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 A wide-field HI study of the NGC 1566 groupWe report on neutral hydrogen observations of a ~ 5.5 × 5.5deg2 field around the NGC 1566 galaxy group with themultibeam narrow-band system on the 64-m Parkes Telescope. We detected13 HI sources in the field, including two galaxies not previously knownto be members of the group, bringing the total number of confirmedgalaxies in this group to 26. Each of the HI galaxies can be associatedwith an optically catalogued galaxy. No intergalactic HI clouds' werefound to an HI mass limit of ~3.5 ×108Msolar. We have estimated the expected HIcontent of the late-type galaxies in this group and find that the totaldetected HI is consistent with our expectations. However, while noglobal HI deficiency is inferred for this group, two galaxies exhibitindividual HI deficiencies. Further observations are needed to determinethe gas removal mechanisms in these galaxies. On the alignment between binary spiral galaxiesWe show some significance against the null hypothesis of randominteractions of binary spiral galaxies, and in favour of the alternativethat more interactions than expected occur for axes either nearlyparallel (spins being parallel or anti-parallel) or nearly orthogonal.We discuss this in the context of similar prior studies, using adifferent statistical focus in such a way that we are able toincorporate additional data. Cold dust and molecular gas towards the centers of Magellanic type galaxies and irregulars. I. The dataWe present 1300 μm continuum emission measurements and observationsof the 12CO (1-0) and (2-1) transition towards the centers of64 Magellanic type galaxies (Sdm/Sm) and irregulars (Im/I0/Irr). Thesources are selected to have IRAS flux densities S100 μm≥1000 mJy and optical diameters mainly below 180 arcsec. We wereable to detect 12CO towards 41 and the continuum emissiontowards 28 galaxies. In addition, we obtained the corresponding data fora set of 6 complementary galaxies of different morphological type.Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla, Chile and IRAM, PicoVeleta, Spain.The full version of Figs. \ref{spec1.fig} and \ref{spec2.fig} is onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org A targeted survey for H i clouds in galaxy groupsFive galaxy groups with properties similar to those of the Local Grouphave been surveyed for Hi clouds with the Arecibo Telescope. In total300 pointings have been observed on grids of approximately2.5×1.5Mpc2 centred on the groups. The 4.5σdetection limit on the minimal detectable Hi masses is approximately7×106Msolar(H0=65kms-1Mpc-1). All detections couldbe attributed to optical galaxies; no significant detections of Hiclouds have been made. This null result leads to the conclusion that thetotal Hi mass of intragroup clouds must be less than 10 per cent of thetotal Hi mass of galaxy groups and less than 0.05 per cent of thedynamical mass. The recent hypothesis that Galactic high-velocity cloudsare Local Group satellite galaxies is highly inconsistent with theseobservations. Status of H I searches for CHVCs beyond the Local GroupGrowing evidence supports the suggestion that the compact high-velocityclouds of H I (CHVCs) are located throughout the Local Group andcontinue to fuel galactic evolution. Recent distance estimates toindividual objects lie in the range 150-850 kpc, implying an H I massrange of 105.7->107.2 Msun togetherwith sizes ranging from 2-12 kpc, while the average linewidth is 30 kms-1 FWHM. It is natural to ask whether objects of this typewould not already have been seen by current blind H I surveys of theextragalactic sky. We consider the properties of the deepest publishedsurveys of this type and conclude that the sensitivity and coverage havenow begun to reveal the high mass end of the distribution(MHI>107 Msun). Achieving detectionlimits an order of magnitude deeper should finally enable direct studyof these systems beyond the Local Group, or definitively rule out theirexistence. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. Arcsecond Positions of UGC GalaxiesWe present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only. The Mass-to-Light Ratio of Binary GalaxiesWe report on the mass-to-light ratio determination based on a newlyselected binary galaxy sample, which includes a large number of pairswhose separations exceed a few hundred kpc. The probabilitydistributions of the projected separation and the velocity differencehave been calculated considering the contamination of optical pairs, andthe mass-to-light (M/L) ratio has been determined based on the maximumlikelihood method. The best estimate of the M/L in the B band for 57pairs is found to be 28-36 depending on the orbital parameters and thedistribution of optical pairs (solar unit: H_0=50 km s^-1 Mpc^-1). Thebest estimate of the M/L for 30 pure spiral pairs is found to be 12-16.These results are relatively smaller than those obtained in previousstudies but are consistent with each other within the errors. Althoughthe number of pairs with large separation is significantly increasedcompared with previous samples, the M/L does not show any tendency ofincrease but is found to be almost independent of the separation ofpairs beyond 100 kpc. The constancy of the M/L beyond 100 kpc mayindicate that the typical halo size of spiral galaxies is less than ~100kpc. Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Polarimetry and modelling of narrow-line active galaxiesWe present optical spectropolarimetry along with optical and infraredbroad-band filter polarimetry of selected warm [f(25 μm)/f(60μm)>=0.3] IRAS galaxies and other known Seyfert 2 galaxies. Broadlines in polarized flux have been detected in a number of type 2 IRASgalaxies. From a determination of the intrinsic polarization of thescattered radiation it has been possible to model the optical andnear-IR flux density and degrees of polarization, for a number ofobjects, with a cone-based scattering geometry. In all these cases anadditional polarizing mechanism was required to match the near-IR data,and this was successfully modelled by a dichroic view of the near-IRemitting regions through the postulated torus which surrounds the type 1core. For those objects which show broad lines in polarized flux, andfor which the intrinsic polarization of the scattered radiation could becalculated, the inclinations to the line of sight tend to be low. Thebroad Hα luminosities calculated for the IRAS galaxies are moretypical of QSOs than Seyfert 1 galaxies. Only a fraction of the IRASgalaxies observed exhibit broad lines in polarized flux indicating thateither the scattering region is also obscured, or the broad lines arethermally broadened and rendered unobservable, or the unified theory isincorrect. Evidence supporting the former case is presented. An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect. Recalibration of the H-0.5 magnitudes of spiral galaxiesThe H-magnitude aperture data published by the Aaronson et al.collaboration over a 10 year period is collected into a homogeneous dataset of 1731 observations of 665 galaxies. Ninety-six percent of thesegalaxies have isophotal diameters and axial ratios determined by theThird Reference Cataloque of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al.1991), the most self-consistent set of optical data currently available.The precepts governing the optical data in the RC3 are systematicallydifferent from those of the Second Reference Catalogue (de Vaucouleurs,de Vaucouleurs, & Corwin 1976), which were used by Aaronson et al.for their original analyses of galaxy peculiar motions. This in turnleads to systematic differences in growth curves and fiducialH-magnitudes, prompting the present recalibration of the near-infraredTully-Fisher relationship. New optically normalized H-magnitude growthcurves are defined for galaxies of types SO to Im, from which new valuesof fiducial H-magnitudes, Hg-0.5, are measured forthe 665 galaxies. A series of internal tests show that these fourstandard growth curves are defined to an accuracy of 0.05 mag over theinterval -1.5 less than or equal to log (A/Dg) less than orequal to -0.2. Comparisons with the Aaronson et al. values of diameters,axial ratios, and fiducial H-magnitudes show the expected differences,given the different definitions of these parameters. The values ofHg-0.5 are assigned quality indices: a qualityvalue of 1 indicates an accuracy of less than 0.2 mag, quality 2indicates an accuracy of 0.2-0.35 mag, and quality 3 indicates anaccuracy of more than 0.35 mag. Revised values of corrected H I velocitywidths are also given, based on the new set of axial ratios defiend bythe RC3. Automatic selection of new Hα emission-line galaxies using MAMA.A full set of algorithms for the automatic analysis of low-resolutionobjective-prism spectra has been developed with the aim of finding newemission-line galaxies (ELGs) candidates from the UniversidadComplutense de Madrid (UCM) survey prism plates. An objective-prismplate and a direct plate, used for pairing objects and to performstar-galaxy separation, have been scanned with the MAMA machine. Theplates were taken in the red region of the spectrum, using theHα+[NII] blend in emission as selection criterion. The procedure,applied to digitized spectra, is able to automatically select ELGscandidates. Density to intensity transformation has not been used in ourmethod; the detection of the emission is performed applying threeindependent criteria over the one-dimensional spectra in raw data. Theautomatically selected sample is compared with that obtained after acareful visual scan. Spectroscopic observations at moderate spectralresolution are presented for the whole sample of candidates in order tostudy the drawbacks and the biases of both methods. Galaxy structures in the Hercules region216 redshifts have been obtained in a region of 981 sq deg south of theHercules supercluster. 172 of these redshifts are of galaxies withmpg less than or equal to 15.1, 110 of which had no previousvelocity measurement. 44 new redshifts are of galaxies fainter thanmpg = 15.1. With these new data we have been able to define asample in a vast region (approximately 1700 sq deg) around Herculeslimited to mpg less than or equal to 15.1 with a velocitycompleteness of 81.5%. 