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Constraining Dark Matter Halo Profiles and Galaxy Formation Models Using Spiral Arm Morphology. I. Method Outline
We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of diskgalaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral armpitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in diskgalaxy rotation curves by using a much larger sample (51 galaxies) thanused previously (17 galaxies). We use this correlation to argue thatimaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic massdistributions out to large look-back times. In contrast to previouswork, we show that observed spiral arm pitch angles are similar whenmeasured in the optical (at 0.4 μm) and the near-infrared (at 2.1μm) with a mean difference of 2.3d+/-2.7d. This is then used tostrengthen the known correlation between P and S using B-band images. Wethen use two example galaxies to demonstrate how an inferred shear ratecoupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derivedvelocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy'sbaryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. We show that ESO 582-G12,a galaxy with a high shear rate (slightly declining rotation curve) at~10 kpc, favors an adiabatically contracted halo, with high initial NFWconcentration (cvir>16) and a high fraction of halobaryons in the form of stars (~15%-40%). In contrast, IC 2522 has a lowshear rate (rising rotation curve) at ~10 kpc and favorsnonadiabatically contracted models with low NFW concentrations(cvir~=2-8) and a low stellar baryon fraction <10%.

The Distribution of Bar and Spiral Arm Strengths in Disk Galaxies
The distribution of bar strengths in disk galaxies is a fundamentalproperty of the galaxy population that has only begun to be explored. Wehave applied the bar-spiral separation method of Buta and coworkers toderive the distribution of maximum relative gravitational bar torques,Qb, for 147 spiral galaxies in the statistically well-definedOhio State University Bright Galaxy Survey (OSUBGS) sample. Our goal isto examine the properties of bars as independently as possible of theirassociated spirals. We find that the distribution of bar strengthdeclines smoothly with increasing Qb, with more than 40% ofthe sample having Qb<=0.1. In the context of recurrent barformation, this suggests that strongly barred states are relativelyshort-lived compared to weakly barred or nonbarred states. We do notfind compelling evidence for a bimodal distribution of bar strengths.Instead, the distribution is fairly smooth in the range0.0<=Qb<0.8. Our analysis also provides a first look atspiral strengths Qs in the OSUBGS sample, based on the sametorque indicator. We are able to verify a possible weak correlationbetween Qs and Qb, in the sense that galaxies withthe strongest bars tend to also have strong spirals.

Bar-induced perturbation strengths of the galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey - I
Bar-induced perturbation strengths are calculated for a well-definedmagnitude-limited sample of 180 spiral galaxies, based on the Ohio StateUniversity Bright Galaxy Survey. We use a gravitational torque method,the ratio of the maximal tangential force to the mean axisymmetricradial force, as a quantitative measure of the bar strength. Thegravitational potential is inferred from an H-band light distribution byassuming that the M/L ratio is constant throughout the disc. Galaxiesare deprojected using orientation parameters based on B-band images. Inorder to eliminate artificial stretching of the bulge, two-dimensionalbar-bulge-disc decomposition has been used to derive a reliable bulgemodel. This bulge model is subtracted from an image, the disc isdeprojected assuming it is thin, and then the bulge is added back byassuming that its mass distribution is spherically symmetric. We findthat removing the artificial bulge stretch is important especially forgalaxies having bars inside large bulges. We also find that the massesof the bulges can be significantly overestimated if bars are not takeninto account in the decomposition.Bars are identified using Fourier methods by requiring that the phasesof the main modes (m= 2, m= 4) are maintained nearly constant in the barregion. With such methods, bars are found in 65 per cent of the galaxiesin our sample, most of them being classified as SB-type systems in thenear-infrared by Eskridge and co-workers. We also suggest that as muchas ~70 per cent of the galaxies classified as SAB-types in thenear-infrared might actually be non-barred systems, many of them havingcentral ovals. It is also possible that a small fraction of the SAB-typegalaxies have weak non-classical bars with spiral-like morphologies.

