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Orientation and size of the `Z' in X-shaped radio galaxies
Some X-shaped radio galaxies show a Z-symmetric morphology in the lessluminous secondary lobes. Within the scenario of a merger between twogalaxies, each hosting a supermassive black hole in its centre, thisstructure has been explained before. As the smaller galaxy spiralstowards the common centre, it releases gas to the interstellar medium ofthe larger active galaxy. The ram pressure of this streaming gas willbend the lobes of the pre-merger jet into a Z-shape. After the blackholes have merged, the jet propagates in a new direction that is alignedwith the angular momentum of the binary black hole. In this paper wedeproject the pre- and post-merger jets. Taking into account theexpected angles between the jet pairs and with the assumption that theirdirections are uncorrelated, we show that one of three possibleorientations of the jets with respect to the line of sight is morelikely than the others. This actually depends on the distance where thebending occurs. Another result of our deprojection is that the streaminggas bends the jet into a Z-shape in a range between about 30 and 100 kpcdistance to the centre of the primary galaxy. We confirm this finding bycomparing our predictions for the properties of the rotational velocityfield and its radius with observations and numerical simulations ofmerging galaxies. Thus, our results support the merger scenario asexplanation for X- and Z-shaped radio galaxies with the jet pointingalong the former axis of orbital angular momentum of the binary.

The dark halo in the elliptical galaxy NGC 3108
We investigate the properties of the dark halo of the dust-laneelliptical galaxy NGC 3108. This galaxy contains a large massive gaseousdisk, which shows rapid and regular rotation. That makes NGC 3108 atarget for measurements usually feasible only for spriral galaxies.Combining spectroscopic measurements of the disk in the optical- and theradio regime, we provide a reliable rotation curve of the galaxy out to3 R_eff and show that the rotation curve does not decline up to a radiusof 5.5 R_eff corresponding to 28 kpc

Line-of-Sight Reddening Predictions: Zero Points, Accuracies, the Interstellar Medium, and the Stellar Populations of Elliptical Galaxies
Revised (B-V)0-Mg2 data, which are used to testreddening predictions, are presented for 402 elliptical galaxies. Thesereddening predictions can tell us both what the intrinsic errors are inthis relationship among gE galaxy stellar populations as well as detailsof nearby structure in the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy, andof the intrinsic errors in reddening predictions. Using least-squaresfits, the explicit 1 σ errors in reddenings predicted by theBurstein-Heiles (BH) method and the Schlegel and coworkers (IR) methodare calculated, as well as the 1 σ observational error in the(B-V)0-Mg2 for gE galaxies. It is found that indirections with E(B-V)<0.100 mag (where most of these galaxies lie),1 σ errors in the IR reddening predictions are 0.006-0.009 mag inE(B-V), those for BH reddening predictions are 0.011 mag, and the 1σ agreement between the two reddening predictions is 0.007 mag.The IR predictions have an accuracy of 0.010-0.011 mag in directionswith E(B-V)>=0.100 mag, significantly better than those of the BHpredictions (0.024-0.025). Both methods yield good evidence thatgas-to-dust variations that vary by a factor of 3, both high and low,exist along many lines of sight in our Galaxy. Both methods also predictmany directions with E(B-V)<0.015 mag, despite the difference in zeropoint that each has assumed. The ~0.02 higher reddening zero point inE(B-V) previously determined by Schlegel and coworkers is confirmed,primarily at the Galactic poles. Independent evidence of reddening atthe north Galactic pole (NGP) is reviewed, with the conclusion thatdirections still exist at the NGP that have E(B-V)<<0.01. Twolines of evidence suggest that IR reddenings are overpredicted indirections with high gas-to-dust ratios. As high gas-to-dust directionsin the ISM also include the Galactic poles, this overprediction is thelikely cause of the E(B-V)~0.02 mag larger IR reddening zero pointrelative to that of BH.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

