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# NGC 7292

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 The Hα Galaxy Survey . III. Constraints on supernova progenitors from spatial correlations with Hα emissionAims.We attempt to constrain progenitors of the different types ofsupernovae from their spatial distributions relative to star formationregions in their host galaxies, as traced by Hα + [Nii] lineemission. Methods: .We analyse 63 supernovae which have occurredwithin galaxies from our Hα survey of the local Universe. Threestatistical tests are used, based on pixel statistics, Hα radialgrowth curves, and total galaxy emission-line fluxes. Results:.Many type II supernovae come from regions of low or zero emission lineflux, and more than would be expected if the latter accurately traceshigh-mass star formation. We interpret this excess as a 40% "Runaway"fraction in the progenitor stars. Supernovae of types Ib and Ic doappear to trace star formation activity, with a much higher fractioncoming from the centres of bright star formation regions than is thecase for the type II supernovae. Type Ia supernovae overall show a weakcorrelation with locations of current star formation, but there isevidence that a significant minority, up to about 40%, may be linked tothe young stellar population. The radial distribution of allcore-collapse supernovae (types Ib, Ic and II) closely follows that ofthe line emission and hence star formation in their host galaxies, apartfrom a central deficiency which is less marked for supernovae of typesIb and Ic than for those of type II. Core-collapse supernova ratesoverall are consistent with being proportional to galaxy totalluminosities and star formation rates; however, within this total thetype Ib and Ic supernovae show a moderate bias towards more luminoushost galaxies, and type II supernovae a slight bias towardslower-luminosity hosts. The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. II. Morphological refinementWe present a refinement of the optical morphologies for galaxies in theCatalog of Isolated Galaxies that forms the basis of the AMIGA (Analysisof the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies) project. Uniformreclassification using the digitized POSS II data benefited from thehigh resolution and dynamic range of that sky survey. Comparison withindependent classifications made for an SDSS overlap sample of more than200 galaxies confirms the reliability of the early vs. late-typediscrimination and the accuracy of spiral subtypes within Δ T =1-2. CCD images taken at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada were alsoused to solve ambiguities in early versus late-type classifications. Aconsiderable number of galaxies in the catalog (n = 193) are flagged forthe presence of nearby companions or signs of distortion likely due tointeraction. This most isolated sample of galaxies in the local Universeis dominated by two populations: 1) 82% are spirals (Sa-Sd) with thebulk being luminous systems with small bulges (63% between types Sb-Sc)and 2) a significant population of early-type E-S0 galaxies (14%). Mostof the types later than Sd are low luminosity galaxies concentrated inthe local supercluster where isolation is difficult to evaluate. Thelate-type spiral majority of the sample spans a luminosity rangeMB-corr = -18 to -22 mag. Few of the E/S0 population are moreluminous than -21.0 marking the absence of the often-sought superL* merger (e.g. fossil elliptical) population. The rarity ofhigh luminosity systems results in a fainter derived M* forthis population compared to the spiral optical luminosity function(OLF). The E-S0 population is from 0.2 to 0.6 mag fainter depending onhow the sample is defined. This marks the AMIGA sample as unique amongsamples that compare early and late-type OLFs separately. In othersamples, which always involve galaxies in higher density environments,M^*_E/S0 is almost always 0.3-0.5 mag brighter than M^*_S, presumablyreflecting a stronger correlation between M* andenvironmental density for early-type galaxies. The Molecular Interstellar Medium of Dwarf Galaxies on Kiloparsec Scales: A New Survey for CO in Northern, IRAS-detected Dwarf GalaxiesWe present a new survey for CO in dwarf galaxies using the ARO Kitt Peak12 m telescope. This survey consists of observations of the centralregions of 121 northern dwarfs with IRAS detections and no known COemission. We detect CO in 28 of these galaxies and marginally detectanother 16, increasing by about 50% the number of such galaxies known tohave significant CO emission. The galaxies we detect are comparable instellar and dynamical mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud, althoughsomewhat brighter in CO and fainter in the far-IR. Within dwarfs, wefind that