|Evolution of interacting binaries with a B type primary at birth|
We revisited the analytical expression for the mass ratio distributionfor non-evolved binaries with a B type primary. Selection effectsgoverning the observations were taken into account in order to comparetheory with observations. Theory was optimized so as to fit best withthe observed q-distribution of SB1s and SB2s. The accuracy of thistheoretical mass ratio distribution function is severely hindered by theuncertainties on the observations. We present a library of evolutionarycomputations for binaries with a B type primary at birth. Some liberalcomputations including loss of mass and angular momentum during binaryevolution are added to an extensive grid of conservative calculations.Our computations are compared statistically to the observeddistributions of orbital periods and mass ratios of Algols. ConservativeRoche Lobe Over Flow (RLOF) reproduces the observed distribution oforbital periods but fails to explain the observed mass ratios in therange q in [0.4-1]. In order to obtain a better fit the binaries have tolose a significant amount of matter, without losing much angularmomentum.
|Observed Orbital Eccentricities|
For 391 spectroscopic and visual binaries with known orbital elementsand having B0-F0 IV or V primaries, we collected the derivedeccentricities. As has been found by others, those binaries with periodsof a few days have been circularized. However, those with periods up toabout 1000 or more days show reduced eccentricities that asymptoticallyapproach a mean value of 0.5 for the longest periods. For those binarieswith periods greater than 1000 days their distribution of eccentricitiesis flat from 0 to nearly 1, indicating that in the formation of binariesthere is no preferential eccentricity. The binaries with intermediateperiods (10-100 days) lack highly eccentric orbits.
|Tidal Effects in Binaries of Various Periods|
We found in the published literature the rotational velocities for 162B0-B9.5, 152 A0-A5, and 86 A6-F0 stars, all of luminosity classes V orIV, that are in spectroscopic or visual binaries with known orbitalelements. The data show that stars in binaries with periods of less thanabout 4 days have synchronized rotational and orbital motions. Stars inbinaries with periods of more than about 500 days have the samerotational velocities as single stars. However, the primaries inbinaries with periods of between 4 and 500 days have substantiallysmaller rotational velocities than single stars, implying that they havelost one-third to two-thirds of their angular momentum, presumablybecause of tidal interactions. The angular momentum losses increase withdecreasing binary separations or periods and increase with increasingage or decreasing mass.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Determination of the Ages of Close Binary Stars on the Main Sequence from Evolutionary Model Stars of Claret and Gimenez|
A grid of isochrones, covering a wide range of stellar ages from thezero-age main sequence to 10 billion years, is calculated in the presentwork on the basis of the model stars of Claret and Gimenez withallowance for convective overshoot and mass loss by the components. Theages of 88 eclipsing variables on the main sequence from Andersen'scatalog and 100 chromospherically active stars from Strassmeier'scatalog are calculated with a description of the method of optimuminterpolation. Comparisons with age determinations by other authors aregiven and good agreement is established.
|Surface Brightness--Color Relation for Eclipsing Binaries with ubvy Photometry|
The relation between visual surface brightness and (b-y)_0 color indexis constructed for eclipsing binaries with Hipparcos parallaxes andphotometry in the Stromgren four-color ubvy system. The relation isconsistent with the Popper relation derived for stars with angulardiameters obtained mainly from interferometry or from the lunaroccultation method. It is shown that the Lutz-Kelker correction tomagnitudes is in this case negligible.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|Estimating the ages of eclipsing variable DM-stars on the basis of the evolutionary star models by Maeder and Meynet|
A set of isochrones covering a wide range of star ages from5\cdot106 to 1010 yr was built on the basis of thestellar models by A. Maeder and G. Meynet with overshooting and massloss for Population I stars with abundances (X, Y, Z) = 0.70, 0.28,0.02. The isochrones were used to compute the ages of 88 eclipsingvariable stars from the catalog by Andersen which lie on the mainsequence. The influence of initial data errors on the rezultes wasinvestigated. The ages derived are in good agreement with the results ofother authors.
|Chemical composition of eclipsing binaries: a new approach to the helium-to-metal enrichment ratio|
The chemical enrichment law Y(Z) is studied by using detacheddouble-lined eclipsing binaries with accurate absolute dimensions andeffective temperatures. A sample of 50 suitable systems was collectedfrom the literature, and their effective temperatures were carefullyre-determined. The chemical composition of each of the systems wasobtained by comparison with stellar evolutionary models, under theassumption that they should fit an isochrone to the observed propertiesof the components. Evolutionary models covering a wide grid in Z and Ywere adopted for our study. An algorithm was developed for searching thebest-fitting chemical composition (and the age) for the systems, basedon the minimization of a χ2 function. The errors (andbiases) of these parameters were estimated by means of Monte Carlosimulations, with special care put on the correlations existing betweenthe errors of both components. In order to check the physicalconsistency of the results, we compared our metallicity values withempirical determinations, obtaining excellent coherence. Theindependently derived Z and Y values yielded a determination of thechemical enrichment law via weighted linear least-squares fit. Our valueof the slope, ΔY/ΔZ=2.2+/-0.8, is in good agreement withrecent results, but it has a smaller formal error and it is free ofsystematic effects. Linear extrapolation of the enrichment law to zerometals leads to an estimation of the primordial helium abundance ofYp=0.225+/-0.013, possibly affected by systematics in theeffective temperature determination.
