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Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclusters
The availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165}

Dynamical Mass Estimates for Five Young Massive Stellar Clusters
We have obtained high-dispersion spectra for four massive star clustersin the dwarf irregular galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 4449, using the HIRESspectrograph on the Keck I telescope. Combining the velocity dispersionsof the clusters with structural parameters and photometry from imagestaken with the Hubble Space Telescope, we estimate mass-to-light (M/L)ratios and compare these with simple stellar population models in orderto constrain the stellar mass functions (MFs) of the clusters. For allclusters we find M/L values that are similar to or slightly higher thanfor a Kroupa MF and thereby rule out any MF that is deficient inlow-mass stars compared with a Kroupa-type MF. The four clusters havevirial masses ranging between 2.1×105 and1.5×106Msolar, half-light radii between 3.0and 5.2 pc, estimated core densities in the range 2×103to 2×105Msolarpc-3, and agesbetween 200 and 800 Myr. We also present new high-dispersionnear-infrared spectroscopy for a luminous young (~15 Myr) cluster in thenearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946, which we have previously observed withHIRES. The new measurements in the infrared agree well with previousestimates of the velocity dispersion for this cluster, yielding a massof about 1.7×106Msolar. Including animproved estimate of the reddening toward this cluster, the new datayield an M/L in excellent agreement with a Kroupa-type MF also for thiscluster. The properties of the clusters studied here are all consistentwith the clusters being young versions of the old globular clustersfound around all major galaxies.Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operatedas a scientific partnership among the California Institute ofTechnology, the University of California, and the National Aeronauticsand Space Administration. Also based on observations with the HubbleSpace Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved stars. II. Ib supergiant stars
Rotational velocity vsin i and mean radial velocity are presented for asample of 231 Ib supergiant stars covering the spectral region F, G andK. This work is the second part of the large survey carried out with theCORAVEL spectrometer to establish the behavior of the rotation for starsevolving off the main sequence (De Medeiros & Mayor 1999). Thesedata will add constraints to the study of the rotational behavior inevolved stars, as well as solid information concerning tidalinteractions in binary systems and on the link between rotation,chemical abundance and activity in stars of intermediate masses. Basedon observations collected at the Haute-Provence Observatory,Saint-Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/395/97

The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectra
We present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033

Lick Spectral Indices for Super-Metal-rich Stars
We present Lick spectral indices for a complete sample of 139 candidatesuper-metal-rich stars of different luminosity classes (MK type from Ito V). For 91 of these stars we were able to identify, in anaccompanying paper, the fundamental atmosphere parameters. This confirmsthat at least 2/3 of the sample consists of stars with [Fe/H] in excessof +0.1 dex. Optical indices for both observations and fiducialsynthetic spectra have been calibrated to the Lick system according toWorthey et al. and include the Fe I indices of Fe5015, Fe5270, andFe5335 and the Mg I and MgH indices of Mg2 and Mg b at 5180Å. The internal accuracy of the observations is found to beσ(Fe5015)=+/-0.32 Å, σ(Fe5270)=+/-0.19 Å,σ(Fe5335)=+/-0.22 Å, σ(Mg2)=+/-0.004 mag,and σ(Mg b)=+/-0.19 Å. This is about a factor of 2 betterthan the corresponding theoretical indices from the synthetic spectra,the latter being a consequence of the intrinsic limitations in the inputphysics, as discussed by Chavez et al. By comparing models andobservations, we find no evidence for nonstandard Mg versus Fe relativeabundance, so [Mg/Fe]=0, on the average, for our sample. Both theWorthey et al. and Buzzoni et al. fitting functions are found tosuitably match the data and can therefore confidently be extended forpopulation synthesis application also to supersolar metallicity regimes.A somewhat different behavior of the two fitting sets appears, however,beyond the temperature constraints of our stellar sample. Its impact onthe theoretical output is discussed, as far as the integratedMg2 index is derived from synthesis models of stellaraggregates. A two-index plot, such as Mg2 versus Fe5270, isfound to provide a simple and powerful tool for probing distinctiveproperties of single stars and stellar aggregates as a whole. The majoradvantage, over a classical CM diagram, is that it is both reddeningfree and distance independent. Based on observations collected at theInstituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica(INAOE) ``G. Haro'' Observatory, Cananea (Mexico).

