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Carbon-rich Mira variables: radial velocities and distances
Optical radial velocities have been measured for 38 C-type Miravariables (C-Miras). These data together with others in the literatureare used to study the differences between optical and CO millimetre (mm)observations for C-Miras and the necessary corrections to the opticalvelocities are derived in order to obtain the true radial velocities ofthe variables. The difference between absorption and emission-linevelocities is also examined. A particularly large difference (+30kms-1) is found in the case of the Hα line. A catalogue isgiven of 177 C-Miras with estimated distances and radial velocities. Thedistances are based on bolometric magnitudes derived in Paper I usingSouth African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observations or (for 60 ofthe stars) using non-SAAO photometry. In the latter case, the necessarytransformations to the SAAO system are derived. These data will be usedin Paper III to study the kinematics of the C-Miras.

The mass loss of C-rich giants
The mass loss rates, expansion velocities and dust-to-gas density ratiosfrom millimetric observations of 119 carbon-rich giants are compared, asfunctions of stellar parameters, to the predictions of recenthydrodynamical models. Distances and luminosities previously estimatedfrom HIPPARCOS data, masses from pulsations and C/O abundance ratiosfrom spectroscopy, and effective temperatures from a new homogeneousscale, are used. Predicted and observed mass loss rates agree fairlywell, as functions of effective temperature. The signature of the massrange M≤4 Mȯ of most carbon-rich AGB stars is seenas a flat portion in the diagram of mass loss rate vs. effectivetemperature. It is flanked by two regions of mass loss rates increasingwith decreasing effective temperature at nearly constant stellar mass.Four stars with detached shells, i.e. episodic strong mass loss, andfive cool infrared carbon-rich stars with optically-thick dust shells,have mass loss rates much larger than predicted values. The latter(including CW Leo) could be stars of smaller masses (M≃ 1.5-2.5Mȯ) while M≃ 4 Mȯ is indicated formost of the coolest objects. Among the carbon stars with detachedshells, R Scl returned to a predicted level (16 times lower) accordingto recent measurements of the central source. The observed expansionvelocities are in agreement with the predicted velocities at infinity ina diagram of velocities vs. effective temperature, provided the carbonto oxygen abundance ratio is 1≤ɛ C/ɛO≤2, i.e. the range deduced from spectra and modelatmospheres of those cool variables. Five stars with detached shellsdisplay expansion velocities about twice that predicted at theireffective temperature. Miras and non-Miras do populate the same locus inboth diagrams at the present accuracy. The predicted dust-to-gas densityratios are however about 2.2 times smaller than the values estimatedfrom observations. Recent drift models can contribute to minimize thediscrepancy since they include more dust. Simple approximate formulaeare proposed.This research has made use of the Simbad database operated at CDS.Partially based on data from the ESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite.Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/429/235

Carbon Stars in the Uves Paranal Observatory Project
The high resolution spectra of five cool carbon stars (X TrA, TW Hor, WOri, U Ant and U Hya) obtained in the UVES Paranal Observatory Projectwere used to examine the quality of R. A. Bell's line-list forsynthesizing the spectra of cool carbon stars. We propose theimprovements of this line-list and estimate the abundances of severalchemical elements.

Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE Data
For a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-[12]<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima.

Mass-loss from dusty, low outflow-velocity AGB stars. I. Wind structure and mass-loss rates
We present the first results of a CO(2-1), (1-0), and 86 GHz SiO masersurvey of AGB stars, selected by their weak near-infrared excess. Amongthe 65 sources of the present sample we find 10 objects with low COoutflow velocities, vexp <~ 5 km s-1.Typically, these sources show (much) wider SiO maser features.Additionally, we get 5 sources with composite CO line profiles, i.e. anarrow feature is superimposed on a broader one, where both componentsare centered at the same stellar velocity. The gas mass-loss rates,outflow velocities and velocity structures suggested by these lineprofiles are compared with the results of hydrodynamical modelcalculations for dust forming molecular winds of pulsating AGB stars.The observations presented here give support to our recent lowoutflow-velocity models, in which only small amounts of dust are formed.Therefore, the wind generation in these models is dominated by stellarpulsation. We interpret the composite line profiles in terms ofsuccessive winds with different characteristics. Our hydrodynamicalmodels, which show that the wind properties may be extremely sensitiveto the stellar parameters, support such a scenario.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile and at the IRAM, Pico Veleta, Spain.