A catalogue and analysis of local galaxy ages and metallicities
We have assembled a catalogue of relative ages, metallicities andabundance ratios for about 150 local galaxies in field, group andcluster environments. The galaxies span morphological types from cD andellipticals, to late-type spirals. Ages and metallicities were estimatedfrom high-quality published spectral line indices using Worthey &Ottaviani (1997) single stellar population evolutionary models. Theidentification of galaxy age as a fourth parameter in the fundamentalplane (Forbes, Ponman & Brown 1998) is confirmed by our largersample of ages. We investigate trends between age and metallicity, andwith other physical parameters of the galaxies, such as ellipticity,luminosity and kinematic anisotropy. We demonstrate the existence of agalaxy age-metallicity relation similar to that seen for local galacticdisc stars, whereby young galaxies have high metallicity, while oldgalaxies span a large range in metallicities. We also investigate theinfluence of environment and morphology on the galaxy age andmetallicity, especially the predictions made by semi-analytichierarchical clustering models (HCM). We confirm that non-clusterellipticals are indeed younger on average than cluster ellipticals aspredicted by the HCM models. However we also find a trend for the moreluminous galaxies to have a higher [Mg/Fe] ratio than the lowerluminosity galaxies, which is opposite to the expectation from HCMmodels.

Extended H I Disks in Dust Lane Elliptical Galaxies
We present the results of H I observations of five dust lane ellipticalgalaxies with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Two galaxies (NGC3108 and NGC 1947) are detected, and sensitive upper limits are obtainedfor the other three. In the two detected galaxies, the H I isdistributed in a regular, extended, and warped disklike structure of lowsurface brightness. Adding data from the literature, we find thatseveral more dust lane elliptical galaxies have regular H I structures.This H I is likely to be a remnant of accretions and/or mergers thattook place a considerable time ago and in which a significant fractionof the gas survived to form a disk. The presence of regular H Istructures suggests that some mergers lead to galaxies with extended lowsurface brightness density gas disks. These gas disks will evolve veryslowly, and these elliptical galaxies will remain gas-rich for a longperiod of time. One of the galaxies we observed (NGC 3108) has a verylarge amount of neutral hydrogen(MHI=4.5×109 MsolarMHI/LB~0.09), which is very regularly distributedin an annulus extending to a radius of ~6 Reff. Thekinematics of the H I distribution suggest that the rotation curve ofNGC 3108 is flat out to at least the last observed point. We estimate amass-to-light ratio of M/LB~18Msolar/LB,solar at a radius of ~6Refffrom the center. Several of the galaxies we observed have an unusuallylow gas-to-dust ratio MHI/Mdust, suggesting thattheir cold interstellar medium, if present as expected from the presenceof dust, may be mainly in molecular rather than atomic form. Based onobservations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), which isfunded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a NationalFacility managed by CSIRO.

H I in Four Star-forming Low-Luminosity E/S0 and S0 Galaxies
We present H I data cubes of four low-luminosity early-type (E/S0 andS0) galaxies that are currently forming stars. These galaxies haveabsolute magnitudes in the range MB=-17.9 to -19.9(H0=50 km s-1 Mpc-1). Their H I massesrange between a few times 108 and a few times 109Msolar, and the corresponding values forMHI/LB are between 0.07 and 0.42, so these systemsare H I-rich for their morphological type. In all four galaxies, the H Iis strongly centrally concentrated with high central H I surfacedensities, in contrast to what is typically observed in more luminousearly-type galaxies. Star formation is occurring only in the centralregions. In two galaxies (NGC 802 and ESO 118-G34), the kinematics ofthe H I suggests that the gas is in a strongly warped disk, which wetake as evidence for recent accretion of H I. In the other two galaxies(NGC 2328 and ESO 027-G21), the H I must have been part of the systemsfor a considerable time. The H I properties of low-luminosity early-typegalaxies appear to be systematically different from those of many moreluminous early-type galaxies, and we suggest that these differences aredue to a different evolution of the two classes. The star formationhistory of these galaxies remains unclear. Their UBV colors and Hαemission-line strengths are consistent with having formed stars at aslowly declining rate for most of the past 1010 yr. If so,their star formation history would be intermediate between late-typespiral disks and giant elliptical galaxies. However, the current data donot rule out a small burst of recent star formation overlaid on an olderstellar population. Three of the galaxies have weak radio continuumemission, and the ratio of the far-infrared (FIR) to radio continuumemission is very similar to that of spirals of similar FIR or radioluminosity. We find that, except in the largest galaxy observed, theradio continuum emission can be accounted for solely by thermal(free-free) emission from H II regions, with no nonthermal (synchrotron)disk component. Thus, although these galaxies have gaseous disks, a diskmagnetic field may be very weak or absent. Based on observations withthe Australia Telescope Compact Array. The Australia Telescope is fundedby the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facilitymanaged by CSIRO.