189 galaxies have been morphologically classifiedso that all galaxies in the sample with known velocity now also haveknown morphology. The magnitude limited sample, including 556 galaxies,is then used to identify and describe galaxy structures in the region.We find that the overdense volume is small, that its overall appearanceis that of a coral branch floating in a sea of nothing and that earlyand late type galaxies defined different structures. Global properties of dwarf galaxies. I. Galaxy sample and IRAS infrared flux-densitiesWe have selected a sample of 278 dwarf galaxies for which at least Bmagnitudes and preferably also optical colour information are available.For those galaxies that have no previously published IRAS fluxes, wehave used the IRAS database to extract fluxes or upper limits tosensitivity levels significantly better than those of the IRAS PointSource Catalog. New IRAS data include 79 galaxies detected in at leastone band, and 66 galaxies with good upper limits. In total, about 60% ofall dwarf galaxies in the sample now have been detected at 60/100μm. Global properties of dwarf galaxies II. Colours and luminositiesWe have used a previously determined sample of 278 dwarf galaxies formost of which B magnitudes, optical colours, HI fluxes and IRASflux-densities are known, in order to derive luminosities, colours andsurface brightnesses. Dwarf galaxy properties are compared to those of acontrol sample of 228 larger spiral galaxies. The dwarf galaxies have onaverage higher 60/100μm flux ratios and lower 12/25μm flux ratiosthan the spiral galaxies, indicating that the contribution of cirrus'to the infrared emission from dwarf galaxies is relativelyinsignificant. In the dwarf galaxies, the 60/100μm flux ratioincreases with increasing optical blueness; spiral galaxies show theopposite. Dwarf galaxies with a low optical surface brightness have low100μm/HI ratios, but the converse is not true. Galaxies with high100μm/HI ratios (indicative of high dust-to-gas ratios) also havehigh FIR/B ratios as well as high 60/100μm flux-density ratios.Although this is true for both spiral and dwarf galaxies, at given100μm/HI ratios the dwarf galaxies have both a lower FIR/B ratio anda higher 60/100μm flux-density ratio. This result is of importance inthe interpretation of FIR/B - 60/100μm diagrams in terms of starformation activity. Dynamics of Binary Galaxies. I. Wide PairsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993ApJ...419...30C&db_key=AST General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groupsWe present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog. Velocity differences in binary galaxies. I - Suggestions for a nonmonotonic, two-component distributionA compilation of published high-precision velocities for 107 isolatedgalaxies is presented and used to obtain the distribution function oftheir velocity differences. The distribution shows a peak at the zerodifference as expected, but it also exhibits a preference for valuesnear 72 km/2. The distribution function declines smoothly beyond about72 km/s, with no significant peaks at multiples of 72 km/s, as claimedby Tifft (1977, 1980, 1982). It is argued that criteria for selectionprocedures on binary galaxy samples which are defined on the basis oftoo narrow a projected separation in the sky can produce a nonmonotonicdistribution if the orbits are eccentric. Such orbits can produce astrong secondary peak only if the level of incompleteness inbinary-galaxy samples is quite high, suggesting that the presentstatistical estimates of the masses of binary galaxies should bereevaluated. A survey of small-scale extremes in extinction at low Galactic latitudes using IRAS galaxiesOptical CCD and 21 cm H I data are combined here via the Tully-Fisherrelation to study the Galactic extinction in the V an I bands over anangular scale of a few arcmin at absolute Galactic latitudes between 2and 16 deg. Extinctions in V and I bands are found to be linearlycorrelated with A(I) about 0.58 A(V), with no noticeable environmentaldependence and consistent with existing results of Galactic reddening.There is a large scatter in the simple linear relation with csc /b/,confirming the existence of 'holes' and patches at low Galacticlatitudes. The mean correlation between Galactic extinction and H Icolumn density over a comparable angular scale is also found to beconsistent with those at high latitudes over large angular scales.Correlation is also found between optical extinction and the IRAS 100micron sky brightness, and this sky brightness is only slightly worsethan H I column density as an indicator for optical extinction. The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalogIRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths. The abundance and morphological segregation of dwarf galaxies in the fieldAttention has been drawn to the importance of environmental effects,given a strong morphological segregation of the dwarf galaxies. A simplequantitative test for segregation between dwarfs and giants issuggested. The dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies are considered to beconfined to the clouds and to strongly prefer dense environments on allscales. Their abundance (per giant) is observed to be much lower in thefield than in the clusters and the few dE systems outside of theclusters (i.e., in the clouds) look like companions to the giantgalaxies. Thus, the dwarf galaxies are shown to obey amorphology-density relation in the same way as the giants do, and notonly in the restricted environment of the Virgo cluster. The Wasilewski sample