The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%
The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39

Deprojecting spiral galaxies using Fourier analysis. Application to the Ohio sample
We use two new methods developed recently (Barberàet al.\cite{bar03}, A&A, 415, 849), as well as information obtained fromthe literature, to calculate the orientation parameters of the spiralgalaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey. We comparethe results of these methods with data from the literature, and find ingeneral good agreement. We provide a homogeneous set of mean orientationparameters which can be used to approximately deproject the disks of thegalaxies and facilitate a number of statistical studies of galaxyproperties.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/421/595

Simulations of dual morphology in spiral galaxies
Gas and stars in spiral galaxies are modelled with a combination ofhydrodynamic and N-body techniques. The simulations reveal morphologicaldifferences mirroring the dual morphologies seen in B and K' bandobservations of many spiral galaxies: gaseous images have tighter pitchangles, are more asymmetric, more flocculent and more likely to havemultiple arms. Morphological decoupling increases as the stellararm-interarm contrast and the Q parameter fall. The flocculence of agalaxy is quantified by decomposing the images into logarithmic spiralsand defining a parameter closely related to the uniformity of theresulting 2D Fourier spectrum. Thus, a significant amount ofmorphological decoupling in spiral galaxies is shown to be due to thedifference in the dynamics of stars and gas, rather than dust, starformation or galaxy interactions.

The far-infrared/radio correlation in the ISO era. The warm and cold far-infrared/radio correlations
We present the correlation between the far-infrared (FIR) and radioemissions from a composite sample of 72 nearby normal galaxies observedwith the ISOPHOT instrument on board the Infrared Space Observatory. Thegalaxies in the sample have measurements at three FIR wavelengths (60,100 and 170 mu m), which allowed a direct determination of the warm andcold FIR emission components. This is the first time that thecorrelation has been established for the total FIR luminosity, of whichmost is carried by the cold dust component predominantly emittinglongwards of the spectral coverage of IRAS. The slope of thiscorrelation is slightly non-linear (1.10+/- 0.03). Separate correlationsbetween the warm and cold FIR emission components and the radio emissionhave also been derived. The slope of the warm FIR/radio correlation wasfound to be linear (1.03 +/- 0.03). For the cold FIR/radio correlationwe found a slightly non-linear (1.13 +/- 0.04) slope. We qualitativelyinterpret the correlations in terms of star formation rate and find thatboth the FIR and radio emissions may be consistent with a non-lineardependence on star formation rate for galaxies not undergoing starburstactivity.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA member States (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, The Netherlands, and the UK) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA.Table \ref{Tab2} and Appendices A and B are only available in electronicform at http://www.edpsciences.org

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

Galaxies with Rows
The results of a search for galaxies with straight structural elements,usually spiral-arm rows (“rows” in the terminology ofVorontsov-Vel'yaminov), are reported. The list of galaxies that possess(or probably possess) such rows includes about 200 objects, of whichabout 70% are brighter than 14m. On the whole, galaxies with rows makeup 6 8% of all spiral galaxies with well-developed spiral patterns. Mostgalaxies with rows are gas-rich Sbc-Scd spirals. The fraction ofinteracting galaxies among them is appreciably higher than amonggalaxies without rows. Earlier conclusions that, as a rule, the lengthsof rows are similar to their galactocentric distances and that theangles between adjacent rows are concentrated near 120° areconfirmed. It is concluded that the rows must be transient hydrodynamicstructures that develop in normal galaxies.

Vorontsov-Velyaminov Rows: Straight Segments in the Spiral Arms of Galaxies
The phenomenon of rows-straight features in the spiral patterns ofgalaxies, which was discovered by Vorontsov-Velyaminov, is investigated.The rows are not artifacts; in several cases, they outline regularspiral arms almost over their entire lengths. The galaxies M101, M51,and a number of more distant spirals are used as examples to demonstratemajor geometrical and physical properties of these structures. It isshown that the row lengths increase nearly linearly with distance fromthe disk center, and that the angle between adjacent rows is almostalways close to 2pi/3. The galaxies with rows generally belong tomoderate-luminosity Sbc-Sc systems with low rotational velocities,regular spiral patterns (Grand Design), and an HI content normal forthese types of galaxies. Two types of rows are shown to exist, whichdiffer in thickness and appear to be evolutionarily related. Theformation mechanism of the rows should probably be sought in thepeculiar behavior of the gas-compression wave in spiral density waves.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

