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|Stellar populations in a complete sample of local radio galaxies|
We investigate the nature of the continuum emission and stellarpopulations in the inner 1-3 kpc of a complete sample of 24 southernradio galaxies, and we compare the results with a control sample of 18non-active early-type galaxies. 12 of the radio galaxies are classifiedas Fanaroff-Riley type I (FR I), eight as FR II and four as intermediateor undefined type (FR x). Optical long-slit spectra are used to performspectral synthesis as a function of distance from the nucleus at anaverage sampling of 0.5-1.0 kpc and to quantify the relativecontributions of a blue featureless continuum and stellar populationcomponents of different ages. Our main finding is a systematicdifference between the stellar populations of the radio and controlsample galaxies: the former have a larger contribution from anintermediate-age (1 Gyr) component, suggesting a connection between thepresent radio activity and a starburst which occurred ~1 Gyr ago. Inaddition, we find a correlation between the contribution of the 1-Gyrcomponent and the radio power, suggesting that more massive starburstshave led to more powerful radio emission. A similar relation is foundbetween the radio power and the mean age of the stellar population, inthe sense that stronger nuclear activity is found in younger galaxies.We also find that the stellar populations of FR I galaxies are, onaverage, older and more homogeneous than those of FR IIs. Significantpopulation gradients were found in only four radio galaxies, which arealso those with more than 10 per cent of their total flux at 4020Åcontributed by age components younger than 100 Myr and/or afeatureless continuum (indistinguishable from a 3-Myr-old stellarpopulation).
|On the Relevance of the Tremaine-Weinberg Method Applied to an Hα Velocity Field: Pattern Speed Determination in M100 (NGC 4321)|
The relevance of the Tremaine-Weinberg (TW) method is tested formeasuring bar, spiral, and inner structure pattern speeds using agaseous velocity field. The TW method is applied to various simulatedbarred galaxies in order to demonstrate its validity in seven differentconfigurations, including star formation and/or dark matter halo. Thereliability of the different physical processes involved and of thevarious observational parameters is also tested. The simulations showthat the TW method could be applied to gaseous velocity fields to get agood estimate of the bar pattern speed, under the condition that regionsof shocks are avoided and measurements are confined to regions where thegaseous bar is well formed. We successfully apply the TW method to theHα velocity field of the Virgo Cluster galaxy M100 (NGC 4321) andderive pattern speeds of 55+/-5 km s-1 kpc-1 forthe nuclear structure, 30+/-2 km s-1 kpc-1 for thebar, and 20+/-1 km s-1 kpc-1 for the spiralpattern, in full agreement with published determinations using the samemethod or alternative ones.
|Photometric properties and origin of bulges in SB0 galaxies|
We have derived the photometric parameters for the structural componentsof a sample of fourteen SB0 galaxies by applying a parametricphotometric decomposition to their observed I-band surface brightnessdistribution. We find that SB0 bulges are similar to bulges of theearly-type unbarred spirals, i.e. they have nearly exponential surfacebrightness profiles (< n>=1.48±0.16) and their effectiveradii are strongly coupled to the scale lengths of their surroundingdiscs (< r_e/h>=0.20±0.01). The photometric analysis alonedoes not allow us to differentiate SB0 bulges from unbarred S0 ones.However, three sample bulges have disc properties typical ofpseudobulges. The bulges of NGC 1308 and NGC 4340 rotate faster thanbulges of unbarred galaxies and models of isotropic oblate spheroidswith equal ellipticity. The bulge of IC 874 has a velocity dispersionlower than expected from the Faber-Jackson correlation and thefundamental plane of the elliptical galaxies and S0 bulges. Theremaining sample bulges are classical bulges, and are kinematicallysimilar to lower-luminosity ellipticals. In particular, they follow theFaber-Jackson correlation, lie on the fundamental plane and those forwhich stellar kinematics are available rotate as fast as the bulges ofunbarred galaxies.
