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|Spitzer IRS spectra of Virgo Early-Type Galaxies: Detection of Stellar Silicate Emission|
We present high signal-to-noise ratio Spitzer Infrared Spectrographobservations of 17 Virgo early-type galaxies. The galaxies were selectedfrom those that define the color-magnitude relation of the cluster, withthe aim of detecting the silicate emission of their dusty, mass-losingevolved stars. To flux calibrate these extended sources, we have deviseda new procedure that allows us to obtain the intrinsic spectral energydistribution and to disentangle resolved and unresolved emission withinthe same object. We have found that 13 objects of the sample (76%) arepassively evolving galaxies with a pronounced broad silicate featurethat is spatially extended and likely of stellar origin, in agreementwith model predictions. The other four objects (24%) are characterizedby different levels of activity. In NGC 4486 (M87), the line emissionand the broad silicate emission are evidently unresolved, and, givenalso the typical shape of the continuum, they likely originate in thenuclear torus. NGC 4636 shows emission lines superposed on extended(i.e., stellar) silicate emission, thus pushing the percentage ofgalaxies with silicate emission to 82%. Finally, NGC 4550 and NGC 4435are characterized by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and lineemission, arising from a central unresolved region. A more detailedanalysis of our sample, with updated models, will be presented in aforthcoming paper.
|Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems: Upper Limits to the Gas Mass in HD 105|
We report infrared spectroscopic observations of HD 105, a nearby (~40pc) and relatively young (~30 Myr) G0 star with excess infraredcontinuum emission, which has been modeled as arising from an opticallythin circumstellar dust disk with an inner hole of size >~13 AU. Wehave used the high spectral resolution mode of the Infrared Spectrometer(IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to search for gas emission linesfrom the disk. The observations reported here provide upper limits tothe fluxes of H2 S(0) 28 μm, H2 S(1) 17 μm,H2 S(2) 12 μm, [Fe II] 26 μm, [Si II] 35 μm, and [SI] 25 μm infrared emission lines. The H2 line upper limitsplace direct constraints on the mass of warm molecular gas in the disk:M(H2)<4.6, 3.8×10-2, and3.0×10-3 MJ at T=50, 100, and 200 K,respectively. We also compare the line flux upper limits to predictionsfrom detailed thermal/chemical models of various gas distributions inthe disk. These comparisons indicate that if the gas distribution has aninner hole with radius ri,gas, the surface density at thatinner radius is limited to values ranging from <~3 g cm-2at ri,gas=0.5 AU to 0.1 g cm-2 atri,gas=5-20 AU. These values are considerably below the valuefor a minimum mass solar nebula, and suggest that less than 1 Jupitermass (MJ) of gas (at any temperature) exists in the 1-40 AUplanet-forming region. Therefore, it is unlikely that there issufficient gas for gas giant planet formation to occur in HD 105 at thistime.
|MARCS: Model Stellar Atmospheres and Their Application to the Photometric Calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)|
We describe state-of-the-art MARCS-code model atmospheres generated fora group of A dwarf, G dwarf, and late-G to mid-K giant standard stars,selected to photometrically calibrate the Spitzer Space TelescopeInfrared Spectrograph (IRS) and compare the synthetic spectra toobservations of HR 6688, HR 6705, and HR 7891. The general calibrationprocesses and uncertainties are briefly described, and the differencesbetween various templated composite spectra of the standards areaddressed. In particular, a contrast between up-to-date modelatmospheres and previously published composite and synthetic spectra isillustrated for wavelength ranges around 8 μm (where the SiOΔv=1 band occurs for the cooler standards) and λ>=20μm, where the use of the Engelke function will lead to increasinglylarge discrepancies as a result of the neglect of gravity in cool stars.At this point, radiometric requirements are being met, absolute fluxcalibration uncertainties (1 σ) are ~20% in the Short-High andLong-High data and ~15% in the Short-Low and Long Low data, andorder-to-order flux uncertainties are ~10% or less. Iteration betweenthe MARCS model atmosphere inputs and the data processing will improvethe S/N ratios and calibration accuracies.