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

Carbon-rich giants in the HR diagram and their luminosity function
The luminosity function (LF) of nearly 300 Galactic carbon giants isderived. Adding BaII giants and various related objects, about 370objects are located in the RGB and AGB portions of the theoretical HRdiagram. As intermediate steps, (1) bolometric corrections arecalibrated against selected intrinsic color indices; (2) the diagram ofphotometric coefficients 1/2 vs. astrometric trueparallaxes varpi are interpreted in terms of ranges of photosphericradii for every photometric group; (3) coefficients CR andCL for bias-free evaluation of mean photospheric radii andmean luminosities are computed. The LF of Galactic carbon giantsexhibits two maxima corresponding to the HC-stars of the thick disk andto the CV-stars of the old thin disk respectively. It is discussed andcompared to those of carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Galacticbulge. The HC-part is similar to the LF of the Galactic bulge,reinforcing the idea that the Bulge and the thick disk are part of thesame dynamical component. The CV-part looks similar to the LF of theLarge Magellanic Cloud (LMC), but the former is wider due to thesubstantial errors on HIPPARCOS parallaxes. The obtained meanluminosities increase with increasing radii and decreasing effectivetemperatures, along the HC-CV sequence of photometric groups, except forHC0, the earliest one. This trend illustrates the RGB- and AGB-tracks oflow- and intermediate-mass stars for a range in metallicities. From acomparison with theoretical tracks in the HR diagram, the initial massesMi range from about 0.8 to 4.0 Msun for carbongiants, with possibly larger masses for a few extreme objects. A largerange of metallicities is likely, from metal-poor HC-stars classified asCH stars on the grounds of their spectra (a spheroidal component), tonear-solar compositions of many CV-stars. Technetium-rich carbon giantsare brighter than the lower limit Mbol =~ -3.6+/- 0.4 andcentered at =~-4.7+0.6-0.9 at about =~(2935+/-200) K or CV3-CV4 in our classification. Much like the resultsof Van Eck et al. (\cite{vaneck98}) for S stars, this confirms theTDU-model of those TP-AGB stars. This is not the case of the HC-stars inthe thick disk, with >~ 3400 K and>~ -3.4. The faint HC1 and HC2-stars( =~ -1.1+0.7-1.0) arefound slightly brighter than the BaII giants ( =~-0.3+/-1.3) on average. Most RCB variables and HdC stars range fromMbol =~ -1 to -4 against -0.2 to -2.4 for those of the threepopulation II Cepheids in the sample. The former stars show the largestluminosities ( <~ -4 at the highest effectivetemperatures (6500-7500 K), close to the Mbol =~ -5 value forthe hot LMC RCB-stars (W Men and HV 5637). A full discussion of theresults is postponed to a companion paper on pulsation modes andpulsation masses of carbon-rich long period variables (LPVs; Paper IV,present issue). This research has made use of the Simbad databaseoperated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Partially based on data from theESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite. Table 2 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/390/967

General Catalog of Galactic Carbon Stars by C. B. Stephenson. Third Edition
The catalog is an updated and revised version of Stephenson's Catalogueof Galactic Cool Carbon Stars (2nd edition). It includes 6891 entries.For each star the following information is given: equatorial (2000.0)and galactic coordinates, blue, visual and infrared magnitudes, spectralclassification, references, designations in the most significantcatalogs and coordinate precision classes. The main catalog issupplemented by remarks containing information for which there was noplace in entries of the main part, as well as some occasional notesabout the peculiarities of specific stars.

Polarimetry of 167 Cool Variable Stars: Data
Multicolor photoelectric polarimetry is presented for 167 stars, most ofwhich are variable stars. The observations constitute a data set thatfor some stars covers a time span of 35 yr. Complex variations are foundover time and wavelength and in both the amount of polarization and itsposition angle, providing constraints for understanding the polarizingenvironments in and around these cool stars.

Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrations
In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr).

Imaging of detached shells around the carbon stars R Scl and U Ant through scattered stellar light
We present the first optical images of scattered light from large,detached gas/dust shells around two carbon stars, RScl and U Ant, obtained in narrow bandfilters centred on the resonance lines of neutral K and Na, and in aStröm}gren b filter (only U Ant). They confirmresults obtained in CO radio line observations, but also reveal new andinteresting structures. Towards R Scl the scatteringappears optically thick in both the K and Na filters, and both imagesoutline almost perfectly circular disks with essentially uniformintensity out to a sharp outer radius of ~21arcsec . These disks arelarger - by about a factor of two - than the radius of the detachedshell which has been marginally resolved in CO radio line data. InU Ant the scattering in the K filter appears to be,at least partially, optically thin, and the image is consistent withscattering in a geometrically thin (~3arcsec ) shell (radius ~43arcsec )with an overall spherical symmetry. The size of this shell agrees verywell with that of the detached shell seen in CO radio line emission. Thescattering in the Na filter appears more optically thick, and the imagesuggests the presence of at least one, possibly two, shells inside the43arcsec shell. There is no evidence for such a multiple-shell structurein the CO data, but this can be due to considerably lower masses forthese inner shells. Weak scattering appears also in a shell which islocated outside the 43arcsec shell. The present data do not allow us toconclusively identify the scattering agent, but we argue that most ofthe emission in the K and Na filter images is to due to resonance linescattering, and that there is also a weaker contribution from dustscattering in the U Ant data. Awaiting newobservational data, our interpretation must be regarded as tentative.Based on observations using the 3.6 m telescope of the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile.

