NEWS@SKY (Science&Space News)
Home     To Survive in the Universe
 .MYA{ color: yellow; text-decoration: none; :hover { color: red; text-decoration: none; } } Services
Why to Inhabit     Top Contributors     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Login

# HD 88737

Contents

### Images

DSS Images   Other Images

### Related articles

 Lithium Abundances of F-, G-, and K-Type Stars: Profile-Fitting Analysis of the Li I 6708 DoubletAn extensive profile-fitting analysis was performed for the Li(+Fe)6707-6708Å feature of nearby 160 F-K dwarfs/subgiants (including27 planet-host stars) in the Galactic disk ( 7000 K ≳Teff ≳ 5000 K, -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.4), in orderto establish the photospheric lithium abundances of these stars. Thenon-LTE effect (though quantitatively insignificant) was taken intoaccount based on our statistical equilibrium calculations, which werecarried out on an adequate grid of models. Our results confirmed most ofthe interesting observational characteristics revealed by recentlypublished studies, such as the bimodal distribution of the Li abundancesfor stars at Teff ≳ 6000 K, the satisfactory agreementof the upper envelope of the A(Li) vs. [Fe/H] distribution with thetheoretical models, the existence of a positive correlation betweenA(Li) and the stellar mass, and the tendency of lower lithium abundancesof planet-host stars (as compared to stars without planets) at thenarrow transition'' region of 5900 K ≳ Teff ≳5800 K. The solar Li abundance derived from this analysis is 0.92 (H =12.00), which is by 0.24dex lower than the widely referenced standardvalue of 1.16. Spectroscopic Study on the Atmospheric Parameters of Nearby F--K Dwarfs and SubgiantsBased on a collection of high-dispersion spectra obtained at OkayamaAstrophysical Observatory, the atmospheric parameters (Teff,log g, vt, and [Fe/H]) of 160 mid-F through early-K starswere extensively determined by the spectroscopic method using theequivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines along with the numericaltechnique of Takeda et al. (2002, PASJ, 54, 451). The results arecomprehensively discussed and compared with the parameter values derivedby different approaches (e.g., photometric colors, theoreticalevolutionary tracks, Hipparcos parallaxes, etc.) as well as with thepublished values found in various literature. It has been confirmed thatour purely spectroscopic approach yields fairly reliable and consistentresults. Abundance trends in kinematical groups of the Milky Way's diskWe have compiled a large catalogue of metallicities and abundance ratiosfrom the literature in order to investigate abundance trends of severalalpha and iron peak elements in the thin disk and the thick disk of theGalaxy. The catalogue includes 743 stars with abundances of Fe, O, Mg,Ca, Ti, Si, Na, Ni and Al in the metallicity range -1.30 < [Fe/H]< +0.50. We have checked that systematic differences betweenabundances measured in the different studies were lower than randomerrors before combining them. Accurate distances and proper motions fromHipparcos and radial velocities from several sources have been retreivedfor 639 stars and their velocities (U, V, W) and galactic orbits havebeen computed. Ages of 322 stars have been estimated with a Bayesianmethod of isochrone fitting. Two samples kinematically representative ofthe thin and thick disks have been selected, taking into account theHercules stream which is intermediate in kinematics, but with a probabledynamical origin. Our results show that the two disks are chemicallywell separated, they overlap greatly in metallicity and both showparallel decreasing alpha elements with increasing metallicity, in theinterval -0.80 < [Fe/H] < -0.30. The Mg enhancement with respectto Fe of the thick disk is measured to be 0.14 dex. An even largerenhancement is observed for Al. The thick disk is clearly older than thethin disk with tentative evidence of an AMR over 2-3 Gyr and a hiatus instar formation before the formation of the thin disk. We do not observea vertical gradient in the metallicity of the thick disk. The Herculesstream has properties similar to that of the thin disk, with a widerrange of metallicity. Metal-rich stars assigned to the thick disk andsuper-metal-rich stars assigned to the thin disk appear as outliers inall their properties. Lithium abundances of the local thin disc starsLithium abundances are presented for a sample of 181 nearby F and Gdwarfs with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes. The stars are on circularorbits about the Galactic centre and, hence, are identified as belongingto the thin disc. This sample is combined with two published surveys toprovide a catalogue of lithium abundances, metallicities ([Fe/H]),masses, and ages for 451 F-G dwarfs, almost all belonging to the thindisc. The lithium abundances are compared and contrasted with publishedlithium abundances for F and G stars in local open clusters. The fieldstars span a larger range in [Fe/H] than the clusters for which [Fe/H]~=0.0 +/- 0.2. The initial (i.e. interstellar) lithium abundance of thesolar neighbourhood, as derived from stars for which astration oflithium is believed to be unimportant, is traced from logɛ(Li) =2.2 at [Fe/H]=-1 to logɛ(Li) = 3.2 at +0.1. This form for theevolution is dependent on the