The Frequency of Barred Spiral Galaxies in the Near-Infrared
We have determined the fraction of barred galaxies in the H-band for astatistically well-defined sample of 186 spirals drawn from the OhioState University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey. We find 56% of our sampleto be strongly barred in the H band while another 16% is weakly barred.Only 27% of our sample is unbarred in the near-infrared. The RC3 and theCarnegie Atlas of Galaxies both classify only about 30% of our sample asstrongly barred. Thus strong bars are nearly twice as prevalent in thenear-infrared as in the optical. The frequency of genuine opticallyhidden bars is significant but lower than many claims in the literature:40% of the galaxies in our sample that are classified as unbarred in theRC3 show evidence for a bar in the H band while the Carnegie Atlas liststhis fraction as 66%. Our data reveal no significant trend in barfraction as a function of morphology in either the optical or H band.Optical surveys of high-redshift galaxies may be strongly biased againstfinding bars, as bars are increasingly difficult to detect at bluer restwavelengths. Based partially on observations obtained at the CerroTololo Inter-American Observatory, operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperativeagreement with the National Science Foundation.

The ISOPHOT 170 μ m serendipity survey. I. Compact sources with galaxy associations
The first set of compact sources observed in the ISOPHOT 170 μmSerendipity Survey is presented. From the slew data with low(I100 μm <= 15 MJy/sr) cirrus background, 115well-observed sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in all detectorpixels having a galaxy association were extracted. Of the galaxies withknown optical morphologies, the vast majority are classified as spirals,barred spirals, or irregulars. The 170 μm fluxes measured from theSerendipity slews have been put on an absolute flux level by usingcalibration sources observed additionally with the photometric mappingmode of ISOPHOT. For all but a few galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes aredetermined for the first time, which represents a significant increasein the number of galaxies with measured Far-Infrared (FIR) fluxes beyondthe IRAS 100 μm limit. The 170 μm fluxes cover the range 2 <~F170 μm la 100 Jy. Formulae for the integrated FIR fluxesF40-220μm and the total infrared fluxesF1-1000μm incorporating the new 170 μm fluxes areprovided. The large fraction of sources with a high F170μm / F100 μm flux ratio indicates that a cold(TDust la 20 K) dust component is present in many galaxies.The detection of such a cold dust component is crucial for thedetermination of the total dust mass in galaxies, and, in cases with alarge F170 μm / F100 μm flux ratio,increases the dust mass by a significant factor. The typical mass of thecoldest dust component is MDust = 107.5 +/- 0.5Msun , a factor 2-10 larger than that derived from IRASfluxes alone. As a consequence, the majority of the derived gas-to-dustratios are much closer to the canonical value of ~ 160 for the MilkyWay. By relaxing the selection criteria, it is expected that theSerendipity Survey will eventually lead to a catalog of 170 μm fluxesfor ~ 1000 galaxies. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOTSerendipity Survey (CISS) are MPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca,AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena, Imperial College London.

Small-amplitude density waves in galactic discs with radial gradients
Stellar discs of highly flattened giant galaxies, including that of theMilky Way, are studied by linear theory to determine the stability ofsuch discs against small-amplitude gravity perturbations. In order tounderstand the physics of the problem better, the simplest theoreticalmodel is applied. That is, the local disc is studied by employing themethod of particle orbit theory. In this purely Lagrangian method, anapproximate solution of the Newtonian equations of the motion of starsis obtained using a general technique based upon the perturbationmethod. In the second order of Lindblad's epicyclic theory, expressionsare found for the unperturbed motions of stars in a stationary systemwith an axially symmetric mass distribution. Then, expressions are foundfor the perturbed motions of stars when the small non-axisymmetricgravity perturbation is additionally taken into account. The perturbedterms are obtained as second-order oscillations. To describe the orderedbehaviour of a medium near its quasi-equilibrium state, these equationsfor the trajectories of stars are used to obtain the dispersion relationthat connects the frequency of excited collective oscillations with thewavenumber throughout the disc, including resonant regions. Using thedispersion relation, a new class of gradient microinstabilities of anon-uniformly rotating disc inherent in an inhomogeneous system isdiscussed. The Landau mechanism of excitation of spiral density wavesworks at the corotation resonance between stars and hydrodynamically(Jeans) stable perturbations (e.g. those produced by a bar-likestructure, a spontaneous perturbation and/or a companion galaxy). Aphysical aetiology of the gradient microinstabilities of collisionlessstellar discs is explained. Such instabilities can develop only if theinhomogeneous and non-uniformly rotating disc of stars is Jeans-stable.Certain astronomical implications of the theory for actual galaxies areexplored as well. In particular, the development of these instabilitiesof a stellar disc can result directly in the formation of differentobservable structural features, e.g. spiral arms and collisionlessdynamical relaxation of the system on the Hubble time-scale.