The effective temperatures of carbon-rich stars
We evaluate effective temperatures of 390 carbon-rich stars. Theinterstellar extinction on their lines of sights was determined andcircumstellar contributions derived. The intrinsic (dereddened) spectralenergy distributions (SEDs) are classified into 14 photometric groups(HCi, CVj and SCV with i=0,5 and j=1,7). The newscale of effective temperatures proposed here is calibrated on the 54angular diameters (measured on 52 stars) available at present from lunaroccultations and interferometry. The brightness distribution on stellardiscs and its influence on diameter evaluations are discussed. Theeffective temperatures directly deduced from those diameters correlatewith the classification into photometric groups, despite the large errorbars on diameters. The main parameter of our photometric classificationis thus effective temperature. Our photometric < k right >1/2 coefficients are shown to be angular diameters on arelative scale for a given photometric group, (more precisely for agiven effective temperature). The angular diameters are consistent withthe photometric data previously shown to be consistent with the trueparallaxes from HIPPARCOS observations (Knapik, et al. \cite{knapik98},Sect. 6). Provisional effective temperatures, as constrained by asuccessful comparison of dereddened SEDs from observations to modelatmosphere predictions, are in good agreement with the values directlycalculated from the observed angular diameters and with those deducedfrom five selected intrinsic color indices. These three approaches wereused to calibrate a reference angular diameter Phi 0 and theassociated coefficient CT_eff. The effective temperatureproposed for each star is the arithmetic mean of two estimates, one(``bolometric'') from a reference integrated flux F0, theother (``spectral'') from calibrated color indices which arerepresentative of SED shapes. Effective temperatures for about 390carbon stars are provided on this new homogeneous scale, together withvalues for some stars classified with oxygen-type SEDs with a total of438 SEDs (410 stars) studied. Apparent bolometric magnitudes are given.Objects with strong infrared excesses and optically thick circumstellardust shells are discussed separately. The new effective temperaturescale is shown to be compatible and (statistically) consistent with thesample of direct values from the observed angular diameters. Theeffective temperatures are confirmed to be higher than the mean colortemperatures (from 140 to 440 K). They are in good agreement with thepublished estimates from the infrared flux method forTeff>= 3170 K, while an increasing discrepancy is observedtoward lower temperatures. As an illustration of the efficiency of thephotometric classification and effective temperature scale, the C/Oratios and the Merrill-Sanford (M-S) band intensities are investigated.It is shown that the maximum value, mean value and dispersion of C/Oincrease along the photometric CV-sequence, i.e. with decreasingeffective temperature. The M-S bands of SiC2 are shown tohave a transition from ``none'' to ``strong'' at Teff =~(2800+/- 150right ) K. Simultaneously, with decreasing effectivetemperature, the mean C/O ratio increases from 1.04 to 1.36, thetransition in SiC2 strength occurring while 1.07<= C/O<= 1.18. This research has made use of the Simbad database operatedat CDS, Strasbourg, France. Table 10 is only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (}or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/369/178