assumption that astration of lithium isnegligible for the stars defining the relation. An argument is advancedthat this latter assumption may not be entirely correct, and, theevolution of lithium with [Fe/H] may be flatter than previouslysupposed. A sharp Hyades-like Li dip is not seen among the field starsand appears to be replaced by a large spread among lithium abundances ofstars more massive than the lower mass limit of the dip. Astration oflithium by stars of masses too low to participate in the Li dip isdiscussed. These stars show little to no spread in lithium abundance ata given [Fe/H] and mass. The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. Stellar Chemical Signatures and Hierarchical Galaxy FormationTo compare the chemistries of stars in the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal(dSph) satellite galaxies with stars in the Galaxy, we have compiled alarge sample of Galactic stellar abundances from the literature. Whenkinematic information is available, we have assigned the stars tostandard Galactic components through Bayesian classification based onGaussian velocity ellipsoids. As found in previous studies, the[α/Fe] ratios of most stars in the dSph galaxies are generallylower than similar metallicity Galactic stars in this extended sample.Our kinematically selected stars confirm this for the Galactic halo,thin-disk, and thick-disk components. There is marginal overlap in thelow [α/Fe] ratios between dSph stars and Galactic halo stars onextreme retrograde orbits (V<-420 km s-1), but this is notsupported by other element ratios. Other element ratios compared in thispaper include r- and s-process abundances, where we find a significantoffset in the [Y/Fe] ratios, which results in a large overabundance in[Ba/Y] in most dSph stars compared with Galactic stars. Thus, thechemical signatures of most of the dSph stars are distinct from thestars in each of the kinematic components of the Galaxy. This resultrules out continuous merging of low-mass galaxies similar to these dSphsatellites during the formation of the Galaxy. However, we do not ruleout very early merging of low-mass dwarf galaxies, since up to one-halfof the most metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]<=-1.8) have chemistries that arein fair agreement with Galactic halo stars. We also do not rule outmerging with higher mass galaxies, although we note that the LMC and theremnants of the Sgr dwarf galaxy are also chemically distinct from themajority of the Galactic halo stars. Formation of the Galaxy's thickdisk by heating of an old thin disk during a merger is also not ruledout; however, the Galaxy's thick disk itself cannot be comprised of theremnants from a low-mass (dSph) dwarf galaxy, nor of a high-mass dwarfgalaxy like the LMC or Sgr, because of differences in chemistry.The new and independent environments offered by the dSph galaxies alsoallow us to examine fundamental assumptions related to thenucleosynthesis of the elements. The metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]<=-1.8)in the dSph galaxies appear to have lower [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] than[Mg/Fe] ratios, unlike similar metallicity stars in the Galaxy.Predictions from the α-process (α-rich freeze-out) would beconsistent with this result if there have been a lack of hypernovae indSph galaxies. The α-process could also be responsible for thevery low Y abundances in the metal-poor stars in dSph's; since [La/Eu](and possibly [Ba/Eu]) are consistent with pure r-process results, thelow [Y/Eu] suggests a separate r-process site for this light(first-peak) r-process element. We also discuss SNe II rates and yieldsas other alternatives, however. In stars with higher metallicities([Fe/H]>=-1.8), contributions from the s-process are expected; [(Y,La, and Ba)/Eu] all rise as expected, and yet [Ba/Y] is still muchhigher in the dSph stars than similar metallicity Galactic stars. Thisresult is consistent with s-process contributions from lower metallicityAGB stars in dSph galaxies, and is in good agreement with the slowerchemical evolution expected in the low-mass dSph galaxies relative tothe Galaxy, such that the build-up of metals occurs over much longertimescales. Future investigations of nucleosynthetic constraints (aswell as galaxy formation and evolution) will require an examination ofmany stars within individual dwarf galaxies.Finally, the Na-Ni trend reported in 1997 by Nissen & Schuster isconfirmed in Galactic halo stars, but we discuss this in terms of thegeneral nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich elements. We do not confirm thatthe Na-Ni trend is related to the accretion of dSph galaxies in theGalactic halo. Chemical enrichment and star formation in the Milky Way disk. III. Chemodynamical constraintsIn this paper, we investigate some chemokinematical properties of theMilky Way disk, by using a sample composed by 424 late-type dwarfs. Weshow that the velocity dispersion of a stellar group correlates with theage of this group, according to a law proportional to t0.26,where t is the age of the stellar group. The temporal evolution of thevertex deviation is considered in detail. It is shown that the vertexdeviation does not seem to depend strongly on the age of the stellargroup. Previous studies in the literature seem to not have found