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The SAURON project - VII. Integral-field absorption and emission-line kinematics of 24 spiral galaxy bulges
We present observations of the stellar and gas kinematics for arepresentative sample of 24 Sa galaxies obtained with our custom-builtintegral-field spectrograph SAURON operating on the William HerschelTelescope. The data have been homogeneously reduced and analysed bymeans of a dedicated pipeline. All resulting data cubes were spatiallybinned to a minimum mean signal-to-noise ratio of 60 per spatial andspectral resolution element. Our maps typically cover thebulge-dominated region. We find a significant fraction of kinematicallydecoupled components (12/24), many of them displaying central velocitydispersion minima. They are mostly aligned and co-rotating with the mainbody of the galaxies, and are usually associated with dust discs andrings detected in unsharp-masked images. Almost all the galaxies in thesample (22/24) contain significant amounts of ionized gas which, ingeneral, is accompanied by the presence of dust. The kinematics of theionized gas are consistent with circular rotation in a disc co-rotatingwith respect to the stars. The distribution of mean misalignmentsbetween the stellar and gaseous angular momenta in the sample suggeststhat the gas has an internal origin. The [OIII]/Hβ ratio is usuallyvery low, indicative of current star formation, and shows variousmorphologies (ring-like structures, alignments with dust lanes oramorphous shapes). The star formation rates (SFRs) in the sample arecomparable with that of normal disc galaxies. Low gas velocitydispersion values appear to be linked to regions of intense starformation activity. We interpret this result as stars being formed fromdynamically cold gas in those regions. In the case of NGC5953, the datasuggest that we are witnessing the formation of a kinematicallydecoupled component from cold gas being acquired during the ongoinginteraction with NGC5954.

Local and Large-Scale Environment of Seyfert Galaxies
We present a three-dimensional study of the local (<=100h-1 kpc) and the large-scale (<=1 h-1 Mpc)environment of the two main types of Seyfert AGN galaxies. For thispurpose we use 48 Seyfert 1 galaxies (with redshifts in the range0.007<=z<=0.036) and 56 Seyfert 2 galaxies (with0.004<=z<=0.020), located at high galactic latitudes, as well astwo control samples of nonactive galaxies having the same morphological,redshift, and diameter size distributions as the corresponding Seyfertsamples. Using the Center for Astrophysics (CfA2) and Southern SkyRedshift Survey (SSRS) galaxy catalogs (mB~15.5) and our ownspectroscopic observations (mB~18.5), we find that within aprojected distance of 100 h-1 kpc and a radial velocityseparation of δv<~600 km s-1 around each of ourAGNs, the fraction of Seyfert 2 galaxies with a close neighbor issignificantly higher than that of their control (especially within 75h-1 kpc) and Seyfert 1 galaxy samples, confirming a previoustwo-dimensional analysis of Dultzin-Hacyan et al. We also find that thelarge-scale environment around the two types of Seyfert galaxies doesnot vary with respect to their control sample galaxies. However, theSeyfert 2 and control galaxy samples do differ significantly whencompared to the corresponding Seyfert 1 samples. Since the maindifference between these samples is their morphological typedistribution, we argue that the large-scale environmental differencecannot be attributed to differences in nuclear activity but rather totheir different type of host galaxies.

A Survey of Kiloparsec-Scale Radio Outflows in Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei
Seyfert galaxies commonly host compact jets spanning 10-100 pc scales,but larger structures are resolved out in long-baseline aperturesynthesis surveys. Previous, targeted studies showed thatkiloparsec-scale radio structures (KSRs) may be a common feature ofSeyfert and LINER galaxies, and the origin of KSRs may be starbursts oractive galactic nuclei (AGNs). We report a new Very Large Array surveyof a complete sample of Seyfert and LINER galaxies. Out of all of thesurveyed radio-quiet sources, we find that 44% (19 out of 43) showextended radio structures at least 1 kpc in total extent that do notmatch the morphology of the disk or its associated star-forming regions.The detection rate is a lower limit owing to the combined effects ofprojection and resolution. The infrared colors of the KSR host galaxiesare unremarkable compared to other Seyfert galaxies, and the large-scaleoutflows orient randomly with respect to the host galaxy axes. The KSRSeyfert galaxies instead stand out by deviating significantly from thefar-infrared-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies, with tendencytoward radio excess, and they are more likely to have a relativelyluminous, compact radio source in the nucleus; these results argue thatKSRs are powered by the AGNs rather than starbursts. The high detectionrate indicates that Seyfert galaxies generate radio outflows over asignificant fraction of their lifetime, which is much longer than thedynamical timescale of an AGN-powered jet but is comparable instead tothe buoyancy timescale. The likely explanation is that the KSRsoriginate from jet plasma that has been decelerated by interaction withthe nuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Based on a simple ram pressureargument, the kinetic power of the jet on kiloparsec scales is about 3orders of magnitude weaker than the power of the jet on 10-100 pcscales. This result is consistent with the interaction model, in whichcase virtually all of the jet power must be lost to the ISM within theinner kiloparsec.