|Nearby early-type galaxies with ionized gas. I. Line-strength indices of the underlying stellar population|
With the aim of building a data-set of spectral properties of wellstudied early-type galaxies showing emission lines, we presentintermediate resolution spectra of 50 galaxies in the nearby Universe.The sample, which covers several of the E and S0 morphologicalsub-classes, is biased toward objects that might be expected to haveongoing and recent star formation, at least in small amounts, because ofthe presence of the emission lines. The emission is expected to comefrom the combination of active galactic nuclei and star formationregions within the galaxies. Sample galaxies are located in environmentscorresponding to a broad range of local galaxy densities, althoughpredominantly in low density environments. Our long-slit spectra coverthe 3700-7250 Å wavelength range with a spectral resolution of≈7.6 Å at 5550 Å. The specific aim of this paper, and ourfirst step in the investigation, is to map the underlying galaxy stellarpopulation by measuring, along the slit positioned along the galaxymajor axis, line-strength indices at several, homogeneousgalacto-centric distances. For each object we extracted 7luminosity-weighted apertures (with radii 1.5´´,2.5´´, 10´´, r_e/10, r_e/8, r_e/4 and r_e/2)corrected for the galaxy ellipticity and 4 gradients (0 ≤ r ≤r_e/16, r_e/16 ≤ r ≤ r_e/8, r_e/8 ≤ r ≤ r_e/4 and r_e/4≤ r ≤ r_e/2). For each aperture and gradient we measured 25line-strength indices: 21 of the set defined by the Lick-IDS“standard” system (Trager et al. [CITE], ApJS, 116, 1) and 4introduced by Worthey & Ottaviani ([CITE], ApJS, 111, 377).Line-strength indices have been transformed to the Lick-IDS system.Indices derived then include Hβ, Mg1, Mg2, Mgb, MgFe, Fe5270,Fe5335 commonly used in classic index-index diagrams. The paperintroduces the sample, presents the observations, describes the datareduction procedures, the extraction of apertures and gradients, thedetermination and correction of the line-strength indices, the procedureadopted to transform them into the Lick-IDS System and the proceduresadopted for the emission correction. We finally discuss the comparisonsbetween our dataset and line-strength indices available in theliterature. A significant fraction, about 60%, of galaxies in thepresent sample has one previous measurement in the Lick-IDS system butbasically restricted within the r_e/8 region. Line-strength measuresobtained both from apertures and gradients outside this area and withinthe r_e/8 region, with the present radial mapping, are completely new.Full appendix and Figs. 8 to 13 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Full Tables 6, 7, 9 and 10 are only availableat the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/433/497 Based onobservations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile (Programs Nr. 60.A-0647 and 61.A-0406).
|Fast bars in SB0 galaxies|
We measured the bar pattern speed in a sample of 7 SB0 galaxies usingthe Tremaine-Weinberg method. This represents the largest sample ofgalaxies for which the bar pattern speed has been measured this way. Allthe observed bars are as rapidly rotating as they can be. We comparedthis result with recent high-resolution N-body simulations of bars incosmologically-motivated dark matter halos, and conclude that these barsare not located inside centrally concentrated halos.
|The Pattern Speeds of M51, M83, and NGC 6946 Using CO and the Tremaine-Weinberg Method|
In spiral galaxies in which the molecular phase dominates the ISM, themolecular gas as traced by CO emission will approximately obey thecontinuity equation on orbital timescales. The Tremaine-Weinberg methodcan then be used to determine the pattern speed of such galaxies. Wehave applied the method to single-dish CO maps of three nearby spirals,M51, M83, and NGC 6946, to obtain estimates of their pattern speeds:38+/-7, 45+/-8, and 39+/-8 km s-1 kpc-1,respectively, and we compare these results to previous measurements. Wealso analyze the major sources of systematic errors in applying theTremaine-Weinberg method to maps of CO emission.
|Fabry-Perot Absorption-Line Spectroscopy of NGC 7079: Kinematics and Bar Pattern Speed|
We present Fabry-Perot absorption-line spectroscopy of the SB0 galaxyNGC 7079. This is the first use of Fabry-Perot techniques to measure thetwo-dimensional stellar kinematics of an early-type disk galaxy. We scanthe infrared Ca II line using the Rutgers Fabry-Perot (RFP), to obtainkinematic data extending to I-band surface brightnessμI~=21 mag arcsec-2, in a field of radius ~40".The kinematic data, consisting of line-of-sight velocities and velocitydispersions, are in good agreement with data obtained along the majoraxis of the disk with standard slit spectroscopy. Comparison of theexposure times required for slit and RFP spectroscopy to reach the samelimiting magnitude shows that the RFP is significantly more efficientfor mapping absorption-line galaxy kinematics. We use the velocity data,together with our own deep broadband photometry, to measure the barpattern speed, Ωp, of NGC 7079 with themodel-independent Tremaine-Weinberg (TW) method. We findΩp=8.4+/-0.2 km s-1 arcsec-1 thisis the best-constrained pattern speed ever measured for a bar using theTW method. From the rotation curve, corrected for asymmetric drift, wecalculate the corotation radius and find that the bar ends just insidethis radius. The two-dimensional character of these data allow us toshow that the TW method is sensitive to errors in the position angle(P.A.) of the disk. For example, a P.A. error of 2° can give errors~+/-25% in Ωp.Based in part on observations carried out at the European SouthernObservatory (Prop. B-0329).