HI in early-type galaxies
We summarise the HI properties of early-type galaxies, in particular thedifferences in HI morphologies observed in early-type galaxies ofdifferent luminosities. We find that in low-luminosity early-typegalaxies the HI is almost always in a disk-like structure, with centralsurface densities high enough for star formation to occur. In a fewluminous early-type galaxies the HI is also in a disk or in a ring-likestructure, but in most luminous early-type galaxies the HI has arelatively irregular morphology. The surface densities in the HI disksin luminous early-type galaxies are lower than in the HI disks in low-luminosity early-type galaxies and no large-scale star formation shouldoccur in these disks. We discuss these different HI characteristics inthe context of other properties of early-type galaxies that correlatewith luminosity.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.

Metallicity Gradients in Early Type Galaxies
Long-slit spectra in the range 4500-6500 A have been obtained for asample of 42 galaxies. Rotation velocities and velocity dispersions,together with radial line strength gradients of Mg_2_, Mg_1_, Hβ,NaD, TiO_1_, TiO_2_ and Fe_5270_, have been measured to, on average,half an effective radius. To a high level of significance, Mg_2_gradients positively correlate with those of Mg_1_ and Na D, but nocorrelation is observed with the other indices. In addition,correlations of Mg_2_ gradients with various physical parameters arestudied. For galaxies smaller than about 10^11^ M_sun_, the Mg_2_gradient increases with increasing mass, but more massive objects showno correlation. In low- mass galaxies, the correlation of Mg_2_gradients with mass suggests dissipative collapse as the mechanismacting during the initial star formation episode. Different formationmechanisms, such as, for example, a less dissipative collapse and/ormerging of smaller systems, are discussed as a means of explaining thelack of correlation at higher masses. Even at low masses, the galacticmass seems not to influence either the position or the slope on theFe_5270_-Mg_2_ plane, abundance ratios within galaxies depending onstill-unidentified parameters.

Angular Momentum Loss During The Formation of Elliptical Galaxies
Not Available

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

The role played by rotation and random motions in elliptical galaxies
The observable kinematical quantities (rotation velocity and velocitydispersion) of elliptical galaxies are affected, among other things, bythe integration of the light along the line of sight. We present amethod to spatially deproject the rotation velocity curve and thevelocity dispersion profile. The application to a sample of 54ellipticals shows that, as is it widely recognized, the total kineticenergy originates mainly from the random motions, and that there is nocorrelation between rotation and velocity dispersion. If the correctionwith respect to the line-of-sight integration is taken into account, thecorrelation between the total absolute magnitude and the rotationparameter log(V/sigma)* turns out to be rather weak, while boxy anddisky ellipticals appear to be separated both in the (T(V), T-sigma)plane and in the (M(B),log(V/sigma)*) plane, thus confirming theexistence of different dynamical properties between these two classes ofobjects.

The ordered nature of elliptical galaxies - Implications for their intrinsic angular momenta and shapes
Results are presented of the observations of rotation along the majorand minor axes of 38 elliptical galaxies to determine their intrinsicstructure. A variety of models which are able to reproduce the observeddistribution of apparent ellipticities and apparent kinematicmisalignments are presented. It is argued from the presence ofkinematical subsystems in the cores of NGC 4365 and NGC 4406 that thegalaxies have angular momenta oriented close to the long axis. Theresults from models which include galaxies with large intrinsicmisalignments suggest that 10-20 percent is a reasonable estimate of thefraction with such intrinsic misalignments. All solutions obtained giveacceptable fits to the data.