The Host Galaxies of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Nuclear Dust Morphology and Starburst Rings
We present a study of the nuclear morphology of a sample of narrow- andbroad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s and BLS1s, respectively) based onbroadband images in the Hubble Space Telescope archives. In our previousstudy we found that large-scale stellar bars at >1 kpc from thenucleus are more common in NLS1s than BLS1s. In this paper we find thatNLS1s preferentially have grand-design dust spirals within ~1 kpc oftheir centers. We also find that NLS1s have a higher fraction of nuclearstar-forming rings than BLS1s. We find that many of the morphologicaldifferences are due to the presence or absence of a large-scale stellarbar within the spiral host galaxy. In general, barred Seyfert 1 galaxiestend to have grand-design dust spirals at their centers, confirming theresults of other researchers. The high fraction of grand-design nucleardust spirals and stellar nuclear rings observed in NLS1s' host galaxiessuggests a means for efficient fueling of their nuclei to support theirhigh Eddington ratios.

Low-Luminosity Active Galaxies and Their Central Black Holes
Central black hole masses for 117 spiral galaxies representingmorphological stages S0/a through Sc and taken from the largespectroscopic survey of Ho et al. are derived using Ks-banddata from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Black hole masses are foundusing a calibrated black hole-Ks bulge luminosity relation,while bulge luminosities are measured by means of a two-dimensionalbulge-disk decomposition routine. The black hole masses are correlatedagainst a variety of parameters representing properties of the nucleusand host galaxy. Nuclear properties such as line width (FWHM [N II]), aswell as emission-line ratios (e.g., [O III]/Hβ, [O I]/Hα, [NII]/Hα, and [S II]/Hα), show a very high degree ofcorrelation with black hole mass. The excellent correlation with linewidth supports the view that the emission-line gas is in virialequilibrium with either the black hole or bulge potential. The very goodemission-line ratio correlations may indicate a change in ionizingcontinuum shape with black hole mass in the sense that more massiveblack holes generate harder spectra. Apart from theinclination-corrected rotational velocity, no excellent correlations arefound between black hole mass and host galaxy properties. Significantdifferences are found between the distributions of black hole masses inearly-, mid-, and late-type spiral galaxies (subsamples A, B, and C) inthe sense that early-type galaxies have preferentially larger centralblack holes, consistent with observations that Seyfert galaxies arefound preferentially in early-type systems. The line width distributionsshow a marked difference among subsamples A, B, and C in the sense thatearlier type galaxies have larger line widths. There are also cleardifferences in line ratios between subsamples A+B and C that likely arerelated to the level of ionization in the gas. Finally, aKs-band Simien & de Vaucouleurs diagram shows excellentagreement with the original B-band relation, although there is a largedispersion at a given morphological stage.

On the X-ray, optical emission line and black hole mass properties of local Seyfert galaxies
We investigate the relation between X-ray nuclear emission, opticalemission line luminosities and black hole masses for a sample of 47Seyfert galaxies. The sample, which has been selected from the Palomaroptical spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies (Ho et al. 1997a, ApJS,112, 315), covers a wide range of nuclear powers, from L2-10keV ~ 1043 erg/s down to very low luminosities(L2-10 keV ~ 1038 erg/s). Best available data fromChandra, XMM-Newton and, in a few cases, ASCA observations have beenconsidered. Thanks to the good spatial resolution available from theseobservations and a proper modeling of the various spectral components,it has been possible to obtain accurate nuclear X-ray luminosities notcontaminated by off-nuclear sources and/or diffuse emission. X-rayluminosities have then been corrected taking into account the likelycandidate Compton thick sources, which are a high fraction (>30%)among type 2 Seyferts in our sample. The main result of this study isthat we confirm strong linear correlations between 2-10 keV,[OIII]λ5007, Hα luminosities which show the same slope asquasars and luminous Seyfert galaxies, independent of the level ofnuclear activity displayed. Moreover, despite the wide range ofEddington ratios (L/L_Edd) tested here (six orders of magnitude, from0.1 down to ~10-7), no correlation is found between the X-rayor optical emission line luminosities and the black hole mass. Ourresults suggest that Seyfert nuclei in our sample are consistent withbeing a scaled-down version of more luminous AGN.

