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|The Hα and Infrared Star Formation Rates for the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey|
We investigate the Hα and infrared star formation rate (SFR)diagnostics for galaxies in the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey (NFGS). Forthe 81 galaxies in our sample, we derive Hα fluxes (included here)from integrated spectra. There is a strong correlation between the ratioof far-infrared to optical luminosities L(FIR)/L(Hα) and theextinction E(B-V) measured with the Balmer decrement. Before reddeningcorrection, the SFR(IR) and SFR(Hα) are related to each other by apower law: SFR(IR)=(2.7+/-0.3)SFR(Hα)1.30+/-0.06.Correction of the SFR(Hα) for extinction using the Balmerdecrement and a classical reddening curve both reduces the scatter inthe SFR(IR)-SFR(Hα) correlation and results in a much closeragreement between the two SFR indicators;SFR(IR)=(0.91+/-0.04)SFR(Hαcorr)1.07+/-0.03.SFR(IR) and SFR(Hα) agree to ~10%. This SFR relationship spans 4orders of magnitude and holds for all Hubble types with IRAS detectionsin the NFGS. A constant ratio between the SFR(IR) and SFR(Hα) forall Hubble types, including early types (S0-Sab), suggests that the IRemission in all these objects results from a young stellar population.
|Starbursts versus Truncated Star Formation in Nearby Clusters of Galaxies|
We present long-slit spectroscopy, B- and R-bandpass imaging, and 21 cmobservations of a sample of early-type galaxies in nearby clusters,which are known to be either in a star-forming phase or to have had starformation that recently terminated. From the long-slit spectra, obtainedwith the Blanco 4 m telescope, we find that emission lines in thestar-forming cluster galaxies are significantly more centrallyconcentrated than in a sample of field galaxies. The broadband imagingreveals that two currently star-forming early-type galaxies in thePegasus I cluster have blue nuclei, again indicating that recent starformation has been concentrated. In contrast, the two galaxies for whichstar formation has already ended show no central color gradient. ThePegasus I galaxy with the most evident signs of ongoing star formation(NGC 7648), exhibits signatures of a tidal encounter. Neutral hydrogenobservations of that galaxy with the Arecibo radio telescope reveal thepresence of ~4×108 Msolar of H I. Areciboobservations of other current or recent star-forming early-type galaxiesin Pegasus I indicate smaller amounts of gas in one of them, and onlyupper limits in others. These observations indicate that NGC 7648 in thePegasus I cluster owes its present star formation episode to some formof tidal interaction. The same may be true for the other galaxies withcentralized star formation, but we cannot rule out the possibility thattheir outer disks have been removed via ram pressure stripping, followedby rapid quenching of star formation in the central region.
|Spectrophotometry of Nearby Field Galaxies: The Data|
We have obtained integrated and nuclear spectra as well as U, B, Rsurface photometry for a representative sample of 196 nearby galaxies.These galaxies span the entire Hubble sequence in morphological type, aswell as a wide range of luminosities (MB=-14 to -22). Here wepresent the spectrophotometry for these galaxies. The selection of thesample and the U, B, R surface photometry is described in a companionpaper. Our goals for the project include measuring the current starformation rates and metallicities of these galaxies, and elucidatingtheir star formation histories, as a function of luminosity andmorphology. We thereby extend the work of Kennicutt to lower luminositysystems. We anticipate that our study will be useful as a benchmark forstudies of galaxies at high redshift. We describe the observing, datareduction, and calibration techniques and demonstrate that ourspectrophotometry agrees well with that of Kennicutt. The spectra spanthe range 3550-7250 Å at a resolution (FWHM) of ~6 Å andhave an overall relative spectrophotometric accuracy of ~+/-6%. Wepresent a spectrophotometric atlas of integrated and nuclear rest-framespectra as well as tables of equivalent widths and synthetic colors. Theatlas and tables of measurements will be made available electronically.We study the correlations of galaxy properties determined from thespectra and images. Our findings include: (1) galaxies of a givenmorphological class display a wide range of continuum shapes andemission-line strengths if a broad range of luminosities are considered,(2) emission-line strengths tend to increase and continua tend to getbluer as the luminosity decreases, and (3) the scatter on the generalcorrelation between nuclear and integrated Hα emission-linestrengths is large.