Properties of elliptical galaxies with dust lanes
The new galactic class of elliptical galaxies with dust lanes ischaracterized by an elliptical stellar body crossed along the minor axisby a dust lane. Ninety objects are presently listed as dust laneellipticals. In this paper, the morphological, statistical, kinematical,and photometric properties of these galaxies are described. The natureof the warps seen in the dust lanes in some of the galaxies isaddressed.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. III - UBV aperture photometry, CCD photometry, and magnitude-related parameters
Photoelectric aperture photometry of nearly 2000 individual observationsof 449 elliptical galaxies combined with published measurements usingthe self-consistent UVB color catalog developed by Burstein et al.(1987) are presented. The data are placed on a standard magnitude andcolor system, and 'total' magnitudes and effective diameters are derivedby comparison with the standard elliptical magnitude growth curve. Agraphical representation of the standard growth curve and the residualsfrom it for each galaxy are given, and a new diameter measurement Dn ispresented which can be measured reliably for elliptical galaxies andserves as an accurate distance indicator when combined with centralvelocity dispersion. Individual magnitudes, surface brightnesses,effective diameters, and values of Dn are summarized for each galaxy incatalog form.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. II - The spectroscopic parameters
Radial velocities, velocity dispersions, and Mg line-strength indicesare measured for 469 elliptical galaxies using four telescope/detectorconfigurations. The data have been put on a common scale; the scatter ofrepeat measurements indicates an uncertainty of + or - 10 percent and +or - 0.01 mag for single determinations of sigma and Mg2, respectively.A correction for the change in linear aperture size as a function ofdistance has been derived, and mean corrected values of sigma and Mg2are adopted. The galaxies have been assigned to groups by combining thepresent velocities with those in the redshift catalog of Huchra et al.(1983) and using the algorithm of Huchra and Geller (1982).

A catalogue of early-type galaxies with emission lines
Spectroscopic and photometric data on 289 early-type galaxies (E and S0)with optical emission lines are presented and possible correlationsamong properties of the galaxies in the sample are investigated. Theoccurrence of phenomena as radio emission, presence of neutral hydrogenand dust shows an increase in comparison with the occurrence of the samephenomena in these morphological classes as a whole. There is noevidence of a relationship between apparent shape and presence ofionized gas in the central regions.

Southern Galaxy Catalogue.
Not Available

A catalog of stellar velocity dispersions. I - Compilation and standard galaxies
A catalog of central stellar velocity dispersion measurements ispresented, current through June 1984. The catalog includes 1096measurements of 725 galaxies. A set of 51 standard galaxies is definedwhich consists of galaxies with at least three reliable, concordantmeasurements. It is suggested that future studies observed some of thesestandard galaxies in the course of their observations so that differentstudies can be normalized to the same system. Previous studies arecompared with the derived standards to determine relative accuracies andto compute scale factors where necessary.

A catalog of dusty elliptical galaxies
A catalog of about 100 dusty elliptical galaxies and some relatedobjects is presented. A morphological classification system is proposed,and the observed dust lane characteristics of some of the individualgalaxies are described. The properties of the galaxies are discussed,including the distribution of morphological types, their radioproperties, radio source orientation, neutral hydrogen, kinematics anddynamics, and relationship to other types of peculiar galaxies.

The Antlia cluster of galaxies and its environment - The Hydra I-Centaurus supercluster
The small Antlia cluster of galaxies was investigated by measuring manyradial velocities for galaxies from the Lauberts catalog in the Antliaregion. Apart from the Antlia cluster itself, four more small groupswere identified. These five systems form a tiny but not bound Antliamini-supercluster. The mini-supercluster consists of small groups andclusters and of a dispersed component of field galaxies. The five galaxysystems are also part of the large Hydra I-Centaurus supercluster. Thislarge supercluster belongs now to the class of well observed ones. Ithas a chain-like filamentary structure. This supercluster seems to beconnected to the Local Supercluster via two very extended but very loosegroups. The total structure is the triangle-shaped Virgo-HydraI-Centaurus supercluster.

Supplement to the detailed bibliography on the surface photometry of galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...60..517P&db_key=AST

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:10h02m29.40s
Aparent dimensions:2.818′ × 2.344′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names
NGC 2000.0NGC 3108

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