A high-frequency radio survey of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei
We investigate the high-frequency radio spectra of 20 low-luminosityactive galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) with compact radio cores. Our millimetresurvey with the Nobeyama Millimetre Array (NMA) and analyses ofsubmillimetre archival data that had been obtained with theSubmillimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the James ClerkMaxwell Telescope (JCMT) reveal the following properties. At least halfof the LLAGNs show inverted spectra between 15 and 96 GHz; we use thepublished data at 15 GHz with the Very Large Array (VLA) in a0.15-arcsec resolution and our measurements at 96 GHz with the NMA in a7-arcsec resolution. The inverted spectra are not artificially made dueto their unmatched beam sizes, because of little diffuse contaminationfrom dust, HII regions, or extended jets in these LLAGNs. Suchhigh-frequency inverted spectra are apparently consistent with a`submillimetre bump', which is predicted by an advection-dominatedaccretion flow (ADAF) model. We find a strong correlation between thehigh-frequency spectral index and low-frequency core power measured withvery-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) instruments. The invertedspectra are found exclusively in low-core-power sources, while steepspectra are in high-core-power ones with prominent pc-scale jets. Thissuggests that the ADAF and non-thermal jets may coexist. The flux ratiosbetween disc and jet seem to be different from LLAGN to LLAGN; disccomponents can be seen in nuclear radio spectra only if the jets arefaint.

Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data Analysis
X-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources.

The Size of the Radio-Emitting Region in Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei
We have used the VLA to study radio variability among a sample of 18low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) on timescales of a fewhours to 10 days. The goal was to measure or limit the sizes of theLLAGN radio-emitting regions in order to use the size measurements asinput to models of the radio emission mechanisms in LLAGNs. We detectvariability on typical timescales of a few days at a confidence level of99% in half the target galaxies. Either variability that is intrinsic tothe radio-emitting regions or that is caused by scintillation in theGalactic interstellar medium is consistent with the data. For eitherinterpretation, the brightness temperature of the emission is below theinverse Compton limit for all our LLAGNs and has a mean value of about1010 K. The variability measurements plus VLBI upper limitsimply that the typical angular size of the LLAGN radio cores at 8.5 GHzis 0.2 mas, plus or minus a factor of 2. The ~1010 Kbrightness temperature strongly suggests that a population ofhigh-energy nonthermal electrons must be present, in addition to ahypothesized thermal population in an accretion flow, in order toproduce the observed radio emission.

The Hubble Space Telescope View of LINER Nuclei: Evidence for a Dual Population?
We study a complete, distance-limited sample of 25 LINERs, 21 of whichhave been imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. In nine objects wedetect an unresolved nucleus. To study their physical properties, wecompare the radio and optical properties of the nuclei of LINERs withthose of other samples of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs), namely,Seyfert galaxies and low-luminosity radio galaxies (LLRGs). Our resultsshow that the LINER population is not homogeneous, as there are twosubclasses: (1) the first class is similar to the LLRG class, as itextends the population of radio-loud nuclei to lower luminosities; (2)the second is similar to Seyfert galaxies and extends the properties ofradio-quiet nuclei toward the lowest luminosities. The objects areoptimally discriminated in the plane formed by the black hole massversus nuclear radio loudness: all radio-loud LINERs haveMBH>~108Msolar, while Seyfertgalaxies and radio-quiet LINERs haveMBH<~108Msolar. The different natureof the various classes of local AGNs are best understood when thefraction of the Eddington luminosity they irradiate,Lo/LEdd, is plotted against the nuclearradio-loudness parameter: Seyfert galaxies are associated withrelatively high radiative efficienciesLo/LEdd>~10-4 (and high accretionrates onto low-mass black holes); LLRGs are associated with lowradiative efficiencies (and low accretion rates onto high-mass blackholes); all LINERs have low radiative efficiency (and accretion rates)and can be radio-loud or radio-quiet, depending on their black holemass.Based on observations obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Completing H I observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster
High sensitivity (rms noise ˜ 0.5 mJy) 21-cm H I line observationswere made of 33 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, using the refurbishedArecibo telescope, which resulted in the detection of 12 objects. Thesedata, combined with the measurements available from the literature,provide the first set of H I data that is complete for all 355 late-type(Sa-Im-BCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster with mp ≤ 18.0mag. The Virgo cluster H I mass function (HIMF) that was derived forthis optically selected galaxy sample is in agreement with the HIMFderived for the Virgo cluster from the blind HIJASS H I survey and isinconsistent with the Field HIMF. This indicates that both in this richcluster and in the general field, neutral hydrogen is primarilyassociated with late-type galaxies, with marginal contributions fromearly-type galaxies and isolated H I clouds. The inconsistency betweenthe cluster and the field HIMF derives primarily from the difference inthe optical luminosity function of late-type galaxies in the twoenvironments, combined with the HI deficiency that is known to occur ingalaxies in rich clusters.Tables \ref{t1, \ref{sample_dat} and Appendix A are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

