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# HD 197373

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 First Results from the CHARA Array. III. Oblateness, Rotational Velocity, and Gravity Darkening of AlderaminWe present observations of the A7 IV-V star Alderamin (α Cep, HR8162, HD 203280) from the Georgia State University CHARA Array. Theseinfrared interferometric angular size measurements indicate anoncircular projected disk brightness distribution for this known rapidrotator. The interferometric observations are modeled as arising from anelongated rigid atmosphere, with apparent polar and equatorial radii ofrp=0.6753+0.0119-0.0135 andre=0.8767+0.0293-0.0183 mas,respectively, for a difference of 201+/-32 μas, and with an axialratio of re/rp=1.298+/-0.051. Using the Hipparcosdistance of 14.96+/-0.11 pc, these angular measures translate to2.18+/-0.05 and 2.82+/-0.10 Rsolar. The inclination ofAlderamin to the line of sight indicated by this modeling is effectivelyedge-on (i=88.2+1.8-13.3 deg). The star has a truerotational velocity of 283+/-10 km s-1 (~83% of breakupvelocity) and a polar temperature of roughly 8400 K. Significantly, anecessary aspect of this modeling is a determination of thegravity-darkening coefficient, which at a value ofβ=0.084+0.026-0.049 is consistent with aconvective photosphere, as expected for an A7 IV-V star. Our detailedcharacterization of this object allows us to investigate variousscenarios for the angular momentum history of Alderamin and theappropriateness of certain stellar evolution models. Chemical enrichment and star formation in the Milky Way disk. III. Chemodynamical constraintsIn this paper, we investigate some chemokinematical properties of theMilky Way disk, by using a sample composed by 424 late-type dwarfs. Weshow that the velocity dispersion of a stellar group correlates with theage of this group, according to a law proportional to t0.26,where t is the age of the stellar group. The temporal evolution of thevertex deviation is considered in detail. It is shown that the vertexdeviation does not seem to depend strongly on the age of the stellargroup. Previous studies in the literature seem to not have found it dueto the use of statistical ages for stellar groups, rather thanindividual ages. The possibility to use the orbital parameters of a starto derive information about its birthplace is investigated, and we showthat the mean galactocentric radius is likely to be the most reliablestellar birthplace indicator. However, this information cannot bepresently used to derive radial evolutionary constraints, due to anintrinsic bias present in all samples constructed from nearby stars. Anextensive discussion of the secular and stochastic heating mechanismscommonly invoked to explain the age-velocity dispersion relation ispresented. We suggest that the age-velocity dispersion relation couldreflect the gradual decrease in the turbulent velocity dispersion fromwhich disk stars form, a suggestion originally made by Tinsley &Larson (\cite{tinsley}, ApJ, 221, 554) and supported by several morerecent disk evolution calculations. A test to distinguish between thetwo types of models using high-redshift galaxies is proposed.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/517 The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of 14 000 F and G dwarfsWe present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989 New Metallicity Calibration Down to [Fe/H] = -2.75 dexWe have taken 88 dwarfs, covering the colour-index interval 0.37 <=(B-V)0 <= 1.07mag, with metallicities -2.70 <= [Fe/H]<= +0.26dex, from three different sources for new metallicitycalibration. The catalogue of Cayrel de Stroble et al. (2001), whichincludes 65% of the stars in our sample, supplies detailed informationon abundances for stars with determination based on high-resolutionspectroscopy. In constructing the new calibration we have used as`corner stones' 77 stars which supply at least one of the followingconditions: (i) the parallax is larger than 10mas (distance relative tothe Sun less than 100pc) and the galactic latitude is absolutely higherthan 30° (ii) the parallax is rather large, if the galactic latitudeis absolutely low and vice versa. Contrary to previous investigations, athird-degree polynomial is fitted for the new calibration: [Fe/H]=0.10 -2.76δ - 24.04δ2 + 30.00δ3. Thecoefficients were evaluated by the least-squares method, without regardto the metallicity of Hyades. However, the constant term is in the rangeof metallicity determined for this cluster, i.e.0.08<=[Fe/H]<=0.11dex. The mean deviation and the mean error inour work are equal to those of Carney (1979), for [Fe/H] >= -1.75dexwhere Carney's calibration is valid Improved Astrometry and Photometry for the Luyten Catalog. II. Faint Stars and the Revised CatalogWe complete construction of a catalog containing improved astrometry andnew optical/infrared photometry for the vast majority of NLTT