Models of circumstellar molecular radio line emission. Mass loss rates for a sample of bright carbon stars
Using a detailed radiative transfer analysis, combined with an energybalance equation for the gas, we have performed extensive modelling ofcircumstellar CO radio line emission from a large sample of opticallybright carbon stars, originally observed by Olofsson et al. (ApJS, 87,267). Some new observational results are presented here. We determinesome of the basic parameters that characterize circumstellar envelopes(CSEs), e.g., the stellar mass loss rate, the gas expansion velocity,and the kinetic temperature structure of the gas. Assuming a sphericallysymmetric CSE with a smooth gas density distribution, created by acontinuous mass loss, which expands with a constant velocity we are ableto model reasonably well 61 of our 69 sample stars. The derived massloss rates depend crucially on the assumptions in the circumstellarmodel, of which some can be constrained if enough observational dataexist. Therefore, a reliable mass loss rate determination for anindividual star requires, in addition to a detailed radiative transferanalysis, good observational constraints in the form of multi-lineobservations and radial brightness distributions. In our analysis we usethe results of a model for the photodissociation of circumstellar CO byMamon et al. (1988). This leads to model fits to observed radialbrightness profiles that are, in general, very good, but there are alsoa few cases with clear deviations, which suggest departures from asimple r-2 density law. The derived mass loss rates spanalmost four orders of magnitude, from ~ 5 10-9Msun yr-1 up to ~ 2 10-5Msun yr-1, with the median mass loss rate being ~3 10-7 Msun yr-1. We estimate that themass loss rates are typically accurate to ~ 50% within the adoptedcircumstellar model. The physical conditions prevailing in the CSEs varyconsiderably over such a large range of mass loss rates. Among otherthings, it appears that the dust-to-gas mass ratio and/or the dustproperties change with the mass loss rate. We find that the mass lossrate and the gas expansion velocity are well correlated, and that bothof them clearly depend on the pulsational period and (with largerscatter) the stellar luminosity. Moreover, the mass loss rate correlatesweakly with the stellar effective temperature, in the sense that thecooler stars tend to have higher mass loss rates, but there seems to beno correlation with the stellar C/O-ratio. We conclude that the massloss rate increases with increased regular pulsation and/or luminosity,and that the expansion velocity increases as an effect of increasingmass loss rate (for low mass loss rates) and luminosity. Five, of theremaining eight, sample stars have detached CSEs in the form ofgeometrically thin CO shells. The present mass loss rates and shellmasses of these sources are estimated. Finally, in three cases weencounter problems using our model. For two of these sources there areindications of significant departures from overall spherical symmetry ofthe CSEs. Carbon stars on the AGB are probably important in returningprocessed gas to the ISM. We estimate that carbon stars of the typeconsidered here annually return ~ 0.05 Msun of gas to theGalaxy, but more extreme carbon stars may contribute an order ofmagnitude more. However, as for the total carbon budget of the Galaxy,carbon stars appear to be of only minor importance. Presented in thispaper is observational data collected using the Swedish-ESOsubmillimetre telescope, La Silla, Chile, the 20\,m telescope at OnsalaSpace Observatory, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Sweden, and the NRAO12\,m telescope located at Kitt Peak, USA.}

Modeling of C stars with core/mantle grains: Amorphous carbon + SiC
A set of 45 dust envelopes of carbon stars has been modeled. Among them,34 were selected according to their dust envelope class (as suggested bySloan et al. \cite{Sloan98}) and 11 are extreme carbon stars. The modelswere performed using a code that describes the radiative transfer indust envelopes considering core/mantle grains composed by an alpha -SiCcore and an amorphous carbon (A.C.) mantle. In addition, we have alsocomputed models with a code that considers two kinds of grains - alpha-SiC and A.C. - simultaneously. Core-mantle grains seem to fit dustenvelopes of evolved carbon stars, while two homogeneous grains are moreable to reproduce thinner dust envelopes. Our results suggest that thereexists an evolution of dust grains in the carbon star sequence. In thebeginning of the sequence, grains are mainly composed of SiC andamorphous carbon; with dust envelope evolution, carbon grains are coatedin SiC. This phenomena could perhaps explain the small quantity of SiCgrains observed in the interstellar medium. However, in this work weconsider only alpha -SiC grains, and the inclusion of beta -SiC grainscan perhaps change some of these results.

Distance Determination of Mass-Losing Stars
Based on the Principal Component Analysis on IRAS colors and the radiodata, the distances to 183 mass-losing red giant stars were determinedusing the radial velocity and Oort's galactic rotation model for azero-point calibration in the distance modulus. Also, based on therequirement of higher accuracy of the distance determination, themass-losing red giant stars were divided into two groups by means of thefirst-principal component representing an intrinsic photometric propertyof the expanding shell; then, the distances were estimated to be log{d(kpc)}=0.458 p_2+0.09+/-0.13 for group 1 and log {d(kpc)}=0.325p_2+0.45+/-0.15 for group 2, where p_2 is the principal componentcorresponding to the distance, as obtained from the IRAS flux, which wasassumed to be inversely proportional to the square of the distance.Thus,these two groups differ from each other not only by theirphotometric properties, but also by their average distances, by a factorof about 2. Systematic differences exist between the two groups in theirpopulation characteristics and in their evolutionary stages.

Circumstellar shells of the mass-losing asymptotic giant branch stars: limits for the dust-driven winds.
Not Available

Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem HIPPARCOS Binaries
The ESA Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 12,000 doublestars and discovered 3406 new systems. In addition to these, 4706entries in the Hipparcos Catalogue correspond to double star solutionsthat did not provide the classical parameters of separation and positionangle (rho,theta) but were the so-called problem stars, flagged ``G,''``O,'' ``V,'' or ``X'' (field H59 of the main catalog). An additionalsubset of 6981 entries were treated as single objects but classified byHipparcos as ``suspected nonsingle'' (flag ``S'' in field H61), thusyielding a total of 11,687 ``problem stars.'' Of the many ground-basedtechniques for the study of double stars, probably the one with thegreatest potential for exploration of these new and problem Hipparcosbinaries is speckle interferometry. Results are presented from aninspection of 848 new and problem Hipparcos binaries, using botharchival and new speckle observations obtained with the USNO and CHARAspeckle cameras.