The complex structure of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei: NGC 4579
We have modelled the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) NGC4579 by explaining both the continuum and the line spectra observed withdifferent apertures. It was found that the nuclear emission is dominatedby an AGN such that the flux from the active centre (AC) is relativelylow compared with that of the narrow emission-line region (NLR) ofSeyfert galaxies. However, the contribution of a young starburst cannotbe neglected, as well as that of shock-dominated clouds with velocitiesof 100, 300 and 500kms-1. A small contribution from an olderstarburst with an age of 4.5 Myr, probably located in the externalnuclear region, is also found. HII regions appear in the extendedregions (~1 kpc), where radiation and shock-dominated clouds withVs= 100kms-1 prevail. The continuum SED of NGC4579 is characterized by the strong flux from an old stellar population.Emissions in the radio range show synchrotron radiation from the base ofthe jet outflowing from the accretion disc within 0.1 pc from the activecentre. Radio emission within intermediate distances (10-20 pc) isexplained by the bremsstrahlung from gas downstream of low-velocityshocks (Vs= 100kms-1) reached by a relatively lowradiation flux from the AC. In extended regions (>100 pc) the radioemission is synchrotron radiation created by the Fermi mechanism at theshock front. The shocks are created by collision of clouds with the jet.All types of emissions observed at different radius from the centre canbe reconciled with the presence of the jet.

Comparison of Nuclear Starburst Luminosities between Seyfert 1 and 2 Galaxies Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
We report on infrared K- (2-2.5 μm) and L-band (2.8-4.1 μm) slitspectroscopy of 23 Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples. Apolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature at 3.3 μm inthe L band is primarily used to investigate nuclear star-formingactivity in these galaxies. The 3.3 μm PAH emission is detected in 10sources (=43%), demonstrating that detection of nuclear star formationin a significant fraction of Seyfert 1 galaxies is now feasible. For thePAH-detected nuclei, the surface brightness values of the PAH emissionare as high as those of typical starbursts, suggesting that the PAHemission probes the putative nuclear starbursts in the dusty tori aroundthe central active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The magnitudes of the nuclearstarbursts are quantitatively estimated from the observed 3.3 μm PAHemission luminosities. The estimated starburst luminosities relative tosome indicators of AGN powers in these Seyfert 1 galaxies are comparedwith 32 Seyfert 2 galaxies in the same samples that we have previouslyobserved. We find that there is no significant difference in nuclearstarburst to AGN luminosity ratios of Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies and thatnuclear starburst luminosity positively correlates with AGN power inboth types. Our results favor a slightly modified AGN unification model,which predicts that nuclear starbursts occurring in the dusty tori ofSeyfert galaxies are physically connected to the central AGNs, ratherthan the classical unification paradigm, in which the dusty tori simplyhide the central AGNs of Seyfert 2 galaxies and reprocess AGN radiationas infrared dust emission in Seyfert galaxies. No significantdifferences in nuclear star formation properties are recognizablebetween Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples.