starslying in the overlap of regions covered by POSS I and by the secondincremental Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) release, approximately 44%of the sky. The epoch 2000 positions are typically accurate to 130 mas,the proper motions to 5.5 mas yr-1, and the V-J colors to0.25 mag. Relative proper motions of binary components are measured to 3mas yr-1. The false-identification rate is ~1% for11<~V<~18 and substantially less at brighter magnitudes. Theseimprovements permit the construction of a reduced proper-motion diagramthat, for the first time, allows one to classify NLTT stars intomain-sequence (MS) stars, subdwarfs (SDs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We inturn use this diagram to analyze the properties of both our catalog andthe NLTT catalog on which it is based. In sharp contrast to popularbelief, we find that NLTT incompleteness in the plane is almostcompletely concentrated in MS stars, and that SDs and WDs are detectedalmost uniformly over the sky δ>-33deg. Our catalogwill therefore provide a powerful tool to probe these populationsstatistically, as well as to reliably identify individual SDs and WDs. On the link between rotation, chromospheric activity and Li abundance in subgiant starsThe connection rotation-CaII emission flux-lithium abundance is analyzedfor a sample of bona fide subgiant stars, with evolutionary statusdetermined from HIPPARCOS trigonometric parallax measurements and fromthe Toulouse-Geneva code. The distribution of rotation and CaII emissionflux as a function of effective temperature shows a discontinuitylocated around the same spectral type, F8IV. Blueward of this spectraltype, subgiants have a large spread of values of rotation and CaII flux,whereas stars redward of F8IV show essentially low rotation and low CaIIflux. The strength of these declines depends on stellar mass. Theabundance of lithium also shows a sudden decrease. For subgiants withmass lower than about 1.2 Msun the decrease is located laterthan that in rotation and CaII flux, whereas for masses higher than 1.2Msun the decrease in lithium abundance is located around thespectral type F8IV. The discrepancy between the location of thediscontinuities of rotation and CaII emission flux and log n(Li) forstars with masses lower than 1.2 Msun seems to reflect thesensitivity of these phenomena to the mass of the convective envelope.The drop in rotation, which results mostly from a magnetic braking,requires an increase in the mass of the convective envelope less thanthat required for the decrease in log n(Li). The location of thediscontinuity in log n(Li) for stars with masses higher than 1.2Msun, in the same region of the discontinuities in rotationand CaII emission flux, may also be explained by the behavior of thedeepening of the convective envelope. The more massive the star is, theearlier is the increase of the convective envelope. In contrast to therelationship between rotation and CaII flux, which is fairly linear, therelationship between lithium abundance and rotation shows no cleartendency toward linear behavior. Similarly, no clear linear trend isobserved in the relationship between lithium abundance and CaII flux. Inspite of these facts, subgiants with high lithium content also have highrotation and high CaII emission flux. Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. II. The epoch 2001 [Fe/H] catalogThis paper describes the derivation of an updated statistical catalog ofmetallicities. The stars for which those metallicities apply are ofspectral types F, G, and K, and are on or near the main sequence. Theinput data for the catalog are values of [Fe/H] published before 2002February and derived from lines of weak and moderate strength. Theanalyses used to derive the data have been based on one-dimensional LTEmodel atmospheres. Initial adjustments which are applied to the datainclude corrections to a uniform temperature scale which is given in acompanion paper (see Taylor \cite{t02}). After correction, the data aresubjected to a statistical analysis. For each of 941 stars considered,the results of that analysis include a mean value of [Fe/H], an rmserror, an associated number of degrees of freedom, and one or moreidentification numbers for source papers. The catalog of these resultssupersedes an earlier version given by Taylor (\cite{t94b}).Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/731 Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. I. The epoch 2001 temperature catalogThis paper is one of a pair in which temperatures and metallicitycatalogs for class IV-V stars are considered. The temperature catalogdescribed here is derived from a calibration based on stellar angulardiameters. If published calibrations of this kind are compared by usingcolor-index transformations, temperature-dependent differences among thecalibrations are commonly found. However, such differences are minimizedif attention is restricted to calibrations based on Johnson V-K. Acalibration of this sort from Di Benedetto (\cite{dib98}) is thereforetested and adopted. That calibration is then applied to spectroscopicand photometric data, with the latter predominating. Cousins R-Iphotometry receives special attention because of its high precision andlow metallicity sensitivity. Testing of temperatures derived from thecalibration suggests that their accuracy and precision are satisfactory,though further testing will be warranted as new results appear. Thesetemperatures appear in the catalog as values of theta equiv5040/T(effective). Most of these entries are accompanied by measured orderived values of Cousins R-I. Entries are given for 951 stars.Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/721 HIPPARCOS age-metallicity relation of the solar neighbourhood disc starsWe derive age-metallicity relations (AMRs) and orbital parameters forthe 1658 solar neighbourhood stars to which accurate distances aremeasured by the HIPPARCOS satellite. The sample stars comprise 1382 thindisc stars, 229 thick disc stars, and 47 halo stars according to theirorbital parameters. We find a considerable scatter for thin disc AMRalong the one-zone Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) model. Orbits andmetallicities of thin disc stars show now clear relation each other. Thescatter along the AMR exists even if the stars with the same orbits areselected. We examine simple extension of one-zone GCE models whichaccount for inhomogeneity in the effective yield and inhomogeneous starformation rate in the Galaxy. Both extensions of the one-zone GCE modelcannot account for the scatter in age - [Fe/H] - [Ca/Fe] relationsimultaneously. We conclude, therefore, that the scatter along the thindisc AMR is an essential feature in the formation and evolution of theGalaxy. The AMR for thick disc stars shows that the star formationterminated 8 Gyr ago in the thick disc. As already reported by Grattonet al. (\cite{Gratton_et.al.2000}) and Prochaska et al.(\cite{Prochaska_et.al.2000}), thick disc stars are more Ca-rich thanthin disc stars with the same [Fe/H]. We find that thick disc stars showa vertical abundance gradient. These three facts, the AMR, verticalgradient, and [Ca/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation, support monolithic collapseand/or accretion of satellite dwarf galaxies as likely thick discformation scenarios. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)or via http:/ /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ cgi-bin/qcat?J/ A+A/394/927 Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included). Lithium and rotation on the subgiant branch. II. Theoretical analysis of observationsLithium abundances and rotation, determined for 120 subgiant stars inLèbre et al. (1999) are analyzed. To this purpose, theevolutionary status of the sample as well as the individual masses havebeen determined using the HIPPARCOS trigonometric parallax measurementsto locate very precisely our sample stars in the HR diagram. We look atthe distributions of A_Li and Vsini with mass when stars evolve from themain sequence to the subgiant branch. For most of the stars in oursample we find good agreement with the dilution predictions. However,the more massive cool stars with upper limits of Li abundances show asignificant discrepancy with the theoretical predictions, even if theNon-LTE effects are taken into account. For the rotation behaviour, ouranalysis confirms that low mass stars leave the main sequence with a lowrotational rate, while more massive stars are slowed down only whenreaching the subgiant branch. We also checked the connection between theobserved rotation behaviour and the magnetic braking due to thedeepening of the convective envelope. Our results shed new light on thelithium and rotation discontinuities in the evolved phase. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html X-ray emission from A0-F6 spectral type starsWe use the ROSAT public data archive to study the X-ray emission of asample of supposedly single A0-F6 spectral type stars from the BrightStar Catalogue. We detected X-ray emission from 19 A- and 33 F-typestars. However, our results are not sufficient to associate withcertainty the X-ray emission to the A-type stars themselves, since theusual argument that it may originate from a binary companion cannot beexcluded. A spectral analysis was conducted for 14 sources (3 A and 11F), finding that for 12 of them a two temperature thermal plasma modelis needed to reproduce the observed spectra. The two temperatures arecentered at 0.13 and 0.54 keV, respectively. The values found for thehigher temperature are lower than that ones of X-ray selected singlelate-type stars. The X-ray luminosities are in the range LX ~10(28}-10({30)) erg s(-1) , with a distribution similar to that ofactive late-type stars. No correlation is found between LXand B-V color, V sin i and Lbol, while a positive correlationis