Dust extinction and intrinsic SEDs of carbon-rich stars. III. The Miras, CS, and SC stars
The present work is an extension of a recent study by Knapik &Bergeat (\cite{knapik97}), and Bergeat et al. (\cite{berge98b})henceforth called Papers I and II, respectively. The spectral energydistributions (SEDs) of about 440 carbon-rich stars and the interstellarextinction observed on their line of sights were analysed. The methodsoriginally developed for Semi-Regular (SR) and Irregular (L) variables(Paper I: our groups CV1 to CV6) were then extended (Paper II) to thehot carbon (HC) stars (our groups HC0 to HC5) and related objects (RCB,BaII and HdC stars). Shortly, this is a kind of a pair method making usesimultaneously of the whole SED from UV to IR. Our approach is appliedhere to the galactic cool carbon-rich variables which were notconsidered in Paper I, namely the carbon Miras and very cool non-Miras,and the CS and SC variables. The carbon Miras with infrared silicateemission are also studied. The photometric CV1 to CV6 classificationscheme of paper I is implemented, and we add here a later CV7-group anda specific SCV-group which corresponds to spectroscopic SC stars. Acontinuous S-SC-CS-C sequence is clearly supported by our results. Thecarbon stars with IR silicate emission included in our study do havecarbon-rich SEDs of the three consecutive groups HC5, CV1 and CV2. Theystand among the relatively hot carbon variables, in the 3600-3000 Krange in effective temperature. The carbon Miras are satisfactorilydescribed in this enlarged scheme. No specific extension is requiredsince non-Miras are also found in the CV7 and SCV-groups. The derivedgroup is however frequently phase-dependent in these large amplitudevariables. Additional selective extinction of circumstellar (CS) originis observed in variable amounts. The mean extinction law for theinterstellar diffuse medium as tabulated by Mathis (\cite{mathis}) isshown to be relevant. It applies to both interstellar and circumstellarextinction with a possible CS neutral extinction in addition which wouldremain undetected here. The corresponding colour excess E(B-V) is largerat minimum light or intermediate phases than what it is at maximum light(where it can amount to zero). It is associated to large IR excessesattributed to the emission from CS dust. Long-term variations onthousands of days may be interpreted in terms of varying CS dust opacityon the line of sight. The dust influence is discussed. It is shown thatscattering, if substantial on the line of sight in the observing lobe,has to be essentially wavelength-independent, i.e. due to large neutralscatterers, especially in high opacity objects like IRC +10216. Finally,with the HC0 to HC5 classification of HC stars (Paper II), we obtain afourteen groups sequence (HC0 to HC5 and then CV1 to CV7 from theearlier one to the latest one, and SCV for SC stars apart). The numberof studied stars amounts now to about 600 that is about 40 stars pergroup on the average when the oxygen-type SEDs are subtracted. Theeffective temperature calibration of this classification scheme iscurrently in preparation. This research has made use of the Simbaddatabase operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France.}\fnmsep\thanks{Partiallybased on data from the ESA HIPPARCOS astrometrysatellite}\fnmsep\thanks{Table~5 is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp

Carbon Stars
Absolute magnitudes are estimated for carbon stars of various subtypesin the Hipparcos catalogue and as found in the Magellanic Clouds.Stellar radii fall within the limits of 2.4-4.7 AU. The chemicalcomposition of carbon stars indicates that the C-N stars show nearlysolar C/H, N/H, and ^12C/^13C ratios. This indicates that much of the Cand N in our Galaxy came from mass-losing carbon stars. Special carbonstars such as the C-R, C-H, and dC stars are described. Mass loss fromasymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars, at rates up to several x10^-5 M{solar} year^-1, contributes about half of the total mass returnto the interstellar medium. R stars do not lose mass and may becarbon-rich red giants. The mass loss rates for Miras are about 10 timeshigher than for SRb and Lb stars, whose properties are similar enough toshow that they are likely to belong to the same population. Thedistribution of carbon star mass loss rates peaks at about 10^-7M{solar} year^-1, close to the rate of growth of the core mass anddemonstrative of the close relationship between mass loss and evolution.Infrared spectroscopy shows that dust mixtures can occur. Detachedshells are seen around some stars; they appear to form on the timescales of the helium shell flashes and to be a normal occurrence incarbon star evolution.