Circumnuclear Structure and Black Hole Fueling: Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging of 250 Active and Normal Galaxies
Why are the nuclei of some galaxies more active than others? If mostgalaxies harbor a central massive black hole, the main difference isprobably in how well it is fueled by its surroundings. We investigatethe hypothesis that such a difference can be seen in the detailedcircumnuclear morphologies of galaxies using several quantitativelydefined features, including bars, isophotal twists, boxy and diskyisophotes, and strong nonaxisymmetric features in unsharp-masked images.These diagnostics are applied to 250 high-resolution images of galaxycenters obtained in the near-infrared with NICMOS on the Hubble SpaceTelescope. To guard against the influence of possible biases andselection effects, we have carefully matched samples of Seyfert 1,Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst, and normal galaxies in their basicproperties, taking particular care to ensure that each was observed witha similar average scale (10-15 pc pixel-1). Severalmorphological differences among our five different spectroscopicclassifications emerge from the analysis. The H II/starburst galaxiesshow the strongest deviations from smooth elliptical isophotes, whilethe normal galaxies and LINERs have the least disturbed morphology. TheSeyfert 2s have significantly more twisted isophotes than any othercategory, and the early-type Seyfert 2s are significantly more disturbedthan the early-type Seyfert 1s. The morphological differences betweenSeyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s suggest that more is at work than simply theviewing angle of the central engine. They may correspond to differentevolutionary stages.

Galaxy Interaction and the Starburst-Seyfert Connection
Galaxy interactions are studied in terms of the starburst-Seyfertconnection. The starburst requires a high rate of gas supply. Since theefficiency for supplying the gas is high in a galaxy interaction,although the companion is not necessarily discernible, Seyfert galaxieswith circumnuclear starbursts are expected to be interacting. Since thelarge amounts of circumnuclear gas and dust obscure the broad-lineregion, they are expected to be observed as Seyfert 2 galaxies. Theactive galactic nucleus itself does not require a high rate of gassupply. Seyfert galaxies without circumnuclear starbursts are notnecessarily expected to be interacting even at the highest luminosities.They are not necessarily expected to evolve from Seyfert galaxies withcircumnuclear starbursts. We derive these and other theoreticalexpectations and confirm them with statistics on observational data ofmagnitude-limited samples of Seyfert galaxies.

Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei at the Highest Resolution: Jets or Accretion Flows?
Six low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been imaged atmultiple frequencies from 1.7 to 43 GHz (2.3-15 GHz for three of thegalaxies) using the Very Long Baseline Array. In spite of dynamic rangesof about 100 in several frequency bands, all six galaxies remainunresolved, with size limits at 8.4 GHz of 103-104times the Schwarzschild radii of the black holes inferred at theirgalactic centers. The galaxy spectra are roughly flat from 1.7 to 43GHz, rather than steepening to classical optically thin synchrotronspectra at high frequencies. Although the spectral slopes somewhatresemble predictions for advection-dominated accretion flows, theluminosities are too high for the black hole masses of the galaxies, andthe slight spectral steepening at high frequencies cannot be explainedby standard simple models of such accretion flows. In contrast, compactjets can accommodate the average spectral index, the relatively highradio luminosity, and the unresolved appearance, but only if the jets inall six galaxies are fairly close to our line of sight. This constraintis in agreement with inclination angle predictions for five of the sixAGNs based on the dusty torus unification model.

Stacking Searches for Gamma-Ray Emission above 100 MeV from Radio and Seyfert Galaxies
The EGRET telescope on board Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detected morethan 60 sources of high-energy gamma radiation associated with activegalactic nuclei (AGNs). All but one of those belong to the blazarsubclass; the only exception is the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A.Since there is no obvious reason other than proximity to expect Cen A tobe the only nonblazar AGN emitting in high-energy gamma rays, we haveutilized the ``stacking'' technique to search for emission above 100 MeVfrom two nonblazar AGN subclasses, radio galaxies and Seyfert galaxies.Maps of gamma-ray counts, exposure, and diffuse background have beencreated, then co-added in varying numbers based on sorts by redshift, 5GHz flux density, and optical brightness, and finally tested forgamma-ray emission. No detection significance greater than 2 σ hasbeen found for any subclass, sorting parameter, or number of objectsco-added. Monte Carlo simulations have also been performed to validatethe technique and estimate the significance of the results.

