distancedeterminations based on convergent-point analyses. A combination ofparallaxes and proper motions from Hipparcos, and radial velocities fromground-based observations, are used to determine the position andvelocity components of candidate members with respect to the clustercentre, providing new information on cluster membership: 13 newcandidate members within 20 pc of the cluster centre have beenidentified. Farther from the cluster centre there is a gradual mergingbetween certain cluster members and field stars, both spatially andkinematically. Within the cluster, the kinematical structure is fullyconsistent with parallel space motion of the component stars with aninternal velocity dispersion of about 0.3 km s(-1) . The spatialstructure and mass segregation are consistent with N-body simulationresults, without the need to invoke expansion, contraction, rotation, orother significant perturbations of the cluster. The quality of theindividual distance determinations permits the cluster zero-age mainsequence to be accurately modelled. The helium abundance for the clusteris determined to be Y =3D 0.26+/-0.02 which, combined with isochronemodelling including convective overshooting, yields a cluster age of625+/-50 Myr. The distance to the observed centre of mass (a conceptmeaningful only in the restricted context of the cluster memberscontained in the Hipparcos Catalogue) is 46.34+/-0.27 pc, correspondingto a distance modulus m-M=3D3.33+/-0.01 mag for the objects within 10 pcof the cluster centre (roughly corresponding to the tidal radius). Thisdistance modulus is close to, but significantly better determined than,that derived from recent high-precision radial velocity studies,somewhat larger than that indicated by recent ground-based trigonometricparallax determinations, and smaller than those found from recentstudies of the cluster convergent point. These discrepancies areinvestigated and explained. } Based on observations made with the ESAHipparcos astrometry satellite. Table~2 is also available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circleThe sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30. Oxygen lambda7771--5 Triplet in Hyades A-Type Stars: A Quest for the Key to the AM PhenomenonAn extensive profile-fitting analysis of the OI 7771--5 triplet (alongwith the nearby FeI line) was carried out for thirty-one A-type stars,eighteen of them belonging to the Hyades group, in order to clarify thekey factor which plays the decisive role in the appearance of abundanceanomalies of metallic-line stars (Am), by examining whether anymeaningful relation exists between the microturbulence (xi ), the oxygenabundance (log epsilon_O ), the iron abundance (log epsilon_Fe ), theprojected rotational velocity (v_esin i), and the stellar atmosphericparameters. It was clearly found based on the Hyades results that theabundance of O/Fe, both being good indicators of the Am phenomenon,because of the negative/positive correlation with the metallicityestimated from colors, progressively increases/decreases (i.e., towardthe direction of disappearance of anomaly) with an increase in v_esin ias well as with a decrease in log g. It was thus concluded that the mostimportant driver of the Am phenomenon, producing a significantdeficiency/excess of O/Fe, is the rotational velocity which appears tobe responsible for not only the triggering, but also the extent of thepeculiarity. Meanwhile, the observed log g-dependence of the abundance eanomalies is considered to be nothing but superficial, which may beinterpreted as being due to the correlation between log g and v_esin i,i.e., rotation-induced lowering of the effective gravity.
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