|On the Variability of A0-A2 Luminosity Class III-V Stars|
We study the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of A0-A2 luminosity classIII-V stars. Most are not particularly variable. A few stars for whichfurther study is desirable are identified.
|Effective temperature of detached eclipsing binaries from HIPPARCOS parallax|
Effective temperatures of detached eclipsing binaries computed throughHipparcos trigonometric parallaxes are compared with the photometricdeterminations. The former are based on the values of the radius, theapparent visual magnitude and the bolometric correction of the star,whereas the latter are obtained from standard calibrations usingStromgren or Johnson colour indices. The working sample contains allwell-studied detached double-lined eclipsing binaries belonging to theHipparcos catalogue and with relative errors in the parallaxes smallerthan 20%. They cover a temperature range from 5000 K to 25000 K. A smallsystematic trend of 0.010 dex (s.d. 0.010) for T_eff <= 10000 K andof 0.015 dex (s.d. 0.060) for T_eff > 10000 K is observed between thetwo temperature determinations, that could be due to inaccuracies onphotometric effective temperatures. Based on data from the ESA Hipparcosastrometry satellite
|Further critical tests of stellar evolution by means of double-lined eclipsing binaries|
The most accurately measured stellar masses and radii come fromdetached, double-lined eclipsing binaries, as compiled by Andersen. Wepresent a detailed quantitative comparison of these fundamental datawith evolution models for single stars computed with our evolution code,both with and without the effects of enhanced mixing or overshootingbeyond the convective cores. We use the same prescription forovershooting that Schroder, Pols & Eggleton found to reproduce theproperties of zeta Aurigae binaries. For about 80 per cent of the 49binary systems in the sample, both sets of models provide a good fit toboth stars at a single age and metallicity within the observationaluncertainties. We discuss possible causes for the discrepancies in theother systems. For only one system, AI Hya, do the enhanced-mixingmodels provide a significantly better fit to the data. For two others(WX Cep and TZ For) the fit to the enhanced-mixing models is alsobetter. None of the other systems can individually distinguish betweenthe models with and without enhanced mixing. However, the number ofsystems in a post-main-sequence phase is in much better agreement withthe enhanced-mixing models. This test provides supportive evidence forextended mixing in main-sequence stars in the range 2-3Msolar.
|Photometric versus empirical surface gravities of eclipsing binaries.|
Systematic differences in photometric stellar surface gravitydetermination are studied by means of the comparison with empiricalvalues derived from detached double-lined eclipsing binaries.Photometric gravities were computed using Moon & Dworetsky(1985MNRAS.217..305M) grids based on Kurucz (1979ApJS...40....1K)atmosphere models, and empirical gravities were taken from Andersen(1991A&ARv...3...91A). Individual Stroemgren colours and βindices of each component of the binary system have to be taken intoaccount to correctly analyze the observed differences. A compilation ofdata on a sample containing 30 detached double-lined eclipsing binarieswith accurate (=~1-2%) determination of mass and radius and availableuvbyHbeta_ photometric data is also presented. Correction ofthe differences in terms of T_eff_ and logg for the range11000K
|Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries. XXI. V906 Scorpii: a triple system member of M 7.|
We present an analysis based on new uvby light curves and spectroscopicdata of the detached triple-lined B-type eclipsing binary V906 Sco. Theuvby light curves are analysed with an extended version of theWilson-Devinney program. The spectroscopic CCD observations are analysedwith both the Sterne and the Lehmann-Filhes methods. We conclude fromthe combined analysis that the triple system V906 Sco is a member of theopen cluster M 7 and that its B-type eclipsing components are still onthe main sequence, at an age of (2.4+/-0.3)x10^8^yrs, already close tothe TAMS (especially the more massive one). The system is older than thetime for circularization of the orbit, and the small eccentricity isprobably caused by the third component, which, however, is unlikely tobe the main responsible for the apsidal motion, probably more influencedby tidal and rotational deformation. We determine absolute dimensions ofhigh precision (errors <2%): M_A_=3.25+/-0.07, R_A_=3.52+/-0.04,M_B_=3.38+/-0.07 and R_B_=4.52+/-0.04, in solar units. The system isdetached, with both components in synchronous rotation, and thereforerepresentative for normal stars.