found between the X-ray luminosity and the hardness ratio. Lithium and rotation on the subgiant branch. I. Observations and spectral analysisWe have obtained new high resolution spectroscopic observations of thelithium line at 6707.81 Angstroms and derived lithium abundances (A_Li )by spectral synthesis for a sample of about 120 F-, G- and K-typePopulation I subgiant stars. For each of these stars, high precisionrotational velocity obtained with the CORAVEL spectrometer is available.We present the behavior of the lithium abundance as a function ofeffective temperature, which shows a sort of discontinuity around 5600K, somewhat later than the well known rotational discontinuity. based onobservations collected at the Observatoire de Haute--Provence (France)and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla (Chile). The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright main-sequence stars and subgiant starsWe present X-ray data for all main-sequence and subgiant stars ofspectral types A, F, G, and K and luminosity classes IV and V listed inthe Bright Star Catalogue that have been detected as X-ray sources inthe ROSAT all-sky survey; several stars without luminosity class arealso included. The catalogue contains 980 entries yielding an averagedetection rate of 32 percent. In addition to count rates, sourcedetection parameters, hardness ratios, and X-ray fluxes we also listX-ray luminosities derived from Hipparcos parallaxes. The catalogue isalso available in electronic form via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar ActivityRotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars) A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Analyses of archival data for cool dwarfs. 2: A catalog of temperaturesA calibration presented in a previous paper is used in this paper toderive temperatures for FGK stars near the main sequence. Thecalibration is checked against published counterparts, and it is foundthat previous calibrations have not established K-dwarf temperatures inparticular beyond reasonable doubt. The database assembled to derive thetemperatures is described, and the problems posed by close binaries areevaluated. The newly derived temperatures are used to check a line-depthratio proposed as a thermometer by Gray and Johanson (1991, PASP, 103,439), and it is found that the ratio is metallicity-sensitive.Temperatures are given for a total of 417 stars. Improved Mean Positions and Proper Motions for the 995 FK4 Sup Stars not Included in the FK5 ExtensionNot Available A Study of Activity in F-Type Main-Sequence Stars Using the D/3 Line of HeiAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993A&A...273..482G&db_key=AST A library of near-IR stellar spectra from 1.328 to 2.5 micronsWe present a library of 56 stellar spectra from 1.428 to 2.5 microns,sampling the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in luminosity class andeffective temperature. Relative fluxes defining the stellar energydistributions throughout the H and K atmospheric windows, an infraredcolor temperature used to set a continuum for equivalent widthmeasurements, and relations between various spectral signatures, colortemperatures and gravity are determined. H2O is the dominant absorber inthe latest M giant stars. Its absorption is measured in both wings ofthe signature around 1.9 micron and a combined effect of H2O and H(-)opacity is measured shortward of 1.6 micron. The CO equivalent widthlongward of 2.29 microns increases with decreasing gravity andtemperature. CO and the OH radical are responsible for numerousabsorption bands below 1.8 micron. A catalogue of Fe/H determinations - 1991 editionA revised version of the catalog of Fe/H determinations published by G.Cayrel et al. (1985) is presented. The catalog contains 3252 Fe/Hdeterminations for 1676 stars. The literature is complete up to December1990. The catalog includes only Fe/H determinations obtained from highresolution spectroscopic observations based on detailed spectroscopicanalyses, most of them carried out with model atmospheres. The catalogcontains a good number of Fe/H determinations for stars from open andglobular clusters and for some supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds. The onset of chromospheric activity among the A and F starsResults are reported from a search for an upper boundary for the onsetof main-sequence star activity based on a quest for high-temperature UVline emission in a large collection of IUE spectra. It is shown thatstrong chromospheric emission is common among early F dwarf and subgiantstars. At its brightest, the emission is equal to that of the mostactive solar-type stars and is exceeded only by that of the spotted RSCVn and BY Dra variables. It is suggested that the emission from themain-sequence stars reaches a peak near B-V = 0.28, in the vicinity ofspectral type F0 V, before it declines to lower flux levels among thelate A stars. Emission is seen in