The carbon-rich dust sequence - Infrared spectral classification of carbon stars
We have developed a classification system for the infrared spectralemission from carbon stars using a sample of 96 bright carbon-richvariables associated with the asymptotic giant branch. In addition tothe stellar contribution, most spectra include the 11.2 micron emissionfeature from SiC and either a smooth, cool continuum from amorphouscarbon or a secondary emission feature at 9.0 microns. We haveidentified a carbon-rich dust sequence along which the amorphous carboncomponent grows while the 9.0 micron feature declines in strength. Alongthis spectral sequence, the proportion of Mira variables increases, asdoes the period of variability, the mass-loss rate, and the thickness ofthe circumstellar shell. Thus the carbon-rich dust sequence appears tobe an evolutionary sequence. One class of spectra shows a particularlystrong 9.0 micron feature, enhanced C/O ratio, and several other unusualproperties that suggest a different sequence, perhaps related to Jstars.

Absolute magnitudes of carbon stars from HIPPARCOS parallaxes
Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes and photometric data for about 40bright carbon stars have been analysed. Individual absolute visual andbolometric magnitudes, normal color indices (B-V)_0, absorption valuesand distance moduli were determined. By comparison with stellarevolutionary tracks for initial mass 1<= M/M_ȯ<=4 it is foundthat the majority of CH- and R-stars are on the giant and subgiantbranches, but N-stars occupy a region -4

Circumstellar molecular radio line intensity ratios
We have observed a sample of 61 AGB--stars (39 M--stars and 22 C--stars)in circumstellar CO, CS, HCN, SiO, SiS, and SO radio line emission. Themain results presented are based on the use of line intensity ratios, awell defined observational quantity that can be used to infer importantconclusions as well as to provide constraints on models. Taken togetherthe data are fully consistent with the facts that for this sample thecircumstellar envelopes have the same basic chemistry (i.e., C/O<1 or>1) as the central stars, and that the mass loss rates have notchanged drastically over periods between 10(2) --10(3) years. TheHCN({\jtra10})/SiO({\jtra21}) intensity ratio discriminatesunambiguously between {``}normal{''} circumstellar envelopes withC/O<1 (O--CSEs) and >1 (C--CSEs), while the CS({\jtra21}),HCN({\jtra10}), SiO({\jtra21}), and SiS({\jtra54}) intensity ratios withrespect to CO({\jtra10}) are not perfect for this purpose, and neitheris the SiS({\jtra54})/SiO({\jtra21}) intensity ratio. The data furthershows that SO and the C-bearing molecule HCN are ubiquitously present inO--CSEs, and that their line intensities in O--CSEs are qualitativelyconsistent with the fact that the molecules are formed in aphoto--induced circumstellar chemistry in a quantity that depends on themass loss rate. Hence, both species can in principle be used to estimatethe mass loss rate, and the tight relation between the SO(J_K=3_2->2_1) and CO({\jtra10}) intensities in O--CSEs shows that SO lineemission may even be a good mass loss rate estimator. On the contrary,the SiO({\jtra21}) luminosity appears to be essentially independent ofthe mass loss rate in O--CSEs, possibly due to a larger influence frommolecular adhesion onto grains. These results explain why theHCN({\jtra10})/SiO({\jtra21}) intensity ratio increases with the massloss rate in O--CSEs, and there is no need to invoke e.g. a spread inC/O--ratios for the M--stars to explain the large range of this ratio.Maser emission is very likely present in the HCN({\jtra10}) line inC--CSEs, and it seems to be sensitively dependent on the mass loss rate,i.e., it appears only for dot M la 5x 10(-7) M_sunpyr. Based on timemonitoring of this emission towards the C--stars W Ori and X TrA, wesuggest that the strongest maser features are due to radialamplification in the {\ftra21} transition. The predominance ofredshifted maser emission could be caused by an additional amplificationin the {\ftra11} transition. We find no evidence for a similar maser inO--CSEs.