|A Catalogue of Correlations Between Eclipsing Binaries and Other Categories of Double Stars|
Among the 9110 stars in The Bright Star Catalogue, there are 225eclipsing or ellipsoidal variables. A search has been made for these incatalogues of spectroscopic binaries, visual double or multiple stars,speckle interferometry, occulation binaries, and galatic clusters. Themajority of the photometric binaries are also members of groups ofhigher multiplicity. The variables are in systems ranging from one to 91stars, five on the average. 199 are either spectroscopic binaries (SB)or stars with variable radial velocity, with orbital periods known for160. Photometric periods are lacking for 48 while SB periods areavailable for 23 of these. Observers with photoelectric equipment areencouraged to plan observations to test if the SB periods are consistentwith photometric data. Observers are likewise encouraged to examinethose stars for which the photometric and SB periods appear to beinconsistent. Parallaxes are available for 86 of the stars, 41 of themindicating distances nearer than 50 parsecs.
|The Distribution of Dust Clouds in the Interstellar Medium|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...457..764D&db_key=AST
|The λ 3984 feature in late-B spectroscopic binaries.|
We report about a spectroscopic study aimed at searching the line Hg IIλ 3984 in a sample of 28 spectroscopic binaries with primaries inthe same temperature range as HgMn stars. One system, HD 75642, showsthis line very prominently. In another system, HD 41040, Hg may besomewhat overabundant, while HD 87751 shows marginal Mn and Penhancement. The present study does not bring a definitive answer to thequestion of the relation between binarity, slow rotation, and theappearance of HgMn anomalies in late B stars, possibly because othereffects (like the influence of a magnetic field), which could not betaken into consideration, are important too. In the course of thisstudy, 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries were discovered, 10 ofwhich were previously known as single-lined systems. Of particularinterest among them are 4 stars that may have the Si or He weakpeculiarities.
|Speckle observations of visual and spectroscopic binaries. VI.|
|Improved Elements for Vv-Orionis|
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|SANTIAGO 91, a right ascension catalogue of 3387 stars (equinox J2000).|
The positions in right ascension of 3387 stars belonging to the Santiago67 Catalogue, observed with the Repsold Meridian Circle at Cerro Calan,National Astronomical Observatory, during the period 1989 to 1994, aregiven. The average mean square error of a position, for the wholeCatalogue, is +/-0.009 s. The mean epoch of the catalogue is 1991.84.
|Effective Temperature Bolometric Correction and Mass Calibration of O-F|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1994MNRAS.268..119B&db_key=AST
|Rotation of close binary system components|
The rotation of close binary system components is investigated. Theprincipal physical characteristics as well as the equatorial rotationaland the axial and orbital inclinations for 46 close binary systems weredetermined. It is found that the rotation axes of the individual starsin a pair cross the orbital plane under different angles. As a rule, therotation and orbital periods of a vast majority of the systemsinvestigated here do not coincide.
|Eclipsing binaries with eccentric orbits|
Two groups of eclipsing binaries are dealt with: the first consists ofall binaries with enough data in the General Catalog of Variable Stars(GCVS; Cholopov et al, 1987), the other of those for which accurateparameters are known. In the first group, problems with classificationin GCVS are noticed and several examples of binaries with unexpectedparameters are named. For binaries of the second group, their fractionalradii, ages, and initial radii are used to discuss the relation of theirevolutionary status and orbital eccentricity. Dependence of eccentricityon spectral type and age is observed, and no peak in the initialeccentricity distribution at e = 0 seems to be present. It is suggestedthat binary origin by fragmentation followed by disruption of initialmultiple systems can explain all observed binaries, perhaps with theexception of contact systems in the main sequence. In several cases thecircularization must be due to mass transfer in the eccentric orbit.
|Reexamination of the mass-radius relation of main sequence in binary systems|
The mass-radius relation of the main sequence was reexamined using 171components of 88 double-lined detached binary systems with welldetermined absolute dimensions and masses. Empirical relations for theZAMS were obtained and compared with the theoretical models. Thepositions of the other 27 semidetached binaries in the log M - log Rdiagram are also discussed.
|A Study of the DM and SD Type Eclipsing Variables by Means of the Cluster Analysis Technique|
|Statistical Study of the Rotation of ALGOLS|
|Nonstationary Phenomena in Eclipsing Detached Main Sequence Binaries|
|Stellar masses and radii based on modern binary data|
Accurate data on absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries published inthe astronomical literature since 1980 are collected and analyzed.Simple approximation formulas relating the effective temperature withother basic physical parameters (mass, radius, bolometric magnitude) arederived. Mean and extreme values of these parameters for each spectraltype are also tabulated. The implication of improved data for theproblem of critical rotational periods and equatorial velocities ofearly-type stars is discussed.