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NGC 4444



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Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

An HI survey for protogalaxies in the Centaurus and Fornax galaxy clusters
The results of 21-cm neutral hydrogen survey observations, made usingthe 64-m Parkes telescope, are presented for two 8 deg by 8 deg fields,centred on the Centaurus and Fornax galaxy clusters, and a smaller 1deg.5 field in Eridanus. The purpose of the observations was to searchfor extended Hi clouds with no clear optical counterparts. 31 previouslycatalogued galaxies were detected, with Hi parameters for 16 beinglisted for the first time. One previously uncatalogued dwarf galaxy(`Wombat I', J0341-3851) was found near the Fornax cluster. AustraliaTelescope Compact Array observations give an Hi mass of 8x10^7 Msolarand a diameter of 4kpc for this object, which is also visible on UKSTsurvey plates. However, no clouds with optically invisible counterpartswere detected. We deduce a 99 per cent confidence limit on the total Hidensity of such objects in the cluster and near-cluster environment ofOmega_HI<10^-2h^-1(deltaV/100kms^-1.

The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.

Photometry of luminous spiral galaxies in the direction of the Great Attractor
This paper presents photoelectric multiaperture BVI magnitudes for ahomogeneous sample of luminous spirals in the direction of the GreatAttractor. The total magnitudes B(T) and the mean colors (B - V) and (B- I) were determined for each galaxy and analyzed. The (B - I) colorchanges linearly with csc b over the range 3-10 and has a slope of 0.071mag. The A super bB values calculated from B - I agrees wellwith the A super bB values derived following the precepts ofBurstein and Heiles (1978). The (B - I) super b values show a slope of0.47 with log R. The corrected absolute magnitudes M superb,i,zB of spirals show little variation with luminosityclasses I, I-II, and II and have a dispersion of 0.85 mag. The samplewith well determined luminosities exhibits a uniform distribution overlog v up to v about 10,000 km/s. There is an indication that aselection-bias favoring higher luminosity galaxies sets in for spiralgalaxies with v greater than 10,000 km/s. The spirals with v less than10,000 km/s place a limit of about 500 km/s on peculiar velocities in ornear the Great Attractor.

Redshifts of luminous spiral galaxies in the direction of the Great Attractor
The spatial distribution of a homogeneous samples of luminous spirals inthe direction of the 'Great Attractor' is studied. New radial velocitiesand published data yield redshifts for 94 percent of the sample. Thepresent survey, which does not include the cores of the Hydra andCentaurus clusters, shows no evidence for a major excess of velocitiesat or near the redshift of the Great Attractor. Luminous spirals withredshifts in the range 2000-4000 km/s are mainly distributed in a smallnumber of groups or clumps, whereas the spirals with redshifts in therange 4000-7000 km/s mostly appear to exhibit a rather smooth spatialdistribution.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

The supergalactic plane redshift survey
Redshift measurements, about 1000 of which are new, are presented for1314 galaxies in a survey toward the apex of the large-scale streamingflow for ellipticals. The velocity histogram shows that the excess ingalaxy number counts in this area is due to a substantial concentrationof galaxies with discrete peaks at V about 3000 km/s and V about 4500km/s. After correction for the sampling function, the centroid of thedensity distribution is found to be near V about 4500 km/s.Normalization to the more extensive SSRS survey, which was selected bythe same criteria, shows that the region studied contains a considerableoverdensity of galaxies from 2000 to 6000 km/s. This result is in goodagreement with the 'great attractor' model suggested by Lynden-Bell etal. (1988) which attributes the peculiar motions of elliptical galaxiesover a large region of space to an extensive mass overdensity whichincludes the Hydra-Centaurus and Pavo-Indus superclusters. The centroidof the density enhancement is also consistent with new data by Dresslerand Faber (1990) of peculiar motions of elliptical and spiral galaxies,both of which show a zero crossing of the Hubble line at approximately4500-5000 km/s.

A survey of high-luminosity spirals in the direction of the great attractor
Luminosity-classification techniques have been used to study galaxies in33 SRC Schmidt fields centered on the position of 'The Great Attractor'.A catalog and finding charts are given for 191 spiral galaxies, whichare probably of DDO luminosity classes I, I-II, or II. Radial velocitiesof these objects should provide considerable insight into thethree-dimensional structure of this region of space. The surfacedistribution of galaxies in the survey area is seen to be stronglyaffected by Galactic absorption. It is therefore not clear if anysignificance should be attached to the observation that there is noobvious concentration of galaxies at, or near, the position of The GreatAttractor.

BV photometry and radial velocities of southern spiral galaxies
Multiaperture photoelectric photometry for 119 southern spiral galaxiesand heliocentric velocities for 98 southern spiral galaxies obtainedfrom image-tube spectrograms are presented. The data were collected in1976, 1977, and 1978 at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Themagnitude and (B-V) color index are compared with aperture diameter inorder to determine if the present data correlate with previousmeasurements. The comparison reveals that the data correspond. Theinternal measurement error of the radial velocities is estimated; it isobserved that the internal error for one measurement is 41 km/sec.

Southern Galaxy Catalogue.
Not Available

Objectively determined pitch angles of spiral galaxies in the light of competing theories concerning the spiral structure
Subjective criteria play a more important part in studies of galaxiesthan in other areas of astrophysics. Problems arise in connection withthe determination of the pitch angle. This parameter represents acrucial quantity for each theory of the spiral structure. Adetermination of the pitch angle on the basis of a procedure which is asobjective as possible can, therefore, make a contribution towards adecision with respect to the competing theories of the spiral structure.The present investigation is concerned with such a determination. Thedigitizing of galaxy images on the Schmidt plates of the ESO(B) Surveyis discussed, and an objective determination of the pitch angle isdescribed. The two competing theories regarding spiral formation,including the density wave theory reported by Lin et al. (1969) and theconcept of stochastic self propagating star formation considered byGerola and Seiden (1978), are evaluated on the basis of the obtainedpitch angle data. It is found that the agreement between theory andempirical data is significantly more satisfactory in the case of theconcept of stochastic star formation.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h28m36.20s
Aparent dimensions:2.399′ × 2.042′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names
NGC 2000.0NGC 4444

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