the CO luminosity LCO is most strongly correlatedwith the K-band and the far-infrared luminosities. There are also strongcorrelations with the radio continuum (RC) and B-band luminosities andlinear diameter. Conversely, we find that far-IR dust temperature is apoor predictor of CO emission within the dwarfs alone, although a goodpredictor of normalized CO content among a larger sample of galaxies. Wesuggest that LCO and LK correlate well because thestellar component of a galaxy dominates the midplane gravitational fieldand thus sets the pressure and density of the atomic gas, which controlthe formation of H2 from H I. We compare our sample with moremassive galaxies and find that dwarfs and large galaxies obey the samerelationship between CO and the 1.4 GHz RC surface brightness. Thisrelationship is well described by a Schmidt law withΣRC~Σ1.3CO. Therefore,dwarf galaxies and large spirals exhibit the same relationship betweenmolecular gas and star formation rate (SFR). We find that this result isrobust to moderate changes in the RC-to-SFR and CO-to-H2conversion factors. Our data appear to be inconsistent with large (orderof magnitude) variations in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor inthe star-forming molecular gas. Cold dust and molecular gas towards the centers of Magellanic type galaxies and irregulars. I. The dataWe present 1300 μm continuum emission measurements and observationsof the 12CO (1-0) and (2-1) transition towards the centers of64 Magellanic type galaxies (Sdm/Sm) and irregulars (Im/I0/Irr). Thesources are selected to have IRAS flux densities S100 μm≥1000 mJy and optical diameters mainly below 180 arcsec. We wereable to detect 12CO towards 41 and the continuum emissiontowards 28 galaxies. In addition, we obtained the corresponding data fora set of 6 complementary galaxies of different morphological type.Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla, Chile and IRAM, PicoVeleta, Spain.The full version of Figs. \ref{spec1.fig} and \ref{spec2.fig} is onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org The Hα galaxy survey. I. The galaxy sample, Hα narrow-band observations and star formation parameters for 334 galaxiesWe discuss the selection and observations of a large sample of nearbygalaxies, which we are using to quantify the star formation activity inthe local Universe. The sample consists of 334 galaxies across allHubble types from S0/a to Im and with recession velocities of between 0and 3000 km s-1. The basic data for each galaxy are narrowband H\alpha +[NII] and R-band imaging, from which we derive starformation rates, H\alpha +[NII] equivalent widths and surfacebrightnesses, and R-band total magnitudes. A strong correlation is foundbetween total star formation rate and Hubble type, with the strongeststar formation in isolated galaxies occurring in Sc and Sbc types. Moresurprisingly, no significant trend is found between H\alpha +[NII]equivalent width and galaxy R-band luminosity. More detailed analyses ofthe data set presented here will be described in subsequent papers.Based on observations made with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.The full version of Table \ref{tab3} is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/23 Reduced image datafor this survey can be downloaded fromhttp://www.astro.livjm.ac.uk/HaGS/ Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding GalaxiesResults from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objectssurrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample ofKazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of theKazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% ofbinary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazariangalaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-raysources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for completesamples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higherthan the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies. Revised positions for CIG galaxiesWe present revised positions for the 1051 galaxies belonging to theKarachentseva Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). New positions werecalculated by applying SExtractor to the Digitized Sky Survey CIG fieldswith a spatial resolution of 1 arcsper 2. We visually checked theresults and for 118 galaxies had to recompute the assigned positions dueto complex morphologies (e.g. distorted isophotes, undefined nuclei,knotty galaxies) or the presence of bright stars. We found differencesbetween older and newer positions of up to 38 arcsec with a mean valueof 2 arcsper 96 relative to SIMBAD and up to 38 arcsec and 2 arcsper 42respectively relative to UZC. Based on star positions from the APMcatalog we determined that the DSS astrometry of five CIG fields has amean offset in (alpha , delta ) of (-0 arcsper 90, 0 arcsper 93) with adispersion of 0 arcsper 4. These results have been confirmed using the2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources. The intrinsic errors of ourmethod combined with the astrometric ones are of the order of 0 arcsper5.