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|Lithium abundances and rotational behavior for bright giant stars|
Aims.We study the links possibly existing between the lithium content ofbright giant stars and their rotational velocity. Methods: .Weperformed a spectral analysis of 145 bright giant stars (luminosityclass II) spanning the spectral range from F3 to K5. All these starshave homogeneous rotational velocity measurements available in theliterature. Results: .For all the stars of the sample, we provideconsistent lithium abundances (A_Li), effective temperatures (T_eff),projected rotational velocity (v sin i), mean metallicity ([Fe/H]),stellar mass, and an indication of the stellar multiplicity. The gradualdecrease in lithium abundance with T_eff is confirmed for bright giantstars, and it points to a dilution factor that is at least assignificant as in giant stars. From the F to K spectral types, the A_Lispans at least three orders of magnitude, reflecting the effects ofstellar mass and evolution on dilution. Conclusions: .We find thatthe behavior of A_Li as a function of v sin i in bright giant starspresents the same trend as is observed in giants and subgiants: starswith high A_Li are moderate or fast rotators, while stars with low A_Lishow a wide range of v sin i values.
|X-Rays from Hybrid Stars|
The late-type giants and supergiants of the ``hybrid chromosphere''class display signatures of cool (T<~2×104 K) windstogether with hot emission lines from species like C IV(T~105 K). A survey of such stars by Reimers et al. usingROSAT reported numerous X-ray detections (T~106 K),strengthening the (then heretical) idea that hot coronae and cool windscan coexist in luminous giants. However, several of the candidatesources were offset from the predicted stellar coordinates, calling intoquestion the identifications. In an effort to secure better knowledge ofthe X-ray luminosities of the hybrids, the ROSAT fields from the Reimerset al. survey were reexamined, exploiting the USNO-A2.0 astrometriccatalog to register the pointings to a few arcseconds accuracy. On thebasis of positional mismatches, at least two of the previously reporteddetections of key hybrid stars-γ Dra (K5 III) and β Aqr (G0Ib)-must be rejected. The new X-ray upper limits for these stars,combined with the remaining candidate detections (and nondetections)from the original survey, place the hybrids into the same ``X-raydeficient'' category as the ``noncoronal'' red giants like Arcturus(α Boo: K1.5 III) and Aldebaran (α Tau: K5 III). A few ofthe hybrid X-ray sources are exceptional, however. The archetype αTrA (K2 II-III), in particular, is securely detected in terms ofpositional coincidence, but its anomalous, contradictory coronalproperties suggest that an unseen companion-a young hyperactive Gdwarf-might dominate the X-ray emission.
|Membership, rotation, and lithium abundances in the open clusters NGC 2451 A and B|
High-resolution spectra of 30 late-type and 9 early-type candidatemembers of the young (50-80 Myr) open clusters NGC 2451 A and Bhave been analyzed in order to complement our previous photometric andX-ray study. Cluster membership of these X-ray selected stars has beenconfirmed or rejected on the basis of radial velocity and Hαchromospheric emission. The metallicity of both clusters seems to beabout solar - contrary to previous investigations. Lithium abundanceshave been determined by two different methods, namely curve-of-growthtechniques and spectrum synthesis, yielding quite consistent results.The pattern of Li abundances versus effective temperature resembles thatof the equally-old Alpha Per cluster, i.e., little Li depletion is seenfor solar-type and earlier-type stars, while towards cooler stars Li ismore and more depleted, possibly showing a star-to-star scatter below 5200 K. The hottest star in our sample shows a Li abundance0.5 dex higher than the meteoritic value. Rotational velocitieshave been determined in order to investigate the supposed dependence ofactivity and Li depletion on rotation.Based on observations performed at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla/Chile.
|Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE Data|
For a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima.