it dueto the use of statistical ages for stellar groups, rather thanindividual ages. The possibility to use the orbital parameters of a starto derive information about its birthplace is investigated, and we showthat the mean galactocentric radius is likely to be the most reliablestellar birthplace indicator. However, this information cannot bepresently used to derive radial evolutionary constraints, due to anintrinsic bias present in all samples constructed from nearby stars. Anextensive discussion of the secular and stochastic heating mechanismscommonly invoked to explain the age-velocity dispersion relation ispresented. We suggest that the age-velocity dispersion relation couldreflect the gradual decrease in the turbulent velocity dispersion fromwhich disk stars form, a suggestion originally made by Tinsley &Larson (\cite{tinsley}, ApJ, 221, 554) and supported by several morerecent disk evolution calculations. A test to distinguish between thetwo types of models using high-redshift galaxies is proposed.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/517 The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of 14 000 F and G dwarfsWe present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989 The Nature of Overluminous F Stars Observed in a Radial-Velocity SurveyWe have conducted a radial-velocity survey of bright (V<9),overluminous, F stars within 80 pc. The criterion of overluminosity isΔMc0=Mc0-MV>=0.5,where MV is the absolute magnitude based on the Hipparcosparallax and Mc0 is the absolute magnitude fromuvby photometry. For F stars, overluminosity at a level ofΔMc0>0.15 has been argued to beindicative of the presence of a bright companion, so many of theoverluminous single'' F stars are expected to be, in fact, binarieswith comparably bright components. Therefore, the main goals of thesurvey have been to gain insight into the nature of overluminous F starsand to test specifically the hypothesis of the duplicity of overluminousF stars by searching for previously unrecognized binary stars amongthem. Other goals of this project included the determination, whereverpossible, of the orbits of the binaries discovered as a result of thesurvey and comparing the properties of the binaries with those of thevisually single stars with constant radial velocity. The program listcomprised 111 stars that appear in the Hipparcos catalog as single, plusseven members of multiple systems whose components have individualentries in the catalog.Of the total of 118 stars selected, the radial velocities of 77 havebeen measured with the Cambridge CORAVEL in the present survey. Amongthe remainder, six have not allowed us to determine their radialvelocities because of the weakness or lack of a dip'' in theirradial-velocity traces, and one was optically inaccessible to thetelescope. All the rest proved to be sufficiently well known alreadyeither as binary or as constant-radial-velocity (CRV) stars. The surveydiscovered 25 new binary systems, not counting two that were notgenerally known as such but were already under observation by R. F. G.and two that were discovered by Hipparcos to show eclipses but had neverbeen recognized as SBs. With the previously known binaries, there is atotal of 61 definite plus three probable binaries out of a total of 111stars upon which we can adjudicate-a binary fraction of ~58%, justdouble the ~29% found in a sample of randomly selected F stars byNordström et al. (1997). Of the binaries, 52 are SB2 and 12 areSB1. Orbits (some of them still rather preliminary) have been determinedfor the first time for 28 binaries, 21 of which are SB2.Comparison of the CRV stars (a total of 47) with the SB2 binaries hasshown that the two groups have different kinematics. The differenceimplies that on average the CRV stars are 3 to 4 Gyr older than theSB2s, although several of the CRVs appear to be very young. At the sametime the SB2 stars turn out to have about the same kinematics, hence thesame average age, as both binary and normal single F stars from acontrol sample drawn from the Hipparcos catalog. The much older age ofthe bulk of the overluminous CRV F stars may be indicative of anomalousstellar evolution that results in anomalously long main-sequencelifetimes for those stars. The SB1 stars appear to be closer to the CRVsthan to the SB2s and are probably also very old. The properties of theno-dip'' stars suggest very young age; some of the stars are probablypre-main-sequence (PMS). A few PMS candidates have been identified alsoamong the CRV stars. Thus, overluminous F stars comprising our sampleappear to consist of three distinct groups: mostly young SB2 binarieswith comparably bright components, mostly very old CRV and SB1 stars,and very young no-dip stars. The Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of optical identifications. Northern high-galactic latitude ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue X-ray sourcesWe present the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue (HRC) of optical identificationsof X-ray sources at high-galactic latitude. The HRC includes all X-raysources from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) with galacticlatitude |b| >=30degr and declination delta >=0degr . In thispart of the sky covering ~ 10 000 deg2 the RASS-BSC contains5341 X-ray sources. For the optical identification we