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

Hubble Space Telescope Spectroscopy of the Carbon Star TX PISCIUM
Ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope of thecarbon star TX Piscium (HR 9004) are presented, along with analysisproviding information on its outer atmosphere, including flow andturbulent velocities, line formation mechanisms, and variations withtime. Both thermal (collisionally excited) and fluorescent emission fromthe chromosphere of the star appear to be formed near the stellar restvelocity, i.e., in a region below that in which the stellar wind isaccelerated. Absorption self-reversals in the Mg II emission confirm thepresence of an outflowing stellar wind at a mean velocity of about 9--10km s-1. Circumstellar absorption features (Mn I and Fe I) overlying theMg II emission indicate a cool shell expanding at about 5--6 km s-1relative to the photosphere. The widths (FWHM) of various emission linesindicate that the chromospheric turbulence is at least 16 km s-1, butthat it may increase with altitude to as much as 34 km s-1. Three hoursof integration on the C II] lines are examined for any signs ofvariability that might indicate the presence of shocks, but nostatistically significant variations are seen. A previous identification(in spectra of UU Aur) of an emission line at 2807 Angstroms, seen onlyin spectra of carbon stars, as belonging to Fe I multiplet UV45 pumpedby the C II] line at 2325 Angstroms is confirmed by the discovery of anabsorption feature corresponding exactly to the wavelength of the pumpedtransition (Fe I UV13) near 2325 Angstroms. Lines from Fe II UV165,previously seen in solar off-limb spectra and in Goddard High-ResolutionSpectrograph spectra of alpha Tau, are clearly present. The normallymuch stronger Fe II UV32, 62, and 63 multiplets are seen but are weakerrelative to both the UV165 lines and the intercombination lines of C II]and Si II] than in alpha Tau. The weakness of these Fe II lines isindicated both by their absolute flux levels and by their narrow,single-peaked profiles, which are in sharp contrast to the broad,double-peaked profiles seen in oxygen-rich cool giant and supergiantstars. The weakness of the Fe II lines and the presence of the Fe I 2807Angstroms line suggest that the ionization fraction of iron (Fe II/Fe I)is significantly lower in the outer atmospheres of carbon stars. Fluxesin emission lines of Fe II and Mg II are >=2--3 times lower than in a1984 IUE spectrum of TX Psc, confirming that the latter was obtained atan epoch of unusual UV brightness for the star. The Mg II profiles areheavily mutilated by overlying absorption, even more so than in 1984.The TX Psc profiles are very similar to those seen in the carbon star TWHor but are dramatically different than those in another carbon star, UUAur, whose lines show violet wing emission out to much shorterwavelengths than in the other two stars.

A double dust shell surrounding the carbon star U Antliae.
We have investigated the N-type carbon star U Ant in high resolutionIRAS images. We find that the star shows two extended dust shellcomponents and that these two shells are also clearly present in theoriginal survey scan data. We have fitted a double dust shell model withspherical symmetry to the data to obtain the physical quantities of theshells. The inner dust shell component is related directly to thedetached gas envelope detected in the mm-wave CO lines in previousstudies, while the outer shell has an inner radius of about 3' but hasno CO counterpart. The projected separation of the inner edges of thetwo shells, which is insensitive to any of the model parameters, isderived to be 141"-148". Our results together with the CO observationsshow that the mass loss rate varies by two orders of magnitude along theAGB evolution. We are able to deduce the distance, interpulse period,core mass, and luminosity of the star selfconsistently, assuming thatthe two detached shells are related directly to two consecutive thermalpulses along the AGB evolution of this star. They are 324pc,1.0x10^4^years, 0.80Msun_, and 9.4x10^3^Lsun_ forthe first thermal pulse stage, and 436pc, 1.4x10^4^years,0.77Msun_, and 1.7x10^4^Lsun_ for the fullamplitude thermal pulse stage, assuming an expansion velocity of 21km/sfor both shells. The implied progenitor mass of U Ant is3-5Msun_. This method can be applied to other AGB stars witha multiple dust shell to be detected in future observations, whichprovides a way to determine reliable physical quantities of AGB stars.

Interstellar extinction and the intrinsic spectral distribution of variable carbon stars.
We present a new method of evaluation of the extinction by interstellardust on cool carbon variables. These late-type stars show no markedrelationship between spectral classification (the R, N- and C-types) andphotometric colour indices. The pair method is thus ruled out, at leastin the form currently in use for early-type or intermediate stars. Ourmethod makes use of the whole spectral energy distributions from UV toIR. A sample of 60 unreddened carbon variables is delineated and newcolour-colour diagrams are proposed where the reddening vector is nearlyperpendicular to their narrow intrinsic locus. Six photometric groups(or boxes : CV1 to 6) are derived among unreddened stars. They show acontinuous range of spectral energy distributions from "bluer" to"redder", and mean colour indices are obtained. A pair method isdescribed where each presumably reddened star is compared to these meanunreddened stars, a given extinction law being assumed. As anillustration, the results are shown for a sample of 133 well-documentedstars. The mean extinction law usually adopted for the diffuseinterstellar medium (R_V_=~3.1) is shown to provide good fits. Thethreshold for reddening detection turns to be E(B-V)=~0.02-0.03A goodcorrelation is observed when the derived colour excesses are compared tovalues from maps in the literature. The mean rate of visual extinctionamounts to =~1.25+/-1.1 , ranging from 0.37 nearl=~240° (intercloud) to 2.1 (cloud + intercloud) in two structurescorrelated with Gould's belt.