of emission-line galaxies - Follow-up CCD imaging and spectroscopic and IRAS observationsThe results of an extensive imaging and spectroscopic follow-up of theobjective prism-selected emission line galaxy (ELG) sample of Wasilewski(1982) are presented. Fluxes at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns were alsoobtained from the coadded IRAS survey data. ELGs found by objectiveprism surveys are found to be generally small and underluminous galaxieswhich usually have higher than average optical surface brightness. TheSeyfert detection rate in objective prism surveys is roughly 10 percentand the ratio of the space densities of Seyfert 2 to Seyfert 1 galaxiesis significantly larger than unity. Most of the galaxies selected byobjective prism surveys are star-forming, late-type spirals which oftenshow disturbed morphology. About 25 percent of the galaxies detected bythe surveys are faint, high-excitation metal-poor compact H II regions. Quantization of redshift differences in isolated galaxy pairsImproved 21 cm data on isolated galaxy pairs are presented whicheliminate questions of inhomogeneity in the data on such pairs andreduce observational error to below 5 km/s. Quantization is sharpened,and the 'zero' peak is shown to be displaced from zero to a locationnear 24 km/s. An exclusion principle is suggested whereby identicalredshifts are forbidden in limited volumes. The radio data and data fromSchweizer (1987) are combined with the best optical data on closeKarachentsev pairs to provide a cumulative sample of 84 of the bestdifferentials now available. New 21 cm observations are used to test forthe presence of small differentials in very wide pairs, and thedeficiency near zero is found to continue to very wide spacings. A lossof wide pairs by selection bias cannot produce the observed zerodeficiency. A new test using pairs selected from the Fisher-Tullycatalog is used to demonstrate quantization properties of thirdcomponents associated with possible pairs. Uncertainties in 21 centimeter redshifts. I - DataHigh-precision data on the 21-cm redshifts, profile widths, and shapesfor 625 galaxies are presented. Each galaxy is listed in across-identification and morphology table. High-resolution spectra arealso given for each galaxy. Internal redshift consistency is roughly 1km/s for galaxies for which the S/N is above 15. No systematic effectshave been found which might influence the observed redshift quantizationat 72.5 km/s or its submultiples. Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - BinariesA new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass. The spatial distribution of dwarf galaxies in the CfA slice of the universeA complete (with the the exception of one) redshift sample of 58galaxies in the Nilson catalog classified as dwarf, irregular, orMagellanic irregular is used to investigate the large-scale clusteringproperties of these low-surface brightness galaxies in the CfA slice ofthe universe (alpha in the range of 8-17 h, delta in the range of26.5-32.5 deg). It is found that the low-surface brightness dwarfgalaxies also lie on the structures delineated by the high-surfacebrightness normal galaxies and that they do not fill in the voids. Thisis inconsistent with a class of biased galaxy formation theories whichpredict that dwarf galaxies should be present everywhere, including thevoids. Empirical properties of nearby groups of galaxiesA new list of nearby groups was composed by Vennik (1984) on the basisof radial velocity data of galaxies using the hierarchical clusteringtechnique described by Materne (1978) and Tully (1980). This paperpresents a detailed analysis of empirical properties of groups on thebasis of that list. Various group selection criteria are compared, andthe main parameters of individual groups, possible selection effects,and relationships between various properties of the groups arediscussed. Synthesized groups are composed based on the luminosities ofthe groups and the dominating morphology. High signal-to-noise ratio observations of H I in 243 galaxiesThe 21 cm spectral-line system of the Arecibo Observatory was used tomeasure neutral hydrogen emission from 243 faint galaxies. Most lie nearthe plane of the Local Supercluster. All observations reach anunsmoothed signal-to-noise ratio of at least 7.0; the average for theset is 23. The resulting data are used to estimate H I masses, systemicvelocities, and accurate profile widths at 20 percent, 25 percent, 50percent, and 80 percent of peak intensity levels. The widths are used tocalibrate directly the bias introduced by popular data-smoothingoperation. The data include observations of 65 objects with previouslyunknown redshifts. Enhanced radio emission in binary spiral galaxiesA comparison is conducted between the radio emission characteristics ofa sample of isolated pairs of spiral galaxies and those of a sample ofisolated spiral galaxies for which complete distance information isavailable. It is noted that double galaxy total emission is, on average,a factor of 2 more powerful than that of isolated spiral galaxies ofcomparable luminosity. The radio emission enhancement in these doublegalaxies is correlated with a tidal index, in keeping with a tidalorigin for the enhancement.
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