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/391 The WSRT wide-field H I survey. I. The background galaxy sampleWe have used the Westerbork array to carry out an unbiased wide-fieldsurvey for H I emission features, achieving an RMS sensitivity of about18 mJy/Beam at a velocity resolution of 17 km s-1 over 1800deg2 and between -1000 < VHel <+6500 kms-1. The primary data consists of auto-correlation spectrawith an effective angular resolution of 49' FWHM, althoughcross-correlation data were also acquired. The survey region is centeredapproximately on the position of Messier 31 and is Nyquist-sampled over60x 30o in RA x Dec. More than 100 distinct features aredetected at high significance in each of the two velocity regimes(negative and positive LGSR velocities). In this paper we present theresults for our H I detections of external galaxies at positive LGSRvelocity. We detect 155 external galaxies in excess of 8sigma inintegrated H I flux density. Plausible optical associations are foundwithin a 30' search radius for all but one of our H I detections in DSSimages, although several are not previously cataloged or do not havepublished red-shift determinations. Our detection without a DSSassociation is at low galactic latitude. Twenty-three of our objects aredetected in H I for the first time. We classify almost half of ourdetections as confused'', since one or more companions is catalogedwithin a radius of 30' and a velocity interval of 400 km s-1.We identify a handful of instances of significant positional offsetsexceeding 10 kpc of unconfused optical galaxies with the associated H Icentroid, possibly indicative of severe tidal distortions or uncatalogedgas-rich companions. A possible trend is found for an excess of detectedH I flux in unconfused galaxies within our large survey beam relative tothat detected previously in smaller telescope beams, both as function ofincreasing distance and increasing gas mass. This may be an indicationfor a diffuse gaseous component on 100 kpc scales in the environment ofmassive galaxies or a population of uncataloged low mass companions. Weuse our galaxy sample to estimate the H I mass function from our surveyvolume. Good agreement is found with the HIPASS BGC results, but onlyafter explicit correction for galaxy density variations with distance.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/829 and Fig. 3 is onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org A search for Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the near-infrared. I. Selection of the sampleA sample of about 3800 Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies wasselected using the all-sky near-infrared (J, H and Ks-band)2MASS survey. The selected objects have a mean central surfacebrightness within a 5'' radius around their centre fainter than 18 magarcsec-2 in the Ks band, making them the lowestsurface brightness galaxies detected by 2MASS. A description is given ofthe relevant properties of the 2MASS survey and the LSB galaxy selectionprocedure, as well as of basic photometric properties of the selectedobjects. The latter properties are compared to those of other samples ofgalaxies, of both LSBs and classical'' high surface brightness (HSB)objects, which were selected in the optical. The 2MASS LSBs have aBT_c-KT colour which is on average 0.9 mag bluerthan that of HSBs from the NGC. The 2MASS sample does not appear tocontain a significant population of red objects.All tables and Figs. 2a-c are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. II. R-band surface photometry of late-type dwarf galaxiesR-band surface photometry is presented for 171 late-type dwarf andirregular galaxies. For a subsample of 46 galaxies B-band photometry ispresented as well. We present surface brightness profiles as well asisophotal and photometric parameters including magnitudes, diameters andcentral surface brightnesses. Absolute photometry is accurate to 0.1 magor better for 77% of the sample. For over 85% of the galaxies the radialsurface brightness profiles are consistent with published data withinthe measured photometric uncertainty. For most of the galaxies in thesample H I data have been obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope. The galaxies in our sample are part of the WHISP project(Westerbork H I Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies), which aims atmapping about 500 nearby spiral and irregular galaxies in H I. Theavailability of H I data makes this