|Surface Photometry of Nearby Field Galaxies: The Data|
We have obtained integrated spectra and multifilter photometry for arepresentative sample of ~200 nearby galaxies. These galaxies span theentire Hubble sequence in morphological type, as well as a wide range ofluminosities (MB=-14 to -22) and colors (B-R=0.4-1.8). Herewe describe the sample selection criteria and the U, B, R surfacephotometry for these galaxies. The spectrophotometric results will bepresented in a companion paper. Our goals for the project includemeasuring the current star formation rates and metallicity of thesegalaxies, and elucidating their star formation histories, as a functionof luminosity and morphology. We thereby extend the work of Kennicutt tolower luminosity systems. We anticipate that our study will be useful asa benchmark for studies of galaxies at high redshift. We discuss theobserving, data reduction, and calibration techniques and show that ourphotometry agrees well with previous work in those cases in whichearlier data are available. We present an atlas of images, radialsurface brightness profiles, and color profiles as well as tables ofderived parameters. The atlas and tables of measurements will be madeavailable electronically. We study the correlations of galaxy propertiesdetermined from the galaxy images. Our findings include the following:(1) colors determined within the effective radius correlate better withmorphological type than with MB and (2) 50% of thelow-luminosity galaxies are bluest in their centers.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Look-alike galaxies:. HI observations for look-alike galaxies of four calibrators|
We present a programme aiming at applying the Tully-Fisher relation forgalaxies with the same morphological type and the same inclination(look-alike galaxies or sosie galaxies) as calibrating galaxies. Theadvantage of sosie galaxies is discussed. In particular, it is shownthat using sosies of bright calibrators will allow us to explore theuniverse deeper and more efficiently than the classical TF methodapplied to different morphological types and different inclinations. Asa preliminary part, we report in this paper new HI observationsperformed with the radiotelescope of Nançay (France) for sosiesof four calibrators NGC 224, NGC 3031, NGC 253 and NGC 5457. 82 galaxieswere detected. These observations made use of Nançayradiotelescope. The Nançay Radio Observatory is the Unitéscientifique de Nançay of the Observatoire de Paris,associated asUnité de Service et de Recherche (USR) No. B704 to the FrenchCentre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). The NançayObservatory also acknowledges the financial support of the ConseilRégional of the Région Centre in France.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog|
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.
|Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries|
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.
|A prominent string of galaxies in Bootes - Evidence for a Lagrangian singularity?|
An outstanding string of galaxies and of small groups in Bootes has beenfound during a study of bridges between the Coma and the Localsuperclusters. It lies on the boundary of a large void between theHercules and the Local superclusters, has a length of 50 Mpc, is only afew megaparsecs wide, and consists of nonelliptical galaxies. A possibleexplanation by a specific Lagrangian singularity at the formation, theimprint of which has survived in the present galaxy distribution, isproposed.
|A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data|
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.
|First results of a survey of neutral hydrogen in 500 southern galaxies|
Observations of the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen can provide severalintegral properties of galaxies, the systemic velocity indicating thedistance via the Hubble relation or through group membership. Theintegral over the flux density profile immediately yields the amount ofneutral hydrogen in the galaxy. In the study described, the Parkes 64-mtelescope, with a beamwidth of 15 seconds of arc, was used incombination with a 1024-channel auto-correlation spectrometer to surveyneutral hydrogen in southern galaxies. The hydrogen distribution andvelocity field are mapped for several dozen objects, so that thehydrogen diameter and rotation axis may be determined. In the analysis,priority is given to lenticular galaxies.
|UBV photometry of bright southern galaxies|
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