|The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope|
The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) is one of three science instruments onthe Spitzer Space Telescope. The IRS comprises four separatespectrograph modules covering the wavelength range from 5.3 to 38 μmwith spectral resolutions, R=λ/Δλ~90 and 600, and itwas optimized to take full advantage of the very low background in thespace environment. The IRS is performing at or better than the prelaunchpredictions. An autonomous target acquisition capability enables the IRSto locate the mid-infrared centroid of a source, providing theinformation so that the spacecraft can accurately offset that centroidto a selected slit. This feature is particularly useful when takingspectra of sources with poorly known coordinates. An automateddata-reduction pipeline has been developed at the Spitzer ScienceCenter.The IRS was a collaborative venture between Cornell University and BallAerospace Corporation funded by NASA through the Jet PropulsionLaboratory and the Ames Research Center.
|MSX, 2MASS, and the LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: A Combined Near- and Mid-Infrared View|
The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has been observed by the MidcourseSpace Experiment (MSX) in the mid-infrared and the Two Micron All SkySurvey (2MASS) in the near-infrared. We have performed across-correlation of the 1806 MSX catalog sources and nearly 1.4 million2MASS cataloged point and extended sources and find 1664 matches. Usingthe available color information, we identify a number of stellarpopulations and nebulae, including main-sequence stars, giant stars, redsupergiants, carbon- and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB)stars, planetary nebulae, H II regions, and other dusty objects likelyassociated with early-type stars. A total of 731 of these sources haveno previous identification. We compile a listing of all objects, whichincludes photometry and astrometry. The 8.3 μm MSX sensitivity is thelimiting factor for object detection: only the brighter red objects,specifically the red supergiants, AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and H IIregions, are detected in the LMC. The remaining objects are likely inthe Galactic foreground. The spatial distribution of the infrared LMCsources may contribute to understanding stellar formation and evolutionand the overall galactic evolution. We demonstrate that a combined mid-and near-infrared photometric baseline provides a powerful means ofidentifying new objects in the LMC for future ground-based andspace-based follow-up observations.
|A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 Stars|
Ultraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories.
|An extensive Delta a-photometric survey of southern B and A type bright stars|
Photoelectric photometry of 803 southern BS objects in the Deltaa-system as detection tool for magnetic chemically peculiar (=CP2) starshas been carried out and compared to published spectral types. Thestatistical yield of such objects detected by both techniques ispractically the same. We show that there are several factors whichcontaminate the search for these stars, but this contamination is onlyof the order of 10% in both techniques. We find a smooth transition fromnormal to peculiar stars. Our sample exhibits the largest fraction ofCP2 stars at their bluest colour interval, i.e. 10% of all stars in thecolour range -0.19 <= B-V < -0.10 or -0.10 <= b-y < -0.05.No peculiar stars based on the Delta a-criterion were found at bluercolours. Towards the red side the fraction of CP2 stars drops to about3% for positive values of B-V or b-y with red limits roughlycorresponding to normal stars of spectral type A5. The photometricbehaviour of other peculiar stars: Am, HgMn, delta Del, lambda Boo, Heabnormal stars, as well as Be/shell stars and supergiants shows someslight, but definite deviations from normal stars. Spectroscopic andvisual binaries are not distinguished from normal stars in their Delta abehaviour. The results of this work justify larger statistical work(e.g. in open clusters) employing more time-saving photometric methods(CCD). \newpage Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile. This research has made use of the Simbaddatabase, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Table 2 is only availablein electronic form via anonymous ftp 188.8.131.52 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Obscured Asymptotic Giant Branch stars in the Magellanic Clouds. III. New IRAS counterparts.|
We have searched for near-infrared stellar counterparts of IRAS pointsources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), in J- and K-bands. Thisresulted in the detection of 21 counterparts, of which 19 are newdiscoveries. Using colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams, weidentify 13 Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars with thick circumstellardust envelopes, 7 possible early post-AGB stars or stars recovering froma thermal pulse, and 1 red supergiant or foreground star. For 10 of theIRAS targets we do not succeed in detecting and/or identifying anear-infrared counterpart. We serendipitously detect 14 other redsources, of which 2 are known Long Period Variables, and a few galaxies.The near-infrared and optical colours of the galaxies may indicateconsiderable interstellar extinction through the LMC, as much asA_V_~2-4mag. The relative number of AGB carbon stars over oxygen starsis shown to decrease as the luminosity increases. Yet amongst thefaintest mass-losing AGB stars oxygen-rich stars still exist, which putsconstraints on current convection theories that predict the occurrenceof third dredge-up and Hot Bottom Burning. We investigate the nature ofsome LMC stars that have infrared properties very similar to suspectedGalactic post-AGB stars.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Earliest photometry of SN 1987A|
Seven wide-field photographic exposures, obtained of the LMC field on1987 Feb. 22 - 24 in Australia, and including the earliest recordedimages of SN 1987A, have been scanned and photometrically calibrated bymeans of bright field stars. Accurate V-magnitudes of SN 1987A arederived by means of fixed-diaphragm, color adjusted, integrated fluxes;on Feb. 23 it is found to be 0.2 - 0.8 mag brighter than indicated byearlier estimates, based on image diameters alone. The measurements nowagree rather better with the theoretical light curves, e.g. those byWoosley (1988).