|An X-ray study of the open clusters NGC 2451 A and B|
We have conducted a detailed study of the object NGC 2451, whichactually consists of two different open clusters A and B along the sameline of sight at 206 pc and 370 pc distance, respectively. Althoughbelonging to the nearest clusters, they have not been much investigateduntil present due to strong contamination by field stars. ROSAT X-rayobservations and optical UBVR photometry are used to identify clustermembers by means of X-ray emission and colour-magnitude diagrams. Theidentified stars concentrate nicely around the expected main sequencesin the colour-magnitude diagram at the distances derived fromastrometric investigations. Altogether, 39 stars are identified asmember candidates of the nearer cluster A, 49 stars as member candidatesof the more distant cluster B, and 22 faint stars are probably membersof either of the two clusters, but due to large errors it is not clearto which one they belong. Further 40 stars identified with X-ray sourcesare probably non-members. For the first time, the range of knownprobable cluster members of NGC 2451 A and B has been extended downwardsthe main sequence to stars of spectral class M. Isochrone fitting yieldsan age of 50 to 80 Myrs for NGC 2451 A and ~50 Myrs for NGC 2451 B,consistent with the X-ray luminosity distribution functions, which arecomparable to other clusters in the same age range. Except from theoccurence of four flares, the stars of both clusters do not show stronglong-term X-ray variability exceeding a factor 5 over a time span of 1to 3 years.Based on observations performed by the ROSAT X-ray observatory and theEuropean Southern Observatory.Tables 3-6 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|A Large Spectral Class Dependence of the Wilson-Bappu Effect among Luminous Stars|
The striking correlation between Ca II K-line emission width andabsolute visual magnitude has not previously been well calibrated forstars more luminous than giants. From a sample of binary systems fit toisochrones, we find deviations of more than 2 mag, correlated withspectral class, between these binarity Mv values and theWilson-Bappu relation. Additional Mv values derived fromHipparcos parallaxes are used to explore the systematics. The spectralclass dependence vanishes for K-line parameterlogW0<=1.80. Linear spectral class corrections are derivedfor the more luminous stars, with logW0>=2.00, while atable is provided for the transition region. The dispersion from theserelations is about +/-0.6 mag. This recalibration extends thedemonstrated applicability of the Wilson-Bappu technique toMv~=-5 or distance ~20 kpc.
|Polarimetry of 167 Cool Variable Stars: Data|
Multicolor photoelectric polarimetry is presented for 167 stars, most ofwhich are variable stars. The observations constitute a data set thatfor some stars covers a time span of 35 yr. Complex variations are foundover time and wavelength and in both the amount of polarization and itsposition angle, providing constraints for understanding the polarizingenvironments in and around these cool stars.
|On the Wilson-Bappu relationship in the Mg II k line|
An investigation is carried out on the Wilson-Bappu effect in the Mg Iik line at 2796.34 Å. The work is based on a selection of 230 starsobserved by both the IUE and HIPPARCOS satellites, covering a wide rangeof spectral types (F to M) and absolute visual magnitudes (-5.4<=MV <=9.0). A semi-automatic procedure is used to measurethe line widths, which applies also in the presence of strong centralabsorption reversal. The Wilson-Bappu relationship here provided isconsidered to represent an improvement over previous recent results forthe considerably larger data sample used, as well as for a properconsideration of the measurement errors. No evidence has been found fora possible dependence of the WB effect on stellar metallicity andeffective temperature.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutions|
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included).
|Spectroscopic binary orbits from photoelectric radial velocities. Paper 148: HR 7955|
|Geneva photometry of the open cluster NGC 2451 and its exceptional Be star HR 2968 satellite.}|
During many years, several authors discussed whether NGC2451 was a real open star cluster or not. By using parallaxesand proper motions from Hipparcos satellite, and Geneva multicolourphotometric measurements of 64 stars, the existence of two clusters Aand B is confirmed. Distances and Geneva colour excesses E[B-V] arerespectively 197 pc, 0.01 and 358 pc, 0.12 for NGC2451 A and B. The two clusters have the same age (log t =7.7). A unique Be star, HR 2968, which belongs tocluster B, has been monitored from 1978 to 1998 in Geneva photometry andfrom November 1989 to March 1993 by the Hipparcos satellite. This starshows exceptional luminosity variations: i) The mean luminosity, whichhas been stable since 1978 (normal B-star phase), increased from 1990 to1995 (Be phase), and then decreased until 1998; ii) Also, in 1990started a periodic light variation with a period of 371 d. Five periodsof this mid-term light variation were observed. Hipparcos and Genevaphotometries are in perfect agreement. A model is proposed to explainthis periodic variability: the Be star is the main component of a binarysystem having an eccentric orbit of period 371 d; from 1990, the Be starwas surrounded by matter expelled in its equatorial plane and, at eachperiastron passage, the companion star interacts gravitationally and/orradiatively with the disk. The physical parameters of the Be star andits companion (most probably a main sequence star) are determined byusing their belonging to NGC 2451 B and bycalculating an approximate orbit from published radial velocities. Themean values of the photometric data are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u.strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Ultraviolet and Optical Studies of Binaries with Luminous Cool Primaries and Hot Companions. V. The Entire IUE Sample|
We have obtained or retrieved IUE spectra for over 100 middle- andlate-type giant and supergiant stars whose spectra indicate the presenceof a hot component earlier than type F2. The hot companions areclassified accurately by temperature class from their far-UV spectra.The interstellar extinction of each system and the relative luminositiesof the components are derived from analysis of the UV and opticalfluxes, using a grid of UV intrinsic colors for hot dwarfs. We find thatthere is fair agreement in general between current UV spectralclassification and ground-based hot component types, in spite of thedifficulties of assigning the latter. There are a few cases in which thecool component optical classifications disagree considerably with thetemperature classes inferred from our analysis of UV and opticalphotometry. The extinction parameter agrees moderately well with otherdeterminations of B-V color excess. Many systems are worthy of furtherstudy especially to establish their spectroscopic orbits. Further workis planned to estimate luminosities of the cool components from the dataherein; in many cases, these luminosities' accuracies should becomparable to or exceed those of the Hipparcos parallaxes.