|Minor-axis velocity gradients in disk galaxies|
We present the ionized-gas kinematics and photometry of a sample of 4spiral galaxies which are characterized by a zero-velocity plateau alongthe major axis and a velocity gradient along the minor axis,respectively. By combining these new kinematical data with thoseavailable in the literature for the ionized-gas component of the S0s andspirals listed in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies werealized that about 50% of unbarred galaxies show a remarkable gasvelocity gradient along the optical minor axis. This fraction rises toabout 60% if we include unbarred galaxies with an irregular velocityprofile along the minor axis. This phenomenon is observed all along theHubble sequence of disk galaxies, and it is particularly frequent inearly-type spirals. Since minor-axis velocity gradients are unexpectedif the gas is moving onto circular orbits in a disk coplanar to thestellar one, we conclude that non-circular and off-plane gas motions arenot rare in the inner regions of disk galaxies.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatoryin La Silla (Chile) (ESO 69.B-0706 and 70.B-0338), with the MultipleMirror Telescope which is a joint facility of the SmithsonianInstitution and the University of Arizona, and with the ItalianTelescopio Nazionale Galileo (AOT-5, 3-18) at the Observatorio del Roquede los Muchachos in La Palma (Spain).Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/507
|Model-independent measurements of bar pattern speeds|
The pattern speed is one of the fundamental parameters that determinesthe structure of barred galaxies. This quantity is usually derived fromindirect methods or by employing model assumptions. The number of barpattern speeds derived using the model-independent Tremaine &Weinberg technique is still very limited. We present the results ofmodel-independent measurements of the bar pattern speed in four galaxiesranging in Hubble type from SB0 to SBbc. Three of the four galaxies inour sample are consistent with bars being fast rotators. The lack ofslow bars is consistent with previous observations and suggests thatbarred galaxies do not have centrally concentrated dark matter haloes.This contradicts simulations of cosmological structure formation andobservations of the central mass concentration in nonbarred galaxies.
|On position angle errors in the Tremaine-Weinberg method|
I show that Tremaine-Weinberg (TW) measurements of bar pattern speedsare sensitive to errors in the position angle of the disc,PAdisc. I use an N-body experiment to measure these errors;for typical random PAdisc errors, the resulting scatter inthe measured values of the dimensionless bar speed parameter (defined asthe ratio of the corotation radius to the bar semi-major axis) is of theorder of the scatter in the observed values.I also consider how the systematic PAdisc errors produced bydisc ellipticities affect TW measurements. The scatter produced by theseerrors may be significant, depending on the ellipticity distribution.Conversely, by using the sample of TW observations, I find that an upperlimit of the typical disc (density) ellipticity is 0.07 at the 90 percent confidence level, which is in good agreement with previousmeasurements.Taken together, the random and systematic scatter suggest that theintrinsic distribution of of gas-poor early-type barred galaxies may beas narrow as that of the gas-rich later types.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry|
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.
|The pattern speed of the OH/IR stars in the Milky Way|
We show how the continuity equation can be used to determine patternspeeds in the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG). This method, first discussed byTremaine & Weinberg in the context of external galaxies, requiresprojected positions, (l,b), and line-of-sight velocities for a spatiallycomplete sample of relaxed tracers. If the local standard of rest (LSR)has a zero velocity in the radial direction (uLSR), then thequantity that is measured isΔV≡ΩpR0-VLSR, whereΩp is the pattern speed of the non-axisymmetricfeature, R0 is the distance of the Sun from the Galacticcentre and VLSR is the tangential motion of the LSR,including the circular velocity. We use simple models to assess thereliability of the method for measuring a single, constant pattern speedof either a bar or spiral in the inner MWG. We then apply the method tothe OH/IR stars in the ATCA/VLA OH 1612-MHz survey of Sevenster et al.,finding ΔV=252+/-41kms-1, if uLSR=0.Assuming further that R0=8kpc andVLSR=220kms-1, this givesΩp=59+/-5kms-1kpc-1 with apossible systematic error of perhaps 10kms-1kpc-1. The non-axisymmetric feature for which we measure thispattern speed must be in the disc of the MWG.