Dust Lanes in Spiral Galaxies
Not Available

Cosmic Masks Still Dance
The Hubble classification scheme of galaxies is based on their opticalappearance or `masks'. As one goes from early to late type spirals, bothbarred and unbarred, the optical appearance will be dominated more andmore by the young Population I, i.e., blue stars and dust. Atlasesreveal the rich variety of responses of the Population I component ofgas and dust (the mask) to the underlying, older, stellar population.However, the gaseous Population I component, may only constitute 5percent of the dynamical mass of the galaxy. Masks of negligible massmay conceal the human face - and that of galaxy. In the near-infrared,the morphology of older star-dominated disk indicates a simpleclassification scheme: the dominant Fourier m-mode in the dustpenetrated regime, and the associated pitch angle. A ubiquity of low m=1and m=2 modes is confirmed. On the basis of deprojected H (1.65 μm)and K' (2.1μm) images, we propose that the evolved stellar disks maybe grouped into three principal dust penetrated archetypes: those withtightly wound stellar arms characterised by pitch angles at K' of ~10^° (the α class), an intermediate group with pitch angles of~ 25^° (the β class) and thirdly, those with open spiralsdemarcated by pitch angles at K' of ~ 40^° (the γ bin). Flator falling rotation curves give rise to the tightly wound α class;rising rotation curves are associated with the open γ class. Theobserved dust penetrated classes are inextricably related to the rate ofshear in the stellar disk, as determined by A/ω. Here A is thefirst Oort constant andω denotes the angular velocity. There is nocorrelation between our dust penetrated classes and optical Hubblebinning; the Hubble tuning fork does not constrain the morphology of theold stellar Population II disks. NGC 3223 and NGC 7083 (both SbI-II andalmost the same absolute blue magnitude) have identical Hubble types andidentical luminosity classes; the dust penetrated disk of NGC 3223 hastightly wrapped arms of class α, whereas the near-infrared disk ofNGC 7083 has open arms of class γ. This is in turn associated withtheir very different rotation curve shapes yielding different rates ofshear A/ω in their stellar disks. Any specific dust penetratedarchetype may be the resident disk of both an early or late type galaxy.The number of arms and the pitch angle of the arms at K' of theearly-type `a' spiral NGC 718 are almost identical to those for thelate-type `c' spiral NGC 309. We demonstrate that galaxies on oppositeends of the tuning fork can display remarkably similar evolved diskmorphologies and belong to the same dust penetrated class. In thissense, there is no differentiation between an early and late typegalaxy: the Hubble tuning fork becomes a circle. Furthermore, aprototypically flocculent galaxy such as NGC 5055 (Elmegreen arm class3) can have an evolved disk morphology almost identical to that of NGC5861, characterised in the optical as having one of the most regularspiral patterns known and of Elmegreen class 12. Both opticallyflocculent or grand design galaxies can reside within the same dustpenetrated morphological bin. As was suggested by Block et al. (1994a),it is the gas dominated Population I component which determines theoptical types (a, b, c). This may be partially or even fully decoupledfrom the Population II disk. Those L=lopsided galaxies (where m=1 is adominant mode) are designated Lα, Lβ and Lγ accordingto the dust penetrated pitch angle; E=evensided galaxies (where m=2 isthe dominant Fourier mode) are classified into classes Eα, Eβand Eγ, according to our three principal dust penetratedarchetypes. The L and E modes are the most common morphologies in oursample, which spans a range of Hubble types from early (a) to late(irregular).