used blue Schmidtprism and direct plates taken for the northern hemisphere Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) which are now available in digitized form. The limitingmagnitudes are 18.5 and 20, respectively. For 82% of the selectedRASS-BSC an identification could be given. For the rest either nocounterpart was visible in the error circle or a plausibleidentification was not possible. With ~ 42% AGN represent the largestgroup of X-ray emitters, ~ 31% have a stellar counterpart, whereasgalaxies and cluster of galaxies comprise only ~ 4% and ~ 5%,respectively. In ~ 3% of the RASS-BSC sources no object was visible onour blue direct plates within 40\arcsec around the X-ray sourceposition. The catalogue is used as a source for the selection of(nearly) complete samples of the various classes of X-ray emitters. Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. II. The epoch 2001 [Fe/H] catalogThis paper describes the derivation of an updated statistical catalog ofmetallicities. The stars for which those metallicities apply are ofspectral types F, G, and K, and are on or near the main sequence. Theinput data for the catalog are values of [Fe/H] published before 2002February and derived from lines of weak and moderate strength. Theanalyses used to derive the data have been based on one-dimensional LTEmodel atmospheres. Initial adjustments which are applied to the datainclude corrections to a uniform temperature scale which is given in acompanion paper (see Taylor \cite{t02}). After correction, the data aresubjected to a statistical analysis. For each of 941 stars considered,the results of that analysis include a mean value of [Fe/H], an rmserror, an associated number of degrees of freedom, and one or moreidentification numbers for source papers. The catalog of these resultssupersedes an earlier version given by Taylor (\cite{t94b}).Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/731 Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. I. The epoch 2001 temperature catalogThis paper is one of a pair in which temperatures and metallicitycatalogs for class IV-V stars are considered. The temperature catalogdescribed here is derived from a calibration based on stellar angulardiameters. If published calibrations of this kind are compared by usingcolor-index transformations, temperature-dependent differences among thecalibrations are commonly found. However, such differences are minimizedif attention is restricted to calibrations based on Johnson V-K. Acalibration of this sort from Di Benedetto (\cite{dib98}) is thereforetested and adopted. That calibration is then applied to spectroscopicand photometric data, with the latter predominating. Cousins R-Iphotometry receives special attention because of its high precision andlow metallicity sensitivity. Testing of temperatures derived from thecalibration suggests that their accuracy and precision are satisfactory,though further testing will be warranted as new results appear. Thesetemperatures appear in the catalog as values of theta equiv5040/T(effective). Most of these entries are accompanied by measured orderived values of Cousins R-I. Entries are given for 951 stars.Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/721 HIPPARCOS age-metallicity relation of the solar neighbourhood disc starsWe derive age-metallicity relations (AMRs) and orbital parameters forthe 1658 solar neighbourhood stars to which accurate distances aremeasured by the HIPPARCOS satellite. The sample stars comprise 1382 thindisc stars, 229 thick disc stars, and 47 halo stars according to theirorbital parameters. We find a considerable scatter for thin disc AMRalong the one-zone Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) model. Orbits andmetallicities of thin disc stars show now clear relation each other. Thescatter along the AMR exists even if the stars with the same orbits areselected. We examine simple extension of one-zone GCE models whichaccount for inhomogeneity in the effective yield and inhomogeneous starformation rate in the Galaxy. Both extensions of the one-zone GCE modelcannot account for the scatter in age - [Fe/H] - [Ca/Fe] relationsimultaneously. We conclude, therefore, that the scatter along the thindisc AMR is an essential feature in the formation and evolution of theGalaxy. The AMR for thick disc stars shows that the star formationterminated 8 Gyr ago in the thick disc. As already reported by Grattonet al. (\cite{Gratton_et.al.2000}) and Prochaska et al.(\cite{Prochaska_et.al.2000}), thick disc stars are more Ca-rich thanthin disc stars with the same [Fe/H]. We find that thick disc stars showa vertical abundance gradient. These three facts, the AMR, verticalgradient, and [Ca/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation, support monolithic collapseand/or accretion of satellite dwarf galaxies as likely thick discformation scenarios. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)or via http:/ /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ cgi-bin/qcat?J/ A+A/394/927 Near infrared observations of soft X-ray selected AGNWe report the results of near infrared observations of 19 soft X-rayselected AGN. The goal of the observations was to search for strong,narrow Paalpha or Brgamma emission lines, as a sign of nuclearstarbursts. We found Paalpha emission in the spectra of 11 sources andBrgamma in at least five. Strong NIR emission has been found in twosources, CBS 126 and Mkn 766, both objects with strong [OIII]lambda 5007emission, weak Fe II emission and wavelength dependent degree ofpolarization in the optical. Classical Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies donot show exceptionally strong NIR emission lines. We present the resultsof our study and discuss how our findings fit into an evolutionaryscheme of AGN. Based on observations performed at the 2.7 m telescope ofthe McDonald Observatory, Texas. Levels of coronal and chromospheric activity in late-type stars and various types of dynamo wavesWe analyze the X-ray emission and chromospheric activity of late-type F,G, and K stars studied in the framework of the HK project. More powerfulcoronas are possessed by stars displaying irregular variations of theirchromospheric emission, while stars with cyclic activity arecharacterized by comparatively modest X-ray luminosities and ratios ofthe X-ray to bolometric luminosity L X/L bol. This indicates that thenature of processes associated with magnetic-field amplification in theconvective envelope changes appreciably in the transition from small tolarge dynamo numbers, directly affecting the character of the(α-Ω) dynamo. Due to the strong dependence of both thedynamo number and the Rossby number on the speed of axial rotation,earlier correlations found between various activity parameters and theRossby number are consistent with our conclusions. Our analysis makes itpossible to draw the first firm conclusions about the place of solaractivity among analogous processes developing in active late-type stars. The ROSAT Bright Survey: II. Catalogue of all high-galactic latitude RASS sources with PSPC countrate CR > 0.2 s-1We present a summary of an identification program of the more than 2000X-ray sources detected during the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (Voges et al.1999) at high galactic latitude, |b| > 30degr , with countrate above0.2 s-1. This program, termed the ROSAT Bright Survey RBS, isto more than 99.5% complete. A sub-sample of 931 sources with countrateabove 0.2 s-1 in the hard spectral band between 0.5 and 2.0keV is to 100% identified. The total survey area comprises 20391deg2 at a flux limit of 2.4 x 10-12 ergcm-2 s-1 in the 0.5 - 2.0 keV band. About 1500sources of the complete sample could be identified by correlating theRBS with SIMBAD and the NED. The remaining ~ 500 sources were identifiedby low-resolution optical spectroscopy and CCD imaging utilizingtelescopes at La Silla, Calar Alto, Zelenchukskaya and Mauna Kea. Apartfrom completely untouched sources, catalogued clusters and galaxieswithout published redshift as well as catalogued galaxies with unusualhigh X-ray luminosity were included in the spectroscopic identificationprogram. Details of the observations with an on-line presentation of thefinding charts and the optical spectra will be published separately.Here we summarize our identifications in a table which contains opticaland X-ray information for each source. As a result we present the mostmassive complete sample of X-ray selected AGNs with a total of 669members and a well populated X-ray selected sample of 302 clusters ofgalaxies with redshifts up to 0.70. Three fields studied by us remainwithout optical counterpart (RBS0378, RBS1223, RBS1556). While the firstis a possible X-ray transient, the two latter are isolated neutron starcandidates (Motch et al. 1999, Schwope et al. 1999). Abundances of light elements in metal-poor stars. III. Data analysis and resultsWe present the results of the analysis of an extensive set of new andliterature high quality data concerning Fe, C, N, O, Na, and Mg. Thisanalysis exploited the T_eff scale determined in Gratton et al. (1996a),and the non-LTE abundance corrections computed in Gratton et al.(1999a). Results obtained with various abundance indices are discussedand compared. Detailed comparison with models of galactic chemicalevolution will be presented in future papers of this series. Our non-LTEanalysis yields the same O abundances from both permitted and forbiddenlines for stars with T_eff >4600 K, in agreement with King (1993),but not with other studies using a lower T_eff -scale for subdwarfs.However, we obtain slightly smaller O abundances for the most luminousmetal-poor field stars than for fainter stars of similar metallicities,an effect attributed to inadequacies of the adopted model atmospheres(Kurucz 1992, with overshooting) for cool stars. We find a nearlyconstant O overundance in metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]<-0.8), at a meanvalue of 0.46+/- 0.02 dex (sigma =0.12, 32 stars), with only a gentleslope with [Fe/H] ( ~ -0.1); this result is different from the steeperslope recently obtained using OH band in the near UV. If only bonafideunmixed stars are considered, C abundances scale with Fe ones (i.e.