Radio continuum spectra of galaxies in the Virgo cluster region
New radio continuum observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster regionat 4.85, 8.6, and 10.55 GHz are presented. These observations arecombined with existing measurements at 1.4 and 0.325 GHz. The sampleincludes 81 galaxies where spectra with more than two frequencies couldbe derived. Galaxies that show a radio-FIR excess exhibit centralactivity (HII, LINER, AGN). The four Virgo galaxies with the highestabsolute radio excess are found within 2° of the centerof the cluster. Galaxies showing flat radio spectra also host activecenters. There is no clear trend between the spectral index and thegalaxy's distance to the cluster center.Figure 3 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.orgTable 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/1

Minor-axis velocity gradients in disk galaxies
We present the ionized-gas kinematics and photometry of a sample of 4spiral galaxies which are characterized by a zero-velocity plateau alongthe major axis and a velocity gradient along the minor axis,respectively. By combining these new kinematical data with thoseavailable in the literature for the ionized-gas component of the S0s andspirals listed in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies werealized that about 50% of unbarred galaxies show a remarkable gasvelocity gradient along the optical minor axis. This fraction rises toabout 60% if we include unbarred galaxies with an irregular velocityprofile along the minor axis. This phenomenon is observed all along theHubble sequence of disk galaxies, and it is particularly frequent inearly-type spirals. Since minor-axis velocity gradients are unexpectedif the gas is moving onto circular orbits in a disk coplanar to thestellar one, we conclude that non-circular and off-plane gas motions arenot rare in the inner regions of disk galaxies.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatoryin La Silla (Chile) (ESO 69.B-0706 and 70.B-0338), with the MultipleMirror Telescope which is a joint facility of the SmithsonianInstitution and the University of Arizona, and with the ItalianTelescopio Nazionale Galileo (AOT-5, 3-18) at the Observatorio del Roquede los Muchachos in La Palma (Spain).Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/507

Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the ˜9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35

The Unified Model and Evolution of Active Galaxies: Implications from a Spectropolarimetric Study
We extend the analysis presented in Paper I of a spectropolarimetricsurvey of the CfA and 12 μm samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s). Weconfirm that polarized (hidden) broad-line region (HBLR) S2s tend tohave hotter circumnuclear dust temperatures, show mid-IR spectra morecharacteristic of Seyfert 1 galaxies (S1s), and are intrinsically moreluminous than non-HBLR S2s. The levels of obscuration and circumnuclearstar formation, however, appear to be similar between HBLR and non-HBLRS2 galaxies, based on an examination of various observationalindicators. HBLR S2s, on average, share many similar large-scale,presumably isotropic, characteristics with S1s, as would be expected ifthe unified model is correct, while non-HBLR S2s generally do not. Theactive nuclear engines of non-HBLR S2s, then, appear to be truly weakerthan HBLR S2s, which in turn are fully consistent with being S1s viewedfrom another direction. There is also evidence that the fraction ofdetected HBLRs increases with the radio power of the active galacticnucleus. Thus, all S2 galaxies may not be intrinsically similar innature, and we speculate that evolutionary processes may be at work.

The Host Galaxies of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Evidence for Bar-Driven Fueling
We present a study of the host galaxy morphologies of narrow- andbroad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1's and BLS1's) based on broadbandoptical images from the Hubble Space Telescope archives. We find thatlarge-scale stellar bars, starting at ~1 kpc from the nucleus, are muchmore common in NLS1's than BLS1's. Furthermore, the fraction of NLS1spirals that have bars increases with decreasing full width athalf-maximum of the broad component of Hβ. These results suggest alink between the large-scale bars, which can support high fueling ratesto the inner kiloparsecs, and the high mass accretion rates associatedwith the supermassive black holes in NLS1's.