Toward a dust penetrated classification of the evolved stellar Population II disks of galaxies
To derive a coherent physical framework for the excitation of spiralstructure in galaxies, one must consider the co-existence of twodifferent dynamical components: a gas-dominated Population I disk (OBassociations, HII regions, cold interstellar HI gas) and an evolvedstellar Population II component. The Hubble classification scheme has asits focus, the morphology of the Population I component only. In thenear-infrared, the morphology of evolved stellar disks indicates asimple classification scheme: the dominant Fourier m-mode in the dustpenetrated regime, and the associated pitch angle. On the basis ofdeprojected K' (2.1microns ) images, we propose that the evolved stellardisks may be grouped into three principal dust penetrated archetypes:those with tightly wound stellar arms characterised by pitch angles atK' of ~ 10(deg) (the alpha class), an intermediate group with pitchangles of ~ 25(deg) (the beta class) and thirdly, those with openspirals demarcated by pitch angles at K' of ~ 40(deg) (the gamma bin).There is no correlation between our dust penetrated classes and opticalHubble binning; the Hubble tuning fork does not constrain the morphologyof the old stellar Population II disks. Any specific dust penetratedarchetype may be the resident disk of both an early or late type galaxy.The number of arms and the pitch angle of the arms at K' of theearly-type `a' spiral NGC 718 are almost identical to those for thelate-type `c' spiral NGC 309. We demonstrate that galaxies on oppositeends of the tuning fork can display remarkably similar evolved diskmorphologies and belong to the same dust penetrated class. Furthermore,a prototypically flocculent galaxy such as NGC 5055 (Elmegreen arm class3) can have an evolved disk morphology almost identical to that of NGC5861, characterised in the optical as having one of the most regularspiral patterns known and of Elmegreen class 12. Both opticallyflocculent or grand design galaxies can reside within the same dustpenetrated morphological bin. As was suggested by Block et al.(\cite{block94a}), it is the gas dominated Population I component whichdetermines the optical types (a, b, c), decoupled from the PopulationII. Those L=lopsided galaxies (where m=1 is a dominant mode) aredesignated Lalpha , Lbeta and Lgamma according to the dust penetratedpitch angle; E=evensided galaxies (where m=2 is the dominant Fouriermode) are classified into classes Ealpha , Ebeta and Egamma , accordingto our three principal dust penetrated archetypes. The L and E modes arethe most common morphologies in our sample, which spans a range ofHubble types from early (a) to late (irregular). Having formulated ourdust penetrated classification scheme here, we have tested it on anindependent sample of 45 face-on galaxies observed in the near-infraredby Seigar and James (\cite{seigar98a}, b).

The Southern Sky Redshift Survey
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Stellar disks of optically flocculent and grand design spirals. Decoupling of stellar and gaseous disks
Accurate surface photometry of five spiral galaxies (NGC3223, NGC 5085, NGC5247, NGC 5861 and NGC7083) in visual and near-infrared bands is presented. Allgalaxies show grand design spiral structure in {{K(') }} althoughseveral have a flocculent appearance on blue images suggesting thatstellar and gaseous disks are decoupled. The decomposition of the {{K(')}} maps in axisymmetric components suggests that both a spherical bulgeand a flat exponential disk are required to explain the lightdistribution in the bulge regions. The central disk has a short scalelength and sky projection parameters similar to the main disk. The scalelength of the main exponential disk measured in the interarm region isconsistently smaller than the value determined from the arms for threeof the galaxies. Weak oval distortions were found in three galaxieswhile only one was classified as such. The galaxies with ovaldistortions have less concentrated and fainter bulges than those in thetwo galaxies without such ovals. Model rotation curves were constructedfor each galaxy based on the axisymmetric decomposition of their {{K(')}} surface brightness maps and observed velocity data. The mass-to-lightratio estimated in {{K(') }} for the disk component was around 0.7 insolar units for all galaxies using the disk scale length derived fromthe interarm regions. Pitch angles of the main two-armed spiralestimated in B,V,I and {{K(') }} show a systematic trend of arms beingtighter in bluer colors which suggests the presence of density waves inthe galaxies. Comparing the extent of the spiral pattern in the galaxieswith their angular velocity curves, the best agreement was obtained whenthe symmetric, two-armed spiral starts just outside ILR and terminatesaround the 4:1 resonance. The spirals continue beyond this region butare weaker and more fragmented. The pattern speed estimated for the twoSb galaxies was significantly higher than that for the Sc galaxies.Several galaxies have dust spirals inside the main stellar spiral. Inmost cases, the main spiral pattern is more open in the inner regionthan further out where it is well approximated with a logarithmicspiral. This may support a scenario where a central oval distortiondrives the spiral, which then would correspond to the long wavedsolution of the dispersion relation. Based on observations collected atthe European Southern Observatory, La~Silla, Chile