KI emission from envelopes around N-type stars. Spectroscopic observations and interpretations.
Circumstellar envelopes around three bright N-type stars, R Scl, X TrA,and V Aql have been detected in emission in resonance lines from KI.This radiation, which is most probably scattered photospheric radiation,was first found spectroscopically, but has later been imaged withcoronographic and polarimetric techniques. In the present paper, whichis the first in a series, the spectroscopic KI observations arediscussed. From the observations of the KI 769.9nm emission we findsystemic and expansion velocities in fair agreement with those obtainedfrom the CO millimetre lines. We find a decline of the emission withdistance from the star, in rough agreement with the assumption of aconstant expansion velocity, mass-loss rate and KI abundance. Our massloss rate estimates from the KI line observations agree rather well withthose obtained from CO (ranging from 1/4 to 1/1 of the CO mass loss),which suggests that a considerable fraction of the potassium staysneutral through the envelope. This puts strong upper limits on thephotoionizing chromospheric UV emission from the stars. Some indirectindications that the envelopes have inhomogeneous structures, clumps,are discussed.

Irregular variables of type Lb. New JHKL'M-photometry for 160 stars.
This paper presents new near infrared observations of 160 Irregularvariables of type Lb in the JHKL'M filter bands. These measurements aresupplemented by data for additional 56 stars taken from the literature.In total 220 datasets are available because of some multipleobservations. From our sample, 216 stars have near infrared (NIR)photometry now. Our sample of visually bright Lb-variables displays verysimilar infrared properties when compared with SRa- and SRb-variables.Derived from NIR-two colour diagrams the oxygen-rich Lbs seem to haveintermediate atmospheric conditions between Miras and normal giants.There may be a sligthly larger "contamination" with non AGB-giants thanin the case of the semiregulars. Using only our IR-colours the S- andthe Carbon-stars among the Lbs again are undistinguishable fromSR-variables of the same chemistry.

The 11 Micron Emissions of Carbon Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...449..246G&db_key=AST

Infrared emission and dynamics of outlfows in late-type stars
The dynamical structure and infrared emission of winds around late-typestars are studied in a self-consistent model that couples the equationsof motion and radiative transfer. Thanks to its scaling properties, boththe dynamics and IR spectrum of the solution are fully characterized bytauF, the flux-averaged optical depth of the wind. Five typesof dust grains are considered: astronomical silicate, crystallineolivine, graphite, amorphous carbon and SiC, as well as mixtures.Analysis of infrared signatures provides constraints on the grainchemical composition and indications for the simultaneous existence ofsilicate and carbon grains. The abundances of crystalline olivine inSi-dominated grains and of SiC in C-dominated grains are found to belimited to less than or equal to 20%-30%. Furthermore, in carbonaceousgrains carbon is predominantly in amorphous form, rather than graphite.In mixtures, carbonaceous grains tend to dominate the dynamic behaviorwhile silicate and SiC grains dominate the IR signature. The region ofparameter space where radiation pressure can support a given mass-lossrate is identified, replacing the common misconception M nu less than orequal to L*/c, and it shows that radiatively driven windsexplain the highest mass-loss rates observed to date. A new method toderive mass-loss rates from IR data is presented, and its results agreewith other determinations. The theoretical spectra and colors are ingood agreement with observations. IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometerclasses are associated with tauF for various grain materialsand the regions of color-color diagrams expected to be populated bylate-type stars are identified. For a given grain composition, locationin the color-color diagram follows a track with position along the trackdetermined by tauF. We show that cirrus emission can severelyaffect point source measurements to the extent that their listed IRASlong-wavelength fluxes are unreliable. Whenever the listed IRAS flagcirr3 exceeds the listed 60 micrometers flux by more than a factor of 2,the 60 and 100 micrometers fluxes are no longer indicative of theunderlying point source. After accounting of cirrus contamination,essentially all IRAS point sources (95%) located in the relevant regionsof the color-color diagrams can be explained as late-type stars. Thereis no need to invoke time dependent effects, such as detached shells,for example, to explain either the colors or mass-loss rates of thesesources. Although various indications of time varying mass-loss ratesexist in numerous sources, the infrared properties of this class ofstars are well explained as a whole with steady state shows.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Triangulum Australe
Right ascension:15h14m19.10s
Apparent magnitude:5.81
Distance:458.716 parsecs
Proper motion RA:3.7
Proper motion Dec:-7.5
B-T magnitude:10.222
V-T magnitude:5.994

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names
HD 1989HD 134453
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 9263-2961-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0150-14654595
BSC 1991HR 5644
HIPHIP 74582

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