Spectral Energy Distributions of Seyfert Nuclei
We present nuclear spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the range0.4-16 μm for an expanded CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies. Thespectral indexes (fν~ν-αIR)from 1 to 16 μm range from αIR~0.9 to 3.8. Theshapes of the spectra are correlated with Seyfert type in the sense thatsteeper nuclear SEDs (νfν increasing with increasingwavelength) tend to be found in Seyfert 2's, and flatter SEDs(νfν is constant) in Seyfert 1-1.5's. The galaxiesoptically classified as Seyferts 1.8's and 1.9's display values ofαIR as in type 1 objects, or values intermediatebetween those of Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's. The intermediate SEDs ofmany Seyfert 1.8-1.9's may be consistent with the presence of a pureSeyfert 1 viewed through a moderate amount (AV<~5 mag) offoreground galaxy extinction. We find, however, that between 10% and 20%of galaxies with broad optical line components have steep infrared SEDs.Torus models usually adopt high equatorial opacities to reproduce theinfrared properties of Seyfert 1's and 2's, resulting in a dichotomy ofinfrared SEDs (flat for type 1's, and steep for type 2's). Such adichotomy, however, is not observed in our sample. The wide range ofspectral indexes observed in the type 2 objects, the lack of extremelysteep SEDs, and the large numbers of objects with intermediate spectralindexes cannot be reconciled with predictions from existing opticallythick torus models. We discuss possible modifications to improve torusmodels, including low optical depth tori, clumpy dusty tori, and highoptical depth tori with an extended optically thin component.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Minor-axis velocity gradients in spirals and the case of inner polar disks
We measured the ionized-gas and stellar kinematics along the major andminor axis of a sample of 10 early-type spirals. Much to our surprise wefound a remarkable gas velocity gradient along the minor axis of 8 ofthem. According to the kinematic features observed in their ionized-gasvelocity fields, we divide our sample galaxies in three classes ofobjects. (i) NGC 4984, NGC 7213, and NGC 7377 show an overall velocitycurve along the minor axis without zero-velocity points, out to the lastmeasured radius, which is interpreted as due to the warped structure ofthe gaseous disk. (ii) NGC 3885, NGC 4224, and NGC 4586 arecharacterized by a velocity gradient along both major and minor axis,although non-zero velocities along the minor axis are confined to thecentral regions. Such gas kinematics have been explained as being due tonon-circular motions induced by a triaxial potential. (iii) NGC 2855 andNGC 7049 show a change of slope of the velocity gradient measured alongthe major axis (which is shallower in the center and steeper away fromthe nucleus), as well as non-zero gas velocities in the central regionsof the minor axis. This has been attributed to the presence of akinematically-decoupled gaseous component in orthogonal rotation withrespect to the galaxy disk, namely an inner polar disk. The case andorigin of inner polar disks are discussed and the list of their hostgalaxies is presented.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory(ESO 62.A-0463 and 63.N-0305).Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/873

The Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of optical identifications. Northern high-galactic latitude ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue X-ray sources
We present the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue (HRC) of optical identificationsof X-ray sources at high-galactic latitude. The HRC includes all X-raysources from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) with galacticlatitude |b| >=30degr and declination delta >=0degr . In thispart of the sky covering ~ 10 000 deg2 the RASS-BSC contains5341 X-ray sources. For the optical identification we used blue Schmidtprism and direct plates taken for the northern hemisphere Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) which are now available in digitized form. The limitingmagnitudes are 18.5 and 20, respectively. For 82% of the selectedRASS-BSC an identification could be given. For the rest either nocounterpart was visible in the error circle or a plausibleidentification was not possible. With ~ 42% AGN represent the largestgroup of X-ray emitters, ~ 31% have a stellar counterpart, whereasgalaxies and cluster of galaxies comprise only ~ 4% and ~ 5%,respectively. In ~ 3% of the RASS-BSC sources no object was visible onour blue direct plates within 40\arcsec around the X-ray sourceposition. The catalogue is used as a source for the selection of(nearly) complete samples of the various classes of X-ray emitters.

An Hα survey aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in halos of edge-on spiral galaxies. II. The Hα survey atlas and catalog
In this second paper on the investigation of extraplanar diffuse ionizedgas in nearby edge-on spiral galaxies we present the actual results ofthe individual galaxies of our Hα imaging survey. A grand totalof 74 galaxies have been studied, including the 9 galaxies of a recentlystudied sub-sample \citep{Ro00}. 40.5% of all studied galaxies revealextraplanar diffuse ionized gas, whereas in 59.5% of the survey galaxiesno extraplanar diffuse ionized gas could be detected. The averagedistances of this extended emission above the galactic midplane rangefrom 1-2 kpc, while individual filaments in a few galaxies reachdistances of up to |z| ~ 6 kpc. In several cases a pervasive layer ofionized gas was detected, similar to the Reynolds layer in our MilkyWay, while other galaxies reveal only extended emission locally. Themorphology of the diffuse ionized gas is discussed for each galaxy andis compared with observations of other important ISM constituents in thecontext of the disk-halo connection, in those cases where publishedresults were available. Furthermore, we present the distribution ofextraplanar dust in these galaxies, based on an analysis of theunsharp-masked R-band images. The results are compared with thedistribution of the diffuse ionized gas.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (ESO No. 63.N-0070, ESO No. 64.N-0034, ESO No. 65.N.-0002).\ref{fig22}-\ref{fig54} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