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Observations and Atmospheric Parameters of Super-Metal-rich Candidates
The spectroscopic properties of a sample of 92 Population I bright stars(V<8) with literature values of [Fe/H]>=+0.1 are reviewed in orderto study the metallicity scale at supersolar regimes. For 73 of thesecandidate super-metal-rich (SMR) stars we identified the photosphericfiducial parameters (Teff, logg, [M/H]) from among publishedparameter sets via a comparison of new observations in the wavelengthrange 5034-5398 Å with synthetic spectra derived from the 1997database of Chavez et al. As a main issue in our analysis, we find thata ``genuine'' SMR stellar component in the Galactic disk exists withmore than one-fourth of the stars in our sample fulfilling the criterion[Fe/H]>=0.2 dex, and three of them as rich as [Fe/H]>+0.4 dex.Based on observations collected at the INAOE ``G. Haro'' Observatory,Cananea (Mexico).

Ca II activity and rotation in F-K evolved stars
Ca II H and K high resolution observations for 60 evolved stars in thefield and in 5 open clusters are presented. From these spectrachromospheric fluxes are derived, and a homogeneous sample of more than100 giants is built adding data from the literature. In addition, formost stars, rotational velocities were derived from CORAVELobservations. By comparing chromospheric emission in the cluster starswe confirm the results of Pasquini & Brocato (1992): chromosphericactivity depends on the stellar effective temperature, and mass, whenintermediate mass stars (M ~ 4 Msun) are considered. TheHyades and the Praesepe clump giants show the same level of activity, asexpected from stars with similar masses and effective temperatures. Adifference of up to 0.4 dex in the chromospheric fluxes among the Hyadesgiants is recorded and this sets a clear limit to the intrinsic spreadof stellar activity in evolved giants. These differences in otherwisevery similar stars are likely due to stellar cycles and/or differencesin the stellar initial angular momentum. Among the field stars none ofthe giants with (V-R)o < 0.4 and Ia supergiants observedshows a signature of Ca II activity; this can be due either to the realabsence of a chromosphere, but also to other causes which preclude theappearance of Ca II reversal. By analyzing the whole sample we find thatchromospheric activity scales linearly with stellar rotational velocityand a high power of stellar effective temperature: F'k ~Teff7.7 (Vsini)0.9. This result can beinterpreted as the effect of two chromospheric components of differentnature: one mechanical and one magnetic. Alternatively, by using theHipparcos parallaxes and evolutionary tracks, we divide the sampleaccording to the stellar masses, and we follow the objects along anevolutionary track. For each range of masses activity can simply beexpressed as a function of only one parameter: either theTeff or the angular rotation Omega , with laws F'k~ Omega alpha , because angular velocity decreases witheffective temperature along an evolutionary track. By using theevolutionary tracks and the observed Vsini we investigate the evolutionof the angular momentum for evolved stars in the range 1-5Msun. For the 1.6-3 solar mass stars the data are consistentwith the IOmega =const law while lower and higher masses follow a lawsimilar to IOmega 2=const, where I is the computed stellarmomentum of inertia. We find it intriguing that Vsini remains almostconstant for 1Msun stars along their evolution; if a similarbehavior is shared by Pop II stars, this could explain the relativelyhigh degree of activity observed in Pop II giants. Finally, through theuse of models, we have verified the consistency of the F'k ~Omega alpha and the IOmega beta = Const lawsderived, finding an excellent agreement. This representation, albeitcrude (the models do not consider, for instance, mass losses) representsthe evolution of Ca II activity and of the angular momentum in asatisfactory way in most of the portion of HR diagram analyzed.Different predictions could be tested with observations in selectedclusters. Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla. Tables 1-3are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (, or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).
The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51.

Spectra of late type stars from 4800 to 9000A.
We present optical spectra of 21 stars from 4800 to 8920A, coveringessentially the late spectral types, G, K, M and the luminosity classesI and III. Half of the stars are super metal rich (SMR) ones. Thespectra were obtained at a resolution of 1.25A using the Aureliespectrograph, equipped with a linear array CCD-like detector, attachedto the OHP 1.52m telescope. Also presented are the spectra of 7 stars,covering the region 5000-9783A at a resolution of 8.5A, observed at theCFHT with the Herzberg spectrograph. The spectral types are F, G, K, Mand the luminosity classes III and V. Five stars are SMR. These spectrahave been obtained with the aim of extending existing libraries used forpopulation synthesis purposes. The inclusion of SMR stars in a stellarlibrary dedicated to the study of stellar populations in the centralpart of galaxies is crucial as abundance gradients have been observed inthe optical range.