Scaleheights of 486 southern spiral galaxies and some statistical correlation
Based on Peng's method (1988), we obtain scaleheights of 486 southernspiral galaxies, the images of which are taken from the Digitized SkySurvey at Xinglong Station of Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Thefitted spiral arms of 70 galaxies are compared with their images to gettheir optimum inclinations. The scaleheights of other 416 ones arelisted in Table A1 in Appendix. After compiling and analyzing the data,we find some statistical correlations. The most interesting results arethat a flatter galaxy is bluer and looks brighter, and galaxies becomeflatter along the Hubble sequence Sab -- Scd. Based on photographic dataof the National Geographic Society -- Palomar Observatory Sky Survey(NGS-POSS) obtained using the Oschin Telescope Palomar Mountain. TheNGS-POSS was funded by a grant from the National Geographic Society tothe California Institute of Technology. The plates were processed intothe present compressed digital form with their permission. The DigitizedSky Survey was produced at the Space Telescope Science Institute underUS Government grant NAG W-2166. Table A1 is available in electronic fromonly, via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Inner two-arm symmetry in spiral galaxies
Most galaxies with spiral density waves, including those with multiplelong arms, have two prominent symmetric arms in their inner regions,inside approximately 0.5 R25. Grand-design galaxies, whichhave two prominent arms throughout their disks, also have brighter,narrower, and more continuous arms inside this radius. Based onmeasurements of these morphological features in 173 galaxies, and on ourprevious studies of optical resonance indicators, we propose thatcorotation is optically visible in most spiral galaxies and is locatednear the radius of the endpoints of the highly symmetric part of thespiral arms, approximately midway out in the disk. This places the outerLindbald resonance at approximately R25, or approximately 4scale lengths, for most spiral galaxies. In barred galaxies, the twoinner symmetric arms end at twice the bar radius, independent of the bartype. If large bars end near corotation, then the ends of the twoprominent arms must be beyond corotation in these systems.

A Preliminary Classification Scheme for the Central Regions of Late-Type Galaxies
The large-scale prints in The Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies have been usedto formulate a classification scheme for the central regions oflate-type galaxies. Systems that exhibit small bright central bulges ordisks (type CB) are found to be of earlier Hubble type and of higherluminosity than galaxies that do not contain nuclei (type NN). Galaxiescontaining nuclear bars, or exhibiting central regions that are resolvedinto individual stars and knots, and galaxies with semistellar nuclei,are seen to have characteristics that are intermediate between those oftypes CB and NN. The presence or absence of a nucleus appears to be auseful criterion for distinguishing between spiral galaxies andmagellanic irregulars.

The nuclear 10 micron emission of spiral galaxies
We examine the 10 micrometer(s) emission of the central regions of 281spiral galaxies, after having compiled all ground-based, small-aperture(approximately 5 sec) broad-band photometric observations at lambdaapproximately 10 micrometer(s) (N magnitudes) published in theliterature. We evaluate the compactness of the approximately 10micrometer(s) emission of galaxy nuclei by comparing these small-beammeasures with the large-beam IRAS 12 micrometer(s) fluxes. In theanalysis of different subsets of objects, we apply survival analysistechniques in order to exploit the information contained in 'censored'data (i.e., upper limits on the fluxes). Seyfert galaxies are found tocontain the most powerful nuclear sources of mid-infrared emission,which in approximately one-third of the cases provide the bulk of theemission of the entire galaxy; thus, mid-infrared emission in the outerdisk regions is not uncommon in Seyfert galaxies. The 10 micrometer(s)emission of Seyfert galaxies appears to be unrelated to their X-rayemission. H II region-like nuclei are stronger mid-infrared sources thannormal nuclei and LINER nuclei (whose level of emission is notdistinguishable form that of normal nuclei). Interacting objects have,on average, greater 10 micrometer(s) luminosities than noninteractingones and exhibit more compact emission. Early-type spirals have strongerand more compact 10 micrometer(s) emisison than late-type ones. Barredspirals are brighter at approximately 10 micrometer(s) than unbarredsystems, essentially because they more frequently contain H IIretion-like nuclei. The results of our detailed comparison between thebehavior of various categories of objects stress that the 10micrometer(s) emission of spiral nuclei is closely linked to the(predominantly nonthermal synchrotron) radio emission.