An Hα survey aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in halos of edge-on spiral galaxies. I. How common are gaseous halos among non-starburst galaxies?
In a series of two papers we present results of a new Hα imagingsurvey, aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas inhalos of late-type spiral galaxies. We have investigated a sample of 74nearby edge-on spirals, covering the northern and southern hemisphere.In 30 galaxies we detected extraplanar diffuse emission at meandistances of |z| ~ 1-2 kpc. Individual filaments can be traced out to|z|<=6 kpc in a few cases. We find a good correlation between the FIRflux ratio (S60/S100) and the SFR per unit area(LFIR/D225), based on thedetections/non-detections. This is actually valid for starburst, normaland for quiescent galaxies. A minimal SFR per unit area for the lowestS60/S100 values, at which extended emission hasbeen detected, was derived, which amounts to dotEA25thres = (3.2+/-0.5)*E40ergs-1 kpc-2. There are galaxies where extraplanaremission was detected at smaller values ofLFIR/D225, however, only in combinationwith a significantly enhanced dust temperature. The results corroboratethe general view that the gaseous halos are a direct consequence of SFactivity in the underlying galactic disk.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (ESO No. 63.N-0070, ESO No. 64.N-0034, ESO No. 65.N.-0002).

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

A New Empirical Method for Estimating the Far-Infrared Flux of Galaxies
We propose a new empirical method to estimate the total far-infraredflux of galaxies from the spectral energy distribution (SED) atwavelengths of λ <= 100 μm. It is difficult to derive thetotal far-infrared luminosity from only the IRAS data, though it is oneof the most important properties of galaxies. Observations by InfraredTelescope in Space (IRTS) indicate that the SED of the diffuse emissionfrom the Galactic plane in this wavelength region can be derived fromthe 60 μm to 100 μm color. This empirical SED relation wasimproved in order to obtain a better fit to the Galactic plane data forIν(60 μm) / Iν(100 μm) > 0.6, andapplied to 96 IRAS galaxies for which ISOPHOT and KAO data are availableat λ > 100 μm. As a result, the empirical relation welldescribes the far-infrared (FIR) SED for a majority of galaxies.Additionally, the total FIR flux for λ >= 40 μm was derivedfrom the flux densities at 60 and 100 μm by using this model. For the96 IRAS galaxies, the uncertainty in the total far-infrared flux of thepresent method is 26%. The present method is more accurate than theprevious one widely used to derive the total infrared flux from the IRAS60 and 100 μm data.

The SAURON project - II. Sample and early results
Early results are reported from the SAURON survey of the kinematics andstellar populations of a representative sample of nearby E, S0 and Sagalaxies. The survey is aimed at determining the intrinsic shape of thegalaxies, their orbital structure, the mass-to-light ratio as a functionof radius, the age and metallicity of the stellar populations, and thefrequency of kinematically decoupled cores and nuclear black holes. Theconstruction of the representative sample is described, and itsproperties are illustrated. A comparison with long-slit spectroscopicdata establishes that the SAURON measurements are comparable to, orbetter than, the highest-quality determinations. Comparisons arepresented for NGC 3384 and 4365, where stellar velocities and velocitydispersions are determined to a precision of 6kms-1, and theh3 and h4 parameters of the line-of-sight velocitydistribution to a precision of better than 0.02. Extraction of accurategas emission-line intensities, velocities and linewidths from the datacubes is illustrated for NGC 5813. Comparisons with published linestrengths for NGC 3384 and 5813 reveal uncertainties of <~0.1Åon the measurements of the Hβ, Mg b and Fe5270 indices.Integral-field mapping uniquely connects measurements of the kinematicsand stellar populations to the galaxy morphology. The maps presentedhere illustrate the rich stellar kinematics, gaseous kinematics, andline-strength distributions of early-type galaxies. The results includethe discovery of a thin, edge-on, disc in NGC 3623, confirm theaxisymmetric shape of the central region of M32, illustrate the LINERnucleus and surrounding counter-rotating star-forming ring in NGC 7742,and suggest a uniform stellar population in the decoupled core galaxyNGC 5813.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h17m09.90s
Aparent dimensions:4.169′ × 0.851′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names
NGC 2000.0NGC 4235
ICIC 3098
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 222

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