|A Search for Star Clusters from the HIPPARCOS Data|
We present results of a search for nearby star clusters and associationsusing Hipparcos Catalogue data, restricting the sample to stars withparallaxes above 2 mas (d <~ 500 pc). Two new OB associations havebeen identified in the Carina-Vela and Cepheus-Cygnus-Lyra-Vulpecularegions. A very probable new open cluster has been discovered in Carina.The cluster, a Car, named after its brightest member, is young (60 Myr)and nearby (d = 132 pc). However, only seven bona fide members can bedrawn from the Hipparcos data. We report a detection of nine opencluster candidates in the distance range of 150 to 400 pc, and sixpossible associations almost all located within the Gould belt, althoughslightly older than the known nearby associations. In all cases, wepresent Yale theoretical isochrone fits to the color-magnitude diagrams,which indicate a moderate spread of ages between 60 to 200 Myr.Evidently, these young open cluster and association candidates arerelated to the overall distribution of young OB and A-type stars in thesolar neighborhood.
|The nature of some doubtful open clusters as revealed by HIPPARCOS|
We discuss the nature of some galactic open clusters by using propermotions and parallaxes from the Hipparcos and ACT catalogues. We showthat the clusters Collinder 399, Upgren 1, NGC 1252 and Melotte 227 donot exist. Collinder 132 is found to be mainly composed out of membersof an OB association, but there may be a star cluster present in thisarea too. Roeser & Bastian (1994) proposed that NGC 2451 consists oftwo star clusters. We show that NGC 2451 A definitively does exist, NGC2451 B may exist. A star cluster may also be present in the area ofRoslund 5. The Hipparcos data finally confirm the reality of Collinder135.
|Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra|
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.
|A Renewed Search for Water Maser Emission from Mira Variables.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1602L&db_key=AST
|The Pulkovo Spectrophotometric Catalog of Bright Stars in the Range from 320 TO 1080 NM|
A spectrophotometric catalog is presented, combining results of numerousobservations made by Pulkovo astronomers at different observing sites.The catalog consists of three parts: the first contains the data for 602stars in the spectral range of 320--735 nm with a resolution of 5 nm,the second one contains 285 stars in the spectral range of 500--1080 nmwith a resolution of 10 nm and the third one contains 278 stars combinedfrom the preceding catalogs in the spectral range of 320--1080 nm with aresolution of 10 nm. The data are presented in absolute energy unitsW/m(2) m, with a step of 2.5 nm and with an accuracy not lower than1.5--2.0%.
|Hybrid stars and the reality of "dividing lines" among G to K bright giants and supergiants.|
We present results of pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of 15 hybridstars/candidates, which have been analyzed in a homogenous way. 7 ofthese stars were observed in X-rays for the first time. 12 out of 15hybrid stars have been detected as X-ray sources, some of them close tothe detection limit. We conclude that essentially all hybrid stars asdefined by the simultaneous presence of transition region line emissionand cool stellar winds are X-ray sources if exposed sufficiently deep.The X-ray luminosities of hybrid stars cover a range between 2x10^27^and ~10^30^erg/s. Their X-ray surface fluxes can be as low as =~20erg/cm^2^/s and thus considerably lower than those of normal luminosityclass (LC) III giants. X-ray spectra of hybrid stars tend to be harderthan that of normal LC III giants, moreover, the X-ray brightest starshave the hardest spectra. We find that for K II giants the normalizedX-ray flux versus C IV flux obeys a power law with an exponent a=2.9,steeper than among normal giants (1.5). Hybrid K II stars are X-rayunderluminous by a factor of 5 to 20 compared to LC III giants at thesame level of normalized CIV flux f_CIV_/f_bol_; hybrid G supergiantsare even more X-ray deficient. We reanalyze the CaII wind dividing lineand find it vertical at B-V=1.45 for LC III giants. It is nearlyhorizontal between B-V=1.45 and 1.0 (at M_bol_=~-2...-3), and not welldefined for supergiants with B-V<1.0. We therefore suggest thatpossibly all LC II and Ib G and K giants are hybrid stars and that the"dividing line" concept in its simplest form is not valid for G/K giantsbrighter than M_bol_=~-2. Hybrid stars are supposed to be evolvedintermediate mass stars and their coronal activity may in principle bedetermined by the individual history of each star.