[C/Fe]~ 0) down to [Fe/H] ~ -2.5. Due to our adoption of a differentT_eff scale, we do not confirm the slight C excess in the most metalpoor disk dwarfs (-0.8<[Fe/H]<-0.4) found in previousinvestigations. Na abundances scale as Fe ones in the high metallicityregime, while metal-poor stars present a Na underabundance. None of thefield stars analyzed belong to the group of O-poor and Na-rich starsobserved in globular clusters. Na is deficient with respect to Mg inhalo and thick disk stars; within these populations, Na deficiency maybe a slow function of [Mg/H]. Solar [Na/Mg] ratios are obtained for thindisk stars. Tables~ 2 to 9 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strabg.fr/Abstract.html A Consistency Test of Spectroscopic Gravities for Late-Type StarsChemical analyses of late-type stars are usually carried out followingthe classical recipe: LTE line formation and homogeneous,plane-parallel, flux-constant, and LTE model atmospheres. We reviewdifferent results in the literature that have suggested significantinconsistencies in the spectroscopic analyses, pointing out thedifficulties in deriving independent estimates of the stellarfundamental parameters and hence, detecting systematic errors. Thetrigonometric parallaxes measured by the Hipparcos mission provideaccurate appraisals of the stellar surface gravity for nearby stars,which are used here to check the gravities obtained from thephotospheric iron ionization balance. We find an approximate agreementfor stars in the metallicity range -1.0<=[Fe/H]<=0, but thecomparison shows that the differences between the spectroscopic andtrigonometric gravities decrease toward lower metallicities for moremetal-deficient dwarfs (-2.5<=[Fe/H]<=-1.0), which casts a shadowupon the abundance analyses for extreme metal-poor stars that make useof the ionization equilibrium to constrain the gravity. The comparisonwith the strong-line gravities derived by Edvardsson and Fuhrmannconfirms that this method provide systematically larger gravities thanthe ionization balance. The strong-line gravities get closer to thephysical ones for the stars analyzed by Fuhrmann, but they are evenfurther away than the iron ionization gravities for the stars of lowergravities in Edvardsson's sample. The confrontation of the deviations ofthe iron ionization gravities in metal-poor stars, reported here withdepartures from the excitation balance found in the literature, showthat they are likely to be induced by the same physical mechanism. Time Evolution of the Magnetic Activity Cycle Period. II. Results for an Expanded Stellar SampleWe further explore nondimensional relationships between the magneticdynamo cycle period P_cyc, the rotational period P_rot, the activitylevel (as observed in Ca II HK), and other stellar properties byexpanding the stellar sample studied in the first paper in this series.We do this by adding photometric and other cycles seen in active starsand the secondaries of CV systems and by selectively adding less certaincycles from the Mount Wilson HK survey; evolved stars, long-term HKtrends and secondary P_cyc are also considered. We confirm that moststars with age t>~0.1 Gyr occupy two roughly parallel branches,separated by a factor of ~6 in P_cyc, with the ratio of cycle androtational frequencies ω_cyc/Ω~Ro^-0.5, where Ro is theRossby number. Using the model of the first paper in this series, thisresult implies that the α effect increases with mean magneticfield (contrary to the traditional α-quenching concept) and thatα and ω_cyc decrease with t. Stars are not strictlysegregated onto one or the other branch by activity level, though thehigh-ω_cyc/Ω branch is primarily composed of inactive stars.The expanded data set suggests that for t>~1 Gyr, stars can havecycles on one or both branches, though among older stars, those withhigher (lower) mass tend to have their primary P_cyc on the lower(upper) ω_cyc/Ω branch. The Sun's ~80 yr Gleissberg cycleagrees with this scenario, suggesting that long-term activity trends''in many stars may be segments of long (P_cyc~50-100 yr) cycles not yetresolved by the data. Most very active stars (P_rot<3 days) appear tooccupy a new, third branch with ω_cyc/Ω~Ro^0.4. Many RS CVnvariables lie in a transition region between the two most activebranches. We compare our results with various models, discuss theirimplications for dynamo theory and evolution, and use them to predictP_cyc for three groups: stars with long-term HK trends, stars in youngopen clusters, and stars that may be in Maunder-like magnetic minima. Absolute declinations with the photoelectric astrolabe at Calern Observatory (OCA)A regular observational programme with a photoelectric astrolabe havebeen performed at Observatoire du Calern" (Observatoire de laCôte d'Azur, OCA, phi = +43() o44′55.011″; lambda =-0() h27() m42.44() s, Calern, Caussols, France) for the last twentyyears. It has been almost fully automatized between 1984 and 1987. Since1988 the photoelectric astrolabe was used without any modification. Inaddition to determining the daily orientation of the local vertical, theyearly analysis of the residuals permits to derive corrections to theused star catalogue \cite[(Vigouroux et al. 1992)]{vig92}. A globalreduction method was applied for the ASPHO observations. The new form ofthe equations \cite[(Martin & Leister 1997)]{mar97} give us thepossibility of using the entire set of the observing program using datataken at two zenith distances (30() o and 45() o). The program containsabout 41648 stars' transits of 269 different stars taken atObservatoire du Calern" (OCA). The reduction was based on theHIPPARCOS system. We discuss the possibility of computing absolutedeclinations through stars belonging simultaneously to the 30() o