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The Structural Properties of Isolated Galaxies, Spiral-Spiral Pairs, and Mergers: The Robustness of Galaxy Morphology during Secular Evolution
We present a structural analysis of nearby galaxies in spiral-spiralpairs in optical BVRI bands and compare them with the structures ofisolated spiral galaxies and galaxies in ongoing mergers. We use thesecomparisons to determine how galaxy structure changes during galaxyinteractions and mergers. We analyze light concentration (C), asymmetry(A), and clumpiness (S) parameters, and use the projections of CASparameter space to compare these samples. We find that the CASparameters of paired galaxies are correlated with the projectedseparations of the pair. For the widest and closest pairs, the CASparameters tend to be similar to those of isolated and ongoing majormergers (e.g., ultraluminous infrared galaxies), respectively. Ourresults imply that galaxy morphology is a robust property that onlychanges significantly during a strong interaction or major merger. Thetypical timescale for this change in our paired sample, based ondynamical friction arguments, is short, τ~0.1-0.5 Gyr. We findaverage enhancement factors for the spiral-pair asymmetries andclumpiness values of ~2.2 and 1.5. The S parameter, which is related tostar formation (SF) activity, has a moderate level of enhancement,suggesting that this activity in modern spirals depends more on