|The revised X-ray dividing line: new light on late stellar activity|
Based on new pointed ROSAT data, we revise the X-ray dividing line forlate-type giants in the HR diagram. We compare the new data with wellcalibrated evolutionary tracks and suggest that the resulting picturecan entirely be understood as a consequence of the differentevolutionary history of stellar activity in different mass-ranges. Inparticular, hot coronae disappear slowly in the course of stellarevolution, since the evolutionary tracks are parallel to the revisedX-ray dividing line and do not cross it. Furthermore, hybrid stars turnout to be quite common: they are just more massive, more active andmaintain some coronal plasma beyond the onset of cool winds. Hence, thelatter may be mostly independent of the decrease of stellar activity.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|The position corrections of 1400 stars observed with PA II in San Juan.|
|A Spectrophotometric Catalogue of 60 Selected Southern Stars|
|The nature of NGC 2451|
|86 GHz SiO, v=1, J=2--> 1 survey of southern IRAS point sources. II. Detection of 74 new maser sources|
The detection of 74 new southern stellar SiO, v=1, J=2->1 masersassociated with IRAS point sources is reported. 57 of these were foundin an IRAS based survey of oxygen rich stellar envelopes. The detectionrate in this survey was 45%. 17 further new maser sources were detectedduring a search for strong pointing sources for the Swedish-ESOSubmillimeter Telescope (SEST). The distribution of the IRAS lowresolution spectral (LRS) classes of all the SiO masers (this paper andliterature) peaks sharply at class 15. The distribution of the LRSclasses of the maser sources from 21 to 29 is similar to thedistribution of these classes of all the point sources in the pointsource catalogue except for class 25. Only few maser sources of thisspectral class are known. This is possibly explained by a selectioneffect.
|NGC 2451 - What is it?|
During the last decade, a debate has arisen whether the grouping ofstars called NGC 2451 is a real star cluster. We investigate thecorresponding area of the sky kinematically, using proper motions of thePPM catalogue. The group of stars that was originally called NGC 2451shows a large scatter of their proper motions, which proves that they donot form a cluster. However, close-by we find a group of 24 PPM starswith common proper motion. A colour-magnitude diagram of 19 of theseshows an extremely well-defined main sequence, giving a distance ofabout 220 pc. This cluster is not NGC 2451. We tentatively call itPuppis Moving Group (PMG). There is strong indication for a secondcluster at about 400 pc. Photometry, radial velocities and propermotions of stars fainter than the magnitude limit of PPM are needed tofurther investigate the matter.
|Improved Mean Positions and Proper Motions for the 995 FK4 Sup Stars not Included in the FK5 Extension|
|Circumstellar MGII Absorption in Ultraviolet Spectra of Hot Companions of Red Giants and the Meaning of the MGII Asymmetry Dividing Line|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993A&A...276..161H&db_key=AST
|Near-infrared photometry of a sample of IRAS point sources|
This paper presents the J, H, K, L, M photometry of 516 sourcespertaining to a sample of 787 sources which has been extracted from theIRAS Point Source Catalog in order to study the late stages of stellarevolution and the concomitant phenomena of mass loss. Three differentclssifications of these sources based on broad-band photometry and IRASlow-resolution spectra are given, and the distributions of the sourcesin terms of these classifications are presented. A subsample of peculiarsources, believed to have recently undergone a helium flash, has beenisolated using the K - L, (12-micron) color diagram. Some objectsmeriting further study are also mentioned.
|A survey of circumstellar CO emission from a sample of IRAS point sources|
The first results from a survey of circumstellar CO(1-0) emission arepresented. The sources were selected from the IRAS point source catalogaccording to the IRAS color criteria described in van der Veen andHabing (1988). The sources have good quality fluxes at 12, 25, and 60microns, flux densities larger than 20 Jy at 25 microns, and aresituated more than 5 deg away from the Galactic plane. The survey isundertaken to study the relationship between mass loss rates, dustproperties, and the evolution along the AGB. The sample consists of 787sources and contains both oxygen and carbon-rich stars, including Miravariables, OH/IR objects, protoplanetary nebulae, planetary nebulae, and60-micron excess sources. So far, 519 objects, situated on both thenorthern and the southern sky, have been observed; 163 sources werefound to have circumstellar CO emission, and in 58 of these CO emissionhas not previously been detected.
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|Proper motion RA:||-9.2|
|Proper motion Dec:||6.8|
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