and45() o zenith distances programmes. The absolute declination correctionswere determined for 185 stars with precision of 0.027arcsec and thevalue of the determined equator correction is -0.018arcsec +/-0.005arcsec . The instrumental effects were also determined. The meanepoch is 1995.29. Catalogue only available at CDS in electronic from viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The origin of carbon, investigated by spectral analysis of solar-type stars in the Galactic DiskAbundance analysis of carbon has been performed in a sample of 80 late Fand early G type dwarf stars in the metallicity range{-1.06<=[Fe/H]<=0.26} using the forbidden [C i] line at 8727Angstroms. This line is presumably less sensitive to temperature,atmospheric structure and departures from LTE than alternative carboncriteria. We find that {[C/Fe]} decreases slowly with increasing{[Fe/H]} with an overall slope of -0.17+/-0.03. Our results areconsistent with carbon enrichment by superwinds of metal-rich massivestars but inconsistent with a main origin of carbon in low-mass stars.This follows in particular from a comparison between the relation of{[C/O]} with metallicity for the Galactic stars and the correspondingrelation observed for dwarf irregular galaxies. The significance ofintermediate-mass stars for the production of carbon in the Galaxy isstill somewhat unclear. Based on observations carried out at theEuropean Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Revised ages for stars in the solar neighbourhoodNew ages are computed for the stars from the Edvardsson et al. (1993)data set. The revised values are systematically larger toward older ages(t>4 Gyr), while they are slightly lower for t<4 Gyr. A similar,but considerably smaller trend is present when the ages are computedwith the distances based on Hipparcos parallaxes. The resultingage-metallicity relation has a small, but distinct slope of ~ em0.07dex/Gyr. Tables 3\to8 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or WWW at URLhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar ActivityRotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars) A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Magnetic Field and Rotation in Lower Main-Sequence Stars: an Empirical Time-dependent Magnetic Bode's Relation?We find a significant correlation between the magnetic and rotationalmoments for a sample of 112 lower main-sequence stars. The rotationalmoment is calculated from measurements of the rotation period in most ofthe stars (not from the projected rotational velocity inferred fromDoppler broadening). The magnetic moment is computed from a database ofhomogeneous measurements of the mean level of Ca II H and K emissionfluxes sampled for most of the stars over an interval of 25 yr. Theslope connecting the logarithm of the magnetic moment and the logarithmof the rotational moment is about +0.5--0.6, with a Pearson correlationcoefficient of about +0.9. The scatter of points from the mean relationhas a component that is natural and caused by decade-long surfacevariability. Abundances of light elements in metal-poor stars. I. Atmospheric parameters and a new T_eff_ scaleWe present atmospheric parameters for about 300 stars of differentchemical composition, whose spectra will be used to study the galacticenrichment of Fe and light elements. These parameters were derived usingan homogeneous iterative procedure, which considers new calibrations ofcolour-T_eff_ relations for F, G and K-type stars based on Infrared FluxMethod (IRFM) and interferometric diameters for population I stars, andthe Kurucz (1992) model atmospheres. We found that these calibrationsyield a self-consistent set of atmospheric parameters forT_eff_>4400K, representing a clear improvement over results obtainedwith older model atmospheres. Using this T_eff_ -scale and Feequilibrium of ionization, we obtained very low gravities (implyingluminosities incompatible with that expected for RGB stars) formetal-poor stars cooler than 4400K; this might be due either to amoderate Fe overionization (expected from statistical equilibriumcalculations) or to inadequacy of Kurucz models to describe theatmospheres of very cool giants. Our T_eff_ scale is compared with otherscales recently used for metal-poor stars; it agrees well with thoseobtained using Kurucz (1992) models, but it gives much larger T_eff_'sthan those obtained using OSMARCS models (Edvardsson et al. 1993). Thisdifference is attributed to the different treatment of convection in thetwo sets of models. For the Sun, the Kurucz (1992) model appears to bepreferable to the OSMARCS ones because it better predicts the solar limbdarkening; furthermore, we find that our photometric T_eff_ 's formetal-poor stars agree well with both direct estimates based on theIRFM, and with T_eff_'s derived from Hα wings when using Kuruczmodels. Coronal X-ray emission of cool stars in relation to chromospheric activity and magnetic cycles.We study the relationship between the coronal X-ray emission of single,main-sequence F-K stars and the characteristics of their magneticcycles. We use X-ray data primarily from the ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS)as well as data acquired by us in the ROSAT pointed program, and thepublished data of the Mt. Wilson CaII H+K monitoring program. Accordingto their CaII H+K