On the size and formation mechanism of the largest star-forming complexes in spiral and irregular galaxies
The average diameters of the largest star complexes in most of thespiral and irregular galaxies in the Sandage and Bedke Atlas of Galaxieswere measured from the Atlas photographs. The complex diametersDc correlate with galaxy magnitude as Dc = 0.18 -0.14MB, which has about the same slope as the correlation forthe largest H II regions studied by Kennicutt. There is no obviouscorrelation between Dc and either Hubble type or spiral armclass at a given magnitude. The variation of Dc withMB closely matches the expected variation in thecharacteristic length of the gaseous gravitational instabilityconsidering that the rotation curve varies with MB and thatthe stability parameter Q is about 1 in the outer regions of the disk.This match corresponds to an effective velocity dispersion of 6.1 km/sthat is about the same for all spiral and irregular galaxies.

The extended 12 micron galaxy sample
We have selected an all-sky (absolute value of b greater than or equalto 25 deg) 12 micron flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies from the IRASFaint Source Catalog, Version 2 (FSC-2). We have obtained accurate totalfluxes in the IRAS wavebands by using the ADDSCAN procedure for allobjects with FSC-2 12 micron fluxes greater than 0.15 Jy and increasingflux densities from 12 to 60 microns, and defined the sample by imposinga survey limit of 0.22 Jy on the total 12 micron flux. Its completenessis verified, by means of the classical log N - log S andV/Vmax tests, down to 0.30 Jy, below which we have measuredthe incompleteness down to the survey limit, using the log N - log Splot, for our statistical analysis. We have obtained redshifts (mostlyfrom catalogs) for virtually all (98.4%) the galaxies in the sample.Using existing catalogs of active galaxies, we defined a subsample of118 objects consisting of 53 Seyfert 1s and quasars, 63 Seyfert 2s, andtwo blazars (approximately 13% of the full sample), which is the largestunbiased sample of Seyfert galaxies ever assembled. Since the 12 micronflux has been shown to be about one-fifth of the bolometric flux forSeyfert galaxies and quasars, the subsample of Seyferts (includingquasars and blazars) is complete not only to 0.30 Jy at 12 microns butalso with respect to a bolometric flux limit of approximately 2.0 x10-10 ergs/s/sq cm. The average value of V/Vmaxfor the full sample, corrected for incompleteness at low fluxes, is 0.51+/- 0.04, expected for a complete sample of uniformly distributedgalaxies, while the value for the Seyfert galaxy subsample is 0.46 +/-0.10. We have derived 12 microns and far-infrared luminosity functionsfor the AGNs, as well as for the entire sample. We extracted from oursample a complete subsample of 235 galaxies flux-limited (8.3 Jy) at 60microns. The 60 micron luminosity function computed for this subsampleis in satisfactory agreement with the ones derived from the brightgalaxy sample (BGS) and the deep high-galactic latitude sample, bothselected at 60 microns.

Satellites of spiral galaxies
We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-typespirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, wefind fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we cantreat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the haloof a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of theensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthaldistribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmbergeffect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, atlarger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There isa weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite andits distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidallytruncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlatewith apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to berotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk.Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those onretrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satelliteand its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation,or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstratesthat isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to manyoptical radii.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

The supergalactic plane redshift survey
Redshift measurements, about 1000 of which are new, are presented for1314 galaxies in a survey toward the apex of the large-scale streamingflow for ellipticals. The velocity histogram shows that the excess ingalaxy number counts in this area is due to a substantial concentrationof galaxies with discrete peaks at V about 3000 km/s and V about 4500km/s. After correction for the sampling function, the centroid of thedensity distribution is found to be near V about 4500 km/s.Normalization to the more extensive SSRS survey, which was selected bythe same criteria, shows that the region studied contains a considerableoverdensity of galaxies from 2000 to 6000 km/s. This result is in goodagreement with the 'great attractor' model suggested by Lynden-Bell etal. (1988) which attributes the peculiar motions of elliptical galaxiesover a large region of space to an extensive mass overdensity whichincludes the Hydra-Centaurus and Pavo-Indus superclusters. The centroidof the density enhancement is also consistent with new data by Dresslerand Faber (1990) of peculiar motions of elliptical and spiral galaxies,both of which show a zero crossing of the Hubble line at approximately4500-5000 km/s.

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Right ascension:13h20m17.90s
Aparent dimensions:3.715′ × 3.09′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 5085

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