Hybrid stars and the reality of "dividing lines" among G to K bright giants and supergiants.
We present results of pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of 15 hybridstars/candidates, which have been analyzed in a homogenous way. 7 ofthese stars were observed in X-rays for the first time. 12 out of 15hybrid stars have been detected as X-ray sources, some of them close tothe detection limit. We conclude that essentially all hybrid stars asdefined by the simultaneous presence of transition region line emissionand cool stellar winds are X-ray sources if exposed sufficiently deep.The X-ray luminosities of hybrid stars cover a range between 2x10^27^and ~10^30^erg/s. Their X-ray surface fluxes can be as low as =~20erg/cm^2^/s and thus considerably lower than those of normal luminosityclass (LC) III giants. X-ray spectra of hybrid stars tend to be harderthan that of normal LC III giants, moreover, the X-ray brightest starshave the hardest spectra. We find that for K II giants the normalizedX-ray flux versus C IV flux obeys a power law with an exponent a=2.9,steeper than among normal giants (1.5). Hybrid K II stars are X-rayunderluminous by a factor of 5 to 20 compared to LC III giants at thesame level of normalized CIV flux f_CIV_/f_bol_; hybrid G supergiantsare even more X-ray deficient. We reanalyze the CaII wind dividing lineand find it vertical at B-V=1.45 for LC III giants. It is nearlyhorizontal between B-V=1.45 and 1.0 (at M_bol_=~-2...-3), and not welldefined for supergiants with B-V<1.0. We therefore suggest thatpossibly all LC II and Ib G and K giants are hybrid stars and that the"dividing line" concept in its simplest form is not valid for G/K giantsbrighter than M_bol_=~-2. Hybrid stars are supposed to be evolvedintermediate mass stars and their coronal activity may in principle bedetermined by the individual history of each star.

Ca II H and K Filter Photometry on the UVBY System. II. The Catalog of Observations
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....109.2828T&db_key=AST

H-alpha measurements for cool giants
The H-alpha line in a cool star is usually an indication of theconditions in its chromosphere. I have collected H-alpha spectra of manynorthern G-M stars, which show how the strength and shape of the H-alphaline change with spectral type. These observations detect surprisinglittle variation in absoption-line depth (Rc approximately0.23 +/- 0.08), linewidth (FWHD approximately 1.44 +/- 0.22 A), orequivalent width (EW approximately 1.12 +/- 0.17 A) among G5-M5 IIIgiants. Lines in the more luminous stars tend to be broader and strongerby 30%-40% than in the Class III giants, while the H-alpha absorptiontends to weaken among the cooler M giants. Velocities of H-alpha andnearby photospheric lines are the same to within 1.4 +/- 4.4 km/s forthe whole group. To interpret these observations, I have calculatedH-alpha profiles, Ly-alpha strengths, and (C II) strengths for a seriesof model chromospheres representing a cool giant star like alpha Tau.Results are sensitive to the mass of the chromosphere, to chromospherictemperature, to clumping of the gas, and to the assumed physics of lineformation. The ubiquitous nature of H-alpha in cool giants and the greatdepth of observed lines argue that chromospheres of giants cover theirstellar disks uniformly and are homogeneous on a large scale. This isquite different from conditions on a small scale: To obtain a highenough electron density with the theoretical models, both to explain theexitation of hydrogen and possibly also to give the observed C IImultiplet ratios, the gas is probably clumped. The 6540-6580 A spectraof 240 stars are plotted in an Appendix, which identifies the date ofobservation and marks positions of strong telluric lines on eachspectrum. I assess the effects of telluric lines and estimates that thestrength of scattered light is approximately 5% of the continuum inthese spectra. I give the measurements of H-alpha as well as equivalentwidths of two prominent photospheric lines, Fe I lambda 6546 and Ca Ilambda 6572, which strengthen with advancing spectral type.

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

A new library of stellar optical spectra
Attention is given to a new digital optical stellar library consistingof spectra covering 3510-8930 R at 11-A resolution for 72 differentstellar types. These types extend over the spectral classes O-M andluminosity classes I-V. Most spectra are of solar metallicity stars butsome metal-rich and metal-poor spectra are included. This new library isquantitatively compared to two previously published libraries. It offersseveral advantages over them: it is photometrically well-calibratedindividually and consistently from star to star. Good temperature andluminosity coverage has been achieved. The incorporation of stars withwell-determined temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity parametersincreases the accuracy of the spectral type assigned to each compositelibrary star.

A catalogue of Fe/H determinations - 1991 edition
A revised version of the catalog of Fe/H determinations published by G.Cayrel et al. (1985) is presented. The catalog contains 3252 Fe/Hdeterminations for 1676 stars. The literature is complete up to December1990. The catalog includes only Fe/H determinations obtained from highresolution spectroscopic observations based on detailed spectroscopicanalyses, most of them carried out with model atmospheres. The catalogcontains a good number of Fe/H determinations for stars from open andglobular clusters and for some supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds.