long-term variability characteristics, we divide thestars into three groups: non-variable, regular variable and irregular(chaotic) variable stars. We show that the regular and the irregularstars differ mainly in their Rossby-numbers (Ro): regular stars havealmost always Ro<1 whereas the irregular group is characterized byRo>1 further, the X-ray surface flux distributions differsignificantly between these three groups. We discuss to what extentstars exhibiting constant Ca II fluxes can be considered "Maunderminimum" stars, and demonstrate - in a statistical sense - that cyclicchromospheric activity also implies cyclic coronal activity. From areanalysis of the flux-flux relation between the calcium excess fluxdensity ({DELTA}F_Ca_) and F_X_, we find different relations between theregular and the constant stars on one hand and the irregular stars onthe other hand. Performing regression analysis in the form of a powerlaw, the coefficient κ is derived to be κ=~1 for constantand regular stars whereas κ=~2 for the more active irregularstars. We discuss our findings in the context of a transition from anonlinear to a linear dynamo regime when going from irregular to regularstars. Analyses of Archival Data for Cool Dwarfs. VI. The 1993 Versions of the Temperature and [Fe/H] CatalogsThis paper contains supplements to two catalogs which have previouslybeen published by the author. One of the supplements updates a catalogof temperatures for FGK dwarfs (see Taylor 1994b). The other supplementupdates a catalog of averaged values of [Fe/H] for the same stars (seeTaylor 1994d). The combined catalogs and supplements include values of[Fe/H] published through the end of 1993. Detailed instructions aregiven for catalog users, including an algorithm for adding data to the[Fe/H] catalog. For recent sources of [Fe/H] which require comment,discussions of issues such as data editing and zero-pint corrections aregiven. A review is also given of a problem described by Gray (1994), whofinds that his spectroscopic temperatures and photometric temperaturesfrom Paper II scatter more around their mean relation than one wouldexpect from the contributing rms errors. It is found that near-Sunreddening (which is Gray's preferred solution of the problem) is not adefensible explanation for this scatter. For the moment, the real sourceof the scatter remains unknown. (SECTION: Stars) The solar-stellar spectrograph: Project description, data calibration, and initial resultsThe Solar-Stellar Spectrograph (SSS) is a project initiated in the 1980sby scientists from the High Altitude Observatory, Lowell Observatory,the Pennsylvania State Universty, and the Sacramento Peak Observatory.The instrument is comprised of two spectrographs: one is an echellecovering the wavelength range lambda lambda 5000-9200, while the secondis a Littrow spectrograph covering the Ca II and H and K region aroundlambda 3950. This project is designed to address a broad range ofoutstanding questions regarding the nature of stellar activity cycles.The unique capability of the spectrograph is its ability to record bothsolar and stellar spectra, allowing more accurate placement of the Sunin the stellar context than has been feasible previously. In this reportwe discuss the motivation for this project, the instrumentalcharacteristics, the observing programs, the methods being used toreduce, calibrate, and analyze the data, and the connection of ourdatabases to extant databases. A central part of the discussion is theconnection of the Sun with the stars both in terms of existing solar andstellar activity indices as well as physical flux. This work resolves along-standing discrepancy in this area and establishes a protocol forrelating the large set of observations from the Mount Wilson Ca II H andK project to physical flux, in preparation for future comparison to ourobservations and results from theory. Chromospheric variations in main-sequence starsThe fluxes in passbands 0.1 nm wide and centered on the Ca II H and Kemission cores have been monitored in 111 stars of spectral type F2-M2on or near the main sequence in a continuation of an observing programstarted by O. C. Wilson. Most of the measurements began in 1966, withobservations scheduled monthly until 1980, when observations werescheduled sevral times per week. The records, with a long-term precisionof about 1.5%, display fluctuations that can be identified withvariations on timescales similar to the 11 yr cycle of solar activity aswell as axial rotation, and the growth and decay of emitting regions. Wepresent the records of chromospheric emission and general conclusionsabout variations in surface magnetic activity on timescales greater than1 yr but less than a few decades. The results for stars of spectral typeG0-K5 V indicate a pattern of change in rotation and chromosphericactivity on an evolutionary timescale, in which (1) young stars exhibithigh average levels of activity, rapid rotation rates, no Maunderminimum phase and rarely display a smooth, cyclic variation; (2) starsof intermediate age (approximately 1-2 Gyr for 1 solar mass) havemoderate levels of activity and rotation rates, and occasional smoothcycles; and (3) stars as old as the Sun and older have slower rotationrates, lower activity levels and smooth cycles with occasional Maunderminimum-phases.
Submit a new article