some dwarf stars as early as B-V =0.25. It is demonstrated that the C II emission of stars earlier thanthe spectral type F5 is uncorrelated with rotation. Previous findingsthat the coronal X-ray:chromospheric UV flux ratio is lower for starsearlier than spectral type F5 than for those later than F5 areconfirmed. The chromospheric emission-age relation for stars of the lower main sequence and its implications for the star formation rateAn attempt is made to formulate the relationship between age andchromospheric emission (CE) in late-type dwarf stars. Evidence isreviewed that a deterministic relationship of this type actually exists,and that for stars of known age, either a power-law relation or a curvecorresponding to a constant star formation rate fits equally well.Further observations should be able to demonstrate either that there isa real excess of young stars near the sun or that the evolution of CEfor a low-mass star goes through a slow initial decline, a rapid declineat intermediate ages, and finally a slow decline for old stars like thesun. Absolute far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of hot subluminous stars from VoyagerObservations, obtained with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers, arepresented of absolute fluxes for two well-known hot subluminous stars:BD + 28 deg 4211, an sdO, and G191 - B2B, a hot DA white dwarf. Completeabsolute energy distributions for these two stars, from the Lyman limitat 912 A to 1 micron, are given. For BD + 28 deg 4211, a single powerlaw closely represents the entire observed energy distribution. For G191- B2B, a pure hydrogen model atmosphere provides an excellent match tothe entire absolute energy distribution. Voyager absolute fluxes arediscussed in relation to those reported from various sounding rocketexperiments, including a recent rocket observation of BD + 28 deg 4211. Magnetic structure in cool stars. XVII - Minimum radiative losses from the outer atmosphereThe emissions in several chromospheric and transition region lines andin coronal soft X-rays are analyzed for a sample of cool stars. Thenature of the lower-limit flux densities is explored, and evidence isgiven for the possibility of a basal, nonmagnetic heating mechanismbeing responsible for these emission fluxes up to, and perhapsincluding, the upper transition region. It is argued that the excessflux density, derived by subtraction of the basal flux density from theobserved stellar flux, is the proper measure of magnetic activity. Thelevel of the basal flux density as a function of color is determined tobe 2 x 10 exp 6 erg/sq cm/s for F-type stars and 2 x 10 exp 5 erg/sqcm/s for K-type stars. Chemical Composition of Open Clusters. II. C/H and C/Fe in F Dwarfs from High-Resolution SpectroscopyAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990ApJ...351..480F&db_key=AST Chemical composition of open clusters. I - Fe/H from high-resolution spectroscopyUsing high-resolution spectroscopy, the abundance ratios Fe/H, C/H, andC/Fe were determined for F dwarfs in the Alpha Per, the Pleiades, andthe Hyades clusters; the UMa, Hyades, and Wolf 630 moving groups; and aselection of bright F field dwarfs. The age span of these objects rangesfrom 5 x 10 to the 7th to 2 x 10 to the 9th yr. No evidence was found ofa trend in Fe/H with age for these clusters and groups, but there wereclear differences in Fe/H among these groups, indicating intrinsicdifferences in the metal content of the local gas out of which thesegroups were formed. No evidence was found for a trend of C/H with age ofthese stellar groups, but there were cluster-to-cluster variations,implying differences in the content of carbon in the precluster gas. TheC/H cluster differences followed the same pattern as the Fe/H clusterdifferences and yield C/Fe values which are constant, and equal to thesolar value, in all the groups. The evolution of chromospheric activity of cool giant and subgiant starsIUE spectra for a large sample of cool subgiant stars are examined, andevidence is found that subgiants in the mass range 1.2-1.6 solar massesundergo a sudden decline in UV transition region emission near B - V =0.6, which corresponds to spectral type G0 IV. The decline in UVemission coincides with a sharp decrease in stellar rotation rates, andit is suggested that this decay in activity and rotation marks atransformation from acoustic heating in the early F stars to magneticdynamo-driven activity in the cooler stars, resulting in a strongrotational braking action by stellar wind. For more massive giant stars,there is a similar transformation in the nature of chromosphericactivity near B - V = 0.7, or spectral type G0 III, from acousticheating in the F-type giants to a solarlike dynamo mechanism in thecooler giants. No sign of an abrupt drop in activity near spectral typeG5 III at the location of Gray's proposed rotational boundary line isseen.
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