Photoelectric photometry of G-M stars in the Vilnius system
Not Available

Mass-losing M supergiants in the solar neighborhood
A list of the 21 mass-losing red supergiants (20 M type, one G type; Lgreater than 100,000 solar luminosities) within 2.5 kpc of the sun iscompiled. These supergiants are highly evolved descendants ofmain-sequence stars with initial masses larger than 20 solar masses. Thesurface density is between about 1 and 2/sq kpc. As found previously,these stars are much less concentrated toward the Galactic center thanW-R stars, which are also highly evolved massive stars. Although withconsiderable uncertainty, it is estimated that the mass return by the Msupergiants is somewhere between 0.00001 and 0.00003 solar mass/sq kpcyr. In the hemisphere facing the Galactic center there is much less massloss from M supergiants than from W-R stars, but, in the anticenterdirection, the M supergiants return more mass than do the W-R stars. Theduration of the M supergiant phase appears to be between 200,000 and400,000 yr. During this phase, a star of initially at least 20 solarmasses returns perhaps 3-10 solar masses into the interstellar medium.

Spectrophotometry of several yellow supergiants
Spectrophotometric observations of 20 F, G, and K spectral classsupergiants and bright giants have been obtained with the HarvardCollege Observatory scanner on the No. 10.9 m telescope at Kitt PeakNational Observatory. The scans cover the wavelength range 3510-5520 Awith a resolution of 30 A. The observed flux distributions have beencorrected for instrumental effects, atmospheric extinction, andinterstellar reddening. The resulting intrinsic flux distributions havebeen compared to theoretical flux distributions based on the model ofKurucz (1979) in order to estimate effective temperatures and surfacegravities for eight of these stars.

Supergiants and the Galactic metallicity gradient. II - Spectroscopic abundances for 64 distant F- to M-type supergiants
The metallicity gradient in the Galactic disk from in situ stars withvisual magnitude ranging from 6 to 10 is analyzed. Atmosphericparameters and detailed chemical abundances for 64 Population Isupergiants of spectral types F through M and luminosity classes Iathrough II have been determined. The derived Fe/H ratios ranging from-0.5 to + 0.7 show a mean value of +0.13 with an estimated uncertaintyof + or - 0.2. A subset of 25 supergiants fainter than 7th magnitudelying in the direction of the Galactic center shows a Fe/H mean of +0.18+ or - 0.04, while a similar sample of 15 faint supergiants lying in thedirection of the Galactic anticenter shows a lower Fe/H mean of +0.07 +or - 0.06. For a sample of bright supergiants analyzed by Luck andLambert (1985), the mean abundance pattern for all 64 stars showed thefollowing: deficient C and O along with enhancement of N, indicatingmixing of CNO-cycled material to the stellar surfaces; an apparent Srenhancement attributed to departures from LTE; and an essentially solarpattern of other chemical elements.

A search for lithium-rich giant stars
Lithium abundances or upper limits have been determined for 644 brightG-K giant stars selected from the DDO photometric catalog. Two of thesegiants possess surface lithium abundances approaching the 'cosmic' valueof the interstellar medium and young main-sequence stars, and eight moregiants have Li contents far in excess of standard predictions. At leastsome of these Li-rich giants are shown to be evolved to the stage ofhaving convectively mixed envelopes, either from the direct evidence oflow surface carbon isotope ratios, or from the indirect evidence oftheir H-R diagram positions. Suggestions are given for the uniqueconditions that might have allowed these stars to produce or accrete newlithium for their surface layers, or simply to preserve from destructiontheir initial lithium contents. The lithium abundance of the remainingstars demonstrates that giants only very rarely meet the expectations ofstandard first dredge-up theories; the average extra Li destructionrequired is about 1.5 dex. The evolutionary states of these giants andtheir average masses are discussed briefly, and the Li distribution ofthe giants is compared to predictions of Galactic chemical evolution.

An analysis of the photospheric line profiles in F, G, and K supergiants
The spectral-line broadening for 30 F, G, and K Ib supergiants has beenmeasured. Fourier analysis for macroturbulence and rotation shows (1)macroturbulent velocities larger than but compatible with values foundfor lower luminosity stars and (2) rotation results that cannot be fullyexplained. Three plausible scenarios are suggested, but the one in whichangular momentum of the surface 'shell' is conserved during theevolutionary changes experienced by these stars is favored. The unusualdistribution of rotation velocities may result from a preferentialalignment of rotation axes with the galactic poles.