|Positional reference stars in the Magellanic Clouds|
The equatorial coordinates are determined of 926 stars (mainly ofgalactic origin) in the direction of the Magellanic Clouds at the meanepoch T = 1978.4 with an overall accuracy characterized by the meanvalues of the O-C coordinates, Sa = 0.35 arcsec and Sd = 0.38 arcsec,calculated from the coordinates of the Perth reference stars. Thesevalues are larger than the accuracy expected for primary standard stars.They allow the new positions to be considered as those of reliablesecondary standard stars. The published positions correspond to anunquestionable improvement of the quality of the coordinates provided inthe current catalogs. This study represents an 'astrometric step' in thestarting of a 'Durchmusterung' of the Magellanic Clouds organized by deBoer (1988, 1989).
|Early UBV Photometry of Supernova 1987A in LMC|
|The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematics|
Published uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter.
|Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XXXVIII - A second atlas of ultraviolet stellar spectra|
Ultraviolet stellar spectra are presented for 132 stars in the spectralregion from 1200 to 1850 A and 34 stars in the region from 1800 to 3600A in a graphical and tabular form. The spectra represent a subset of OAO2 spectrometer data on file at the National Space Science Data Center.The monochromatic flux is given in units of ergs/sq cm s A with aspectral resolution of about 12 A in the region from 1850 to 1160 A andof about 22 A in the region from 3600 to 1800 A.
|Spectral classification from the ultraviolet line features of S2/68 spectra. V - Supplement series|
The paper presents the ultraviolet classification of more than 450 B-Aand F spectra obtained with the sky survey telescope mounted on the TD1satellite. Concerning abnormal objects, attention is given to the Bestars, the binary stars, the helium weak stars, and the lambda Booobjects. With regard to Be stars, it is concluded that the 1930 Awavelength feature is linked to the existence of either shell structuresor Fe II emission lines in the visual spectral range. In addition, it issuggested that stellar spectra at wavelengths of 1410, 1610-20 and 2400A are equivalent to the He-weak group in the classical range.
|A study of delta/1400/-Ap stars|
Delta-a photometry was carried out for 10 stars for which excess valuesof the UV index delta(1400) had been found. The study confirmedpronounced peculiarity for the two hottest stars and yielded mildpeculiarity for three other objects; the other members of the samplewere normal A-type stars. Results indicate a strong increase of thethreshold level of peculiarity from delta(1400) equals 0.2 mag at b-yequals -0.05 mag to delta(1400) equals 0.5 mag at b-y equals 0.0 mag. Avery good correlation between delta(1400) and Delta-a for hot Ap starsis found.
|Absolute ultraviolet spectrophotometry from the TD1 satellite. X - The ultraviolet spectrum of the AP stars|
The UV Bright Star Spectrophotometric Catalog, developed withobservations from the TD-1 satellite, provides data for comparing 77 Apstars with 344 normal stars in the ultraviolet from 1350 to 2550 A. TheBalmer and Paschen continua in the Ap stars are connected by means of along basis (2100 versus 5500 A) index. For discriminating Ap stars fromnormal ones, as well as for detecting new Ap stars, a flux deficiency at1400 A proves to be very valuable; the 1400 A feature appears to stemeither from Fe II lines in cooler Ap stars or from Si II autoionization.Domination of the Si and SrCrEu star spectra by metallic lines is alsodiscussed.
|Four-colour and H BET photometry of some bright southern stars- II.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1972MNRAS.160..155S&db_key=AST
|Polarization measurements and magnetic field structure within the magellanic clouds.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1970A&A.....6..294S&db_key=AST
|Southern Cepheid Photometry.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1961ApJS....6..253I&db_key=AST
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