|A fast bar in the post-interaction galaxy NGC 1023|
We measured the bar pattern speed, Ωp , of the SB0galaxy NGC 1023 using the Tremaine-Weinberg method withstellar-absorption slit spectroscopy. The morphology and kinematics ofthe Hi gas outside NGC 1023 suggest it suffered a tidal interaction,sometime in the past, with one of its dwarf companions. At present,however, the optical disc is relaxed. If the disc had been stabilized bya massive dark matter halo and formed its bar in the interaction, thenthe bar would have to be slow. We found Ωp=5.0+/-1.8kms-1 arcsec-1 , so that the bar endsnear its corotation radius. It is therefore rotating rapidly and musthave a maximum disc.
|The gas content of peculiar galaxies: Counterrotators and polar rings|
This paper studies the global ISM content in a sample of 104 accretinggalaxies, including counterrotators and polar rings, which spans theentire Hubble sequence. The molecular, atomic and hot gas content ofaccretors is compared to a newly compiled sample of normal galaxies. Wepresent results of a small survey of the J=1-0 line of 12COwith the 15 m SEST telescope on a sample of 11 accretors (10counterrotators and 1 polar ring). The SEST sample is enlarged withpublished data from 48 galaxies, for which observational evidence ofcounterrotation in the gas and/or the stars has been found. Furthermore,the available data on a sample of 46 polar ring galaxies has beencompiled. In order to explore the existence of an evolutionary pathlinking the two families of accretors, the gas content ofcounterrotators and polar rings is compared. It was found that thenormalized content of cold gas (Mgas/LB) in polarrings is ~ 1 order of magnitude higher than the reference value derivedfor normal galaxies. The inferred gas masses are sufficient to stabilizepolar rings through self-gravity. In contrast, it was found that thecold gas content of counterrotators is close to normal for all galaxytypes. Although counterrotators and polar rings probably share a commonorigin, the gas masses estimated here confirm that light gas ringsaccreted by future counterrotators may have evolved faster than theself-gravitating structures of polar rings. In this scenario, thetransformation of atomic into molecular gas could be enhanced near thetransition region between the prograde and the retrograde disks,especially in late-type accretors characterized by a high content ofprimordial gas. This is tentatively confirmed in this work: the measuredH2/HI ratio seems larger in counterrotators than in normal orpolar ring galaxies for types later than S0s. Based on observationscollected at SEST telescope, European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile. Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|The visible environment of galaxies with counterrotation|
In this paper we present a statistical study of the environments of 49galaxies in which there is gas- or stellar-counterrotation. The numberof possible companions in the field (to apparent magnitude 22), theirsize and concentration were considered. All the statistical parameterswere analysed by means of Kolgomorov-Smirnov tests, using a controlsample of 43 galaxies without counterrotation. From our data, nosignificant differences between the counter-rotating and control samplesappear. This is different to Seyfert or radio-loud galaxies which lie inenvironments with a higher density of companions. On the contrary, if aweak tendency exists, for galaxies with gas counterrotation only, it isdiscovered in regions of space where the large scale density of galaxiesis smaller. Our results tend to disprove the hypothesis thatcounterrotation and polar rings derive from a recent interaction with asmall satellite or a galaxy of similar size. To a first approximation,they seem to follow the idea that all galaxies are born through a mergerprocess of smaller objects occurring very early in their life, or thatthey derive from a continuous, non-traumatic infall of gas that formedstars later. Whatever the special machinery is which producescounterrotation or polar rings instead of a co-planar, co-rotatingdistribution of gas and stars, it seems not to be connected to thepresent galaxy density of their environments.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography|
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|A survey of the stellar rotation in barred galaxies|
We present stellar velocity- and velocity dispersion- data for 13 SB0galaxies and one SBa, based on 61 spectra collected during a long-termproject developed at ESO. Our primary goal is to provide a databasewidest as possible for the study of the stellar velocity and velocitydispersion fields and for future modeling. New data are presented forsix galaxies, while for the remaining SB0s particular kinematicalaspects were already discussed in previous papers. We found thefollowing results: a) emission lines were detected in our spectra onlyfor 4 out of 14 galaxies considered. When present, they reveal a verypeculiar kinematics, including counter-rotation, warps or radial flows.b) A new case of gas counter-rotation has been found: NGC 7079. c) Thevelocity dispersion along the bar has a smoother trend than in the restof the galaxy. However there is, in general, a similarity between thevelocity dispersion trend (decreasing or flat) measured along the barand that outside it. d) The existence of a waving pattern in the stellarrotation curves of bars is confirmed for the galaxies of our sample seeninclined between 30 and 50 degrees. In addition to this effect, thepercentage of non-circular stellar motions present in the barredgalaxies studied may reach the 20%. Based on observations collected atthe European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 5 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html} }
|The APM Bright Galaxy Catalogue|
The APM Bright Galaxy Catalogue lists positions, magnitudes, shapes andmorphological types for 14681 galaxies brighter than b_J magnitude16.44, over a 4180 deg^2 area of the southern sky. Galaxy and stellarimages have been located from glass copy plates of the United KingdomSchmidt Telescope (UKST) IIIaJ sky survey using the automatedphotographic measuring (APM) facility in Cambridge, England. Themajority of stellar images are rejected by the regularity of their imagesurface brightness profiles. Remaining images are inspected by eye onfilm copies of the survey material and classed as stellar, multiplestellar, galaxy, merger or noise. Galaxies are further classified aselliptical, lenticular, spiral, irregular or uncertain. The 180 surveyfields are put on to a uniform photometric system by comparing themagnitudes of galaxies in the overlap regions between neighbouringplates. The magnitude zero-point, photometric uniformity andphotographic saturation are checked with CCD photometry. Finally, thecompleteness and reliability of the catalogue are assessed by usingvarious internal tests and by comparison with several independentlyconstructed galaxy catalogues.
|Candidates for a southern extension of the Karachentsev catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies.|
|The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies|
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.
|Total and effective colors of 501 galaxies in the Cousins VRI photometric system|
Total color indices (V-R)T, (V-I)T and effectivecolor indices (V-R)e, (V-I)e in the Cousins VRIphotometric system are presented for 501 mostly normal galaxies. Thecolors are computed using a procedure outlined in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) whereby standard color curvesapproximated by Laplace-Gauss integrals are fitted to observedphotoelectric multiaperture photometry. 11 sources of such photometrywere used for our analysis, each source being assigned an appropriateweight according to a rigorous analysis of residuals of the data fromthe best-fitting standard color curves. Together with the integrated B-Vand U-B colors provided in RC3, our analysis widens the range ofwavelength of homogeneously defined colors of normal galaxies of allHubble types. We present color-color and color-type relations that canbe modeled to understand the star formation history of galaxies.
|Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system|
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.
|Photometrically distinct nuclei in elliptical and early-type disks galaxies.|
|Dynamics of the Pavo-Indus and Grus clouds of galaxies.|
|The dependence of the cool matter content on galaxy morphology in galaxies of types E/S0, S0, and SA|
Using the material assembled in earlier papers, we examine the manner inwhich the interstellar matter content varies along the Hubble sequencefrom S0 galaxies to Sa galaxies selected from the RSA2 compilation. Forthis we make use of a new and more detailed classification which isdescribed here as applied to these early disk/spiral galaxies. Theprominence of the disk in S0's and the visibility of features (H IIregions) in the Sa's serve as the basis for the subtypes. Three S0categories: subtle, intermediate, and pronounced, and four Sadescriptors: very early, early, intermediate, and late are assigned tothe galaxies. It is found that the total amount of hydrogen (H I + H2)is a function of subtype, being low in the S0's and rising smoothly fromthe early Sa's to the later Sa's. The average surface density ofhydrogen exceeds 3 solar masses/pc-squared only in the latest subtypesof the Sa's. We conclude that the prominence of the disk of a galaxyclosely follows the amount of cool gas which the disk contains.
|Dynamics of the Pavo-Indus and Grus clouds of galaxies|
A study of groups of galaxies in the above regions was carried out byselecting a sample extending one magnitude deeper than previous work inthe area, complete down to 15 mag. We report new redshift determinationsfor 58 galaxies in the region and 13 other miscellaneous galaxies, basedon La Silla observations. Using a total of 266 galaxies with measuredredshifts in the Pavo-Indus and Grus clouds, we perform a new analysisof groupings following a well-tested algorithm. A total of 18 groups issingled out, most of them known from previous work, even though a fewadditional members are added. For all the groups, we have calculateddynamical parameters and M/L ratios. All groups are found to be boundaggregates, but only one group can be virialized. For the six mostpopulated examples, having at least five members, we also calculateseveral mass estimators and discuss the wide range of observed M/Lratios, which extends from nine to nearly 500 M(solar)/L(solar). Weintroduce two parameters to measure the presence of either a dominantgalaxy or internal subcondensations, respectively, and test whether anycorrelation with the M/L ratios can be detected. No clear correlationsare found.
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