Radial velocities of standard stars
Radial-velocity observations obtained over a five-year period with theMcDonald Observatory photoelectric radial-velocity spectrometer arereported for those stars not known to be velocity variable. There are259 stars included in the 1650 observations of the spectral type rangeF0 to M0 and brighter than a V of 6.5 mag. For the best-observed 134stars, the standard error of the mean velocity is typically better than+ or - 0.9 km/s. Sixteen stars are shown to be constant to a sufficientlevel to warrant standard-star status. Six possible spectroscopicbinaries are found.

E. W. Fick Observatory stellar radial velocity measurements. I - 1976-1984
Stellar radial velocity observations made with the large vacuumhigh-dispersion photoelectric radial velocity spectrometer at FickObservatory are reported. This includes nearly 2000 late-type starsobserved during 585 nights. Gradual modifications to this instrumentover its first eight years of operation have reduced the observationalerror for high-quality dip observations to + or - 0.8 km/s.

The zero-point of the 'Fick' radial-velocity stars
The radial velocities determined for 61 stars by Beavers et al. (1979)using the spectrometer developed at Fick Observatory are compared withthose derived from observations obtained using the coude-feedspectrograph at KPNO over the spectral range from F8 through K4 during1978-1981. The stellar effective wavelengths used in analyzing the KPNOobservations are established using observations of solar-system objects.The data are presented in tables, and the difference between the Fickand KPNO radial velocities is found to be 0.0 + or - 0.1 km/s, comparedto 0.4 + or - 0.5 km/s for a group of IAU standard objects also checkedat KPNO. These low differences confirm the accuracy of the Fick and IAUzero points.

M supergiants in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds Colors, spectral types, and luminosities
The differences in metal abundances between the Milky Way, LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC), and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) affect most ofthe observable properties of the M supergiants in these galaxies; thosein the SMC (which has the lowest metal abundance) have the earliest meanspectral type, while those of the Milky Way exhibit the latest meanspectral type. This is presently interpreted as a combination of twoeffects of differing metal abundance on the supergiant atmospheres:first, lower abundance stars of a given effective temperature haveearlier MK spectral types due to reduced TiO abundance; second, theHayashi track is shifted to hotter effective temperature at reducedmetal abundance, thereby shifting the mean spectral type still earlier.The fact that the 10-micron excess decreases linearly with metalabundance suggests that mass loss rates are roughly the same for starsin all three galaxies, with the dust-to-gas ratio proportional to metalabundance.

A catalogue of Fe/H determinations, 1984 edition
The present version of the Cayrel de Strobel et al. (1981) catalog ofFe/H abundance ratio determinations contains 1921 values for 1035 stars,which represents an augmentation over the previous publication of 48 and47 percent, respectively. In addition, the literature search conductedis complete up to December, 1983. Stellar metal abundance, effectivetemperature, spectroscopic gravity, spectral type, and photometricindices are covered.

New UBVRI photometry for 900 supergiants
A description is presented of the results obtained in connection with asystematic program of supergiant photometry on the Johnson UBVRI system.During the eight years after the start of the program, almost 1000 starshave been observed, about 400 three or more times each. The originalselection of stars used the spectral type catalog of Jaschek et al.(1964) to choose supergiants. Since observations were possible from bothChile and Canada, no declination limits were imposed, and no particularselection criteria were imposed other than to eliminate carbon stars.These are so red as to require enormous extrapolations of thetransformation equations.

Nineteen new spectroscopic binaries and the rate of binary stars among F-M supergiants
Nineteen spectroscopic binaries (SBs) have been discovered in radialvelocity measurements made with the CORAVEL spectrophotometer on 181northern F-M supergiants. The rate of detected SBs among northern F-Msupergiants is 21 percent, without any dependence on spectral orluminosity class. The study of the binary F-M supergiants with knownorbital elements indicates that all the systems with a period smallerthan the critical value P(circ) have a nearly circular orbit. The valueof P(circ) depends on the luminosity class, being 400-600 d for class Iband 2000-7000 d for class Ia. This circularization of the orbits may bedue to the transfer of angular momentum during the phase of binary massexchange.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:20h38m43.90s
Apparent magnitude:5.72
Distance:400 parsecs
Proper motion RA:2.9
Proper motion Dec:0.1
B-T magnitude:7.684
V-T magnitude:5.853

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesBàiguāsān
Bayerθ Del
Flamsteed8 Del
HD 1989HD 196725
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 1100-1721-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0975-19363514
BSC 1991HR 7892
HIPHIP 101882

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