data set useful for a wide range ofstudies of the structure, dark matter content and kinematics oflate-type dwarf galaxies. Based on observations made with INT operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisicade Canarias. The tables in Appendix A are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/390/863. Thefigures in Appendix B are only available in electronic formhttp://www.edpsciences.org Supernovae in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxiesIn order to investigate the influence of environment on supernova (SN)production, we have performed a statistical investigation of the SNediscovered in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies. 22SNe in 18 isolated galaxies, 48 SNe in 40 galaxy members of 37 pairs and211 SNe in 170 galaxy members of 116 groups have been selected andstudied. We found that the radial distributions of core-collapse SNe ingalaxies located in different environments are similar, and consistentwith those reported by Bartunov, Makarova & Tsvetkov. SNe discoveredin pairs do not favour a particular direction with respect to thecompanion galaxy. Also, the azimuthal distributions inside the hostmembers of galaxy groups are consistent with being isotropics. The factthat SNe are more frequent in the brighter components of the pairs andgroups is expected from the dependence of the SN rates on the galaxyluminosity. There is an indication that the SN rate is higher in galaxypairs compared with that in groups. This can be related to the enhancedstar formation rate in strongly interacting systems. It is concludedthat, with the possible exception of strongly interacting systems, theparent galaxy environment has no direct influence on SN production. Mount Wilson and Palomar Photographic Supernova SpectraFifty-one photographic spectra of 20 bright supernovae that wereobtained by J. L. Greenstein, R. Minkowski, and F. Zwicky at the MountWilson and Palomar Observatories between 1954 and 1970 are presented andbriefly discussed. Microphotometer transmission tracings of thephotographic plates have been digitized and plotted on a commonwavelength scale. These spectra are useful for classification purposesand for comparative studies of the blueshifts of absorption features. Photometric Properties of Bars in GalaxiesWe have used surface photometry data for 100 barred galaxies todetermine the UBVRIJHK surface brightnesses and color indices for thebars. Two peaks are observed in the distribution of the average bar Bbrightnesses: at 21.0m2 and 22.2m2, characteristic of late-andearly-type galaxies, respectively. The average surface-brightnessdifference between the bar and the galaxy (within the 25.0m2 isophote)increases from 1.1m2 for SB0 galaxies to 2.3m2 for SBc-IBm galaxies. In(U-B)0-(B-V)0, (B-V 0-(V-R 0, and (B-V)0-(V-I)0 two-color diagrams, forall morphological types, the bars are shifted leftward from normal colorsequence for galaxies. This deviation is more pronounced for the outerthan for the inner regions of the bars. Using evolutionary models, weshow that this deviation is due to the scarcity of intermediate-age [(19)×109 yrs] stars in bars. Possible origins for this anomalouscomposition of the stellar population are discussed. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. The Arizona-New Mexico Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxies. I. Data for the Western End of the Perseus SuperclusterWe present new optical spectroscopic data for 347 galaxies in the regionof the Perseus supercluster. The new data were obtained using theSteward Observatory 2.3 m telescope and cover the whole optical window.Included are redshifts (for 345 objects), absorption-line equivalentwidths, a continuum index measuring the 4000 Å break, andemission-line flux ratios. After 11 objects are rejected for being toofaint and redshifts for 26 objects are added from the literature, wearrive at a complete sample of 361 galaxies. The distribution ofredshifts for the whole sample is examined, and we show the relationshipof the continuum index to morphology. Large scale star formation in galaxies. I. The spirals NGC 7217, NGC 1058 and UGC 12732. Young star groupings in spiralsWe present multiband photometric observations of three spiral galaxiesselected in a sample suited for the study of young stellar groupings andtheir relationship with the parent galaxy and the galactic environment.Star forming regions have been identified using an objective techniquebased on a multivariate statistical analysis. Maps of young stargroupings are given for each galaxy. The luminosity functions of theyoung star group populations show a remarkable similarity with a slopein the range -1.52 to -1.33. The size distributions peak around theclassical 100 pc value of the Local Group associations for two out ofthe three galaxies. NGC 1058 shows smaller associations (peak at ~ 50pc). The total number of young groups per unit B absolute luminosity ofthe galaxy is significantly greater in UGC 12732. The activity of starformation is in all three galaxies clearly stronger in the centralregions. Tables~1, 2, 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Arcsecond Positions of UGC GalaxiesWe present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only. The Hubble Space Telescope Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project. X. The Cepheid Distance to NGC 7331The distance to NGC 7331 has been derived from Cepheid variablesobserved with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2, as part of theExtragalactic Distance Scale Key Project. Multiepoch exposures in F555W(~V) and F814W (~I), with photometry derived independently from DoPHOTand DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME programs, were used to detect a total of 13reliable Cepheids, with periods between 11 and 42 days. The relativedistance moduli between NGC 7331 and the LMC, derived from the V and Imagnitudes, imply an extinction to NGC 7331 of AV = 0.47 +/- 0.15 magand an extinction-corrected distance modulus to NGC 7331 of 30.89 +/-0.14 (random), equivalent to a distance of 15.1^{+1.0}_{-0.9} Mpc. Thereare additional systematic uncertainties in the distance modulus of+/-0.12 mag resulting from the calibration of the Cepheidperiod-luminosity relation and a systematic offset of +0.05 +/- 0.04 magif the metallicity correction inferred from the M101 results ofKennicutt et al. are applied. Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory. A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: BibliographyWe present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Galaxies with a UV excess in which supernovae have been observed.Not Available Three-color surface photometry of late-type galaxies: NGC 1620, 7292, and 7743Not Available Morphological classification of new galaxies with a UV excessThe results of a morphological classification of 580 galaxies with a UVexcess, included in the lists in [M. A. Kazarian, Astrofizika,15, 5(1979); ibid.,15, 193 (1979); M. A. Kazarian and É. S. Kazarian,ibid.,16, 17 (1980); ibid.,18, 512 (1982); ibid.,19, 213 (1983)], arepresented. For this we have developed a set of symbols, using the typesE, S, and Ir introduced by Hubble, as well as symbols introduced byother authors and us. This set enabled us to make the morphologicalclassification. Direct photographs obtained on the 2.6-m and 6-mtelescopes were used to classify 141 of the galaxies (over 24%), whilePalomar Atlas charts were used for the remaining 439 galaxies. Thesegalaxies were divided into two groups based on classificationconditions, and data on each group are given in Tables 1 and 2,respectively. The results for each group, given in Table 3, show thatwith the transition from early types, such as C and E, to later types,such as S and Ir, the relative number of galaxies going into one group(Table 1), in which the classification was based on direct photographs,increases in comparison with the number going into the other group(Table 2). An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect. Total and effective colors of 501 galaxies in the Cousins VRI photometric systemTotal color indices (V-R)T, (V-I)T and effectivecolor indices (V-R)e, (V-I)e in the Cousins VRIphotometric system are presented for 501 mostly normal galaxies. Thecolors are computed using a procedure outlined in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) whereby standard color curvesapproximated by Laplace-Gauss integrals are fitted to observedphotoelectric multiaperture photometry. 11 sources of such photometrywere used for our analysis, each source being assigned an appropriateweight according to a rigorous analysis of residuals of the data fromthe best-fitting standard color curves. Together with the integrated B-Vand U-B colors provided in RC3, our analysis widens the range ofwavelength of homogeneously defined colors of normal galaxies of allHubble types. We present color-color and color-type relations that canbe modeled to understand the star formation history of galaxies. Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV systemThe photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3. The three rings of the isolated galaxy NGC 7217.We present WSRT H I line observations, together with CCD-BVRIphotometry, of NGC 7217, which is known to be an isolated galaxy with aninner ring, an inner pseudoring and an outer ring, but for which noclear bi-symmetric distortion is immediately apparent. Assuming, as isknown to be the case for barred galaxies, that the outer ringcorresponds to the outer Lindblad resonance, we have derived theexpected locations for the other resonances using a combined optical/H Irotation curve. Our result is that the observed inner ring coincideswith the inner Lindblad resonance and the inner pseudoring with theultraharmonic (4:1) resonance. The associated pattern speed is86.0km/s/kpc. However, it is less clear which feature is actuallysetting up this pattern. The outer ring, which has a size of=~6.3x5.9kpc, contains roughly two-thirds of the total H I mass, and hasbluer colours and more intense Hα emission than the main disk. AFourier analysis of the B-I colour along this ring suggests that it iscomposed of 9 blobs, indicating the existence of a bead instability.This is in agreement with a simple calculation showing that the numberof Jeans lengths along the ring is also 9, and that self-gravity isprobably important here. Clumps also exist in the inner pseudoring, butthey are less well defined, and there is no H I concentration along it.This ring has redder colours than the outer ring. The blue inner ring isincomplete, coincides with a complete and intense Hα ring, and issurrounded by a redder ring. A spiral-like structure extends from theinner ring out to the inner pseudoring, with the same winding directionas the outer flocculent arms. We have constructed a mass model, fromwhich we obtain a mass-to-I-band luminosity ratio of 5.1 for the bulge,and 1.8 for the disk. The core radius of the halo is 11.0kpc, and itscentral density 0.062Msun_pc^-3^. The ratio of halo coreradius to optical radius is thus of order unity. An H I survey of high-velocity clouds in nearby disk galaxiesWe observed 14 nearly face-on disk galaxies with the Arecibo 305 mtelescope and found the double-horned H I profiles to have high-velocitywings in 10 of these galaxies. Such wings can be caused by high-velocityclouds, similar to those observed in our own Galaxy. Disk galaxy modelswere constructed that include both high-velocity clouds (modeled as acomponent of galactic gas with a velocity dispersion of either 30 or 50km/s) and warped H I disks. We find that the high-velocity wings can bereproduced by models with high-velocity clouds but not by models withwarps that are similar to those observed in other galaxies. If thesewings are due to high-velocity clouds, then the mass of neutral hydrogenin high-velocity clouds for the 10 galaxies ranges from 6 X107 solar mass to 4 x 109 solar mass, whichcorresponds to 4% - 14% of the total H I in these galaxies. The galaxieswith no detected high-velocity wings are also those with the lowestfar-infrared fluxes as measured by Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS),which is consistent with the galactic fountain model in which the youngstellar population (responsible for most of the far-infrared emissionproduces supernovae which then provide the kinetic energy of thehigh-velocity clouds. Global properties of dwarf galaxies. I. Galaxy sample and IRAS infrared flux-densitiesWe have selected a sample of 278 dwarf galaxies for which at least Bmagnitudes and preferably also optical colour information are available.For those galaxies that have no previously published IRAS fluxes, wehave used the IRAS database to extract fluxes or upper limits tosensitivity levels significantly better than those of the IRAS PointSource Catalog. New IRAS data include 79 galaxies detected in at leastone band, and 66 galaxies with good upper limits. In total, about 60% ofall dwarf galaxies in the sample now have been detected at 60/100μm. Global properties of dwarf galaxies II. Colours and luminositiesWe have used a previously determined sample of 278 dwarf galaxies formost of which B magnitudes, optical colours, HI fluxes and IRASflux-densities are known, in order to derive luminosities, colours andsurface brightnesses. Dwarf galaxy properties are compared to those of acontrol sample of 228 larger spiral galaxies. The dwarf galaxies have onaverage higher 60/100μm flux ratios and lower 12/25μm flux ratiosthan the spiral galaxies, indicating that the contribution of `cirrus'to the infrared emission from dwarf galaxies is relativelyinsignificant. In the dwarf galaxies, the 60/100μm flux ratioincreases with increasing optical blueness; spiral galaxies show theopposite. Dwarf galaxies with a low optical surface brightness have low100μm/HI ratios, but the converse is not true. Galaxies with high100μm/HI ratios (indicative of high dust-to-gas ratios) also havehigh FIR/B ratios as well as high 60/100μm flux-density ratios.Although this is true for both spiral and dwarf galaxies, at given100μm/HI ratios the dwarf galaxies have both a lower FIR/B ratio anda higher 60/100μm flux-density ratio. This result is of importance inthe interpretation of FIR/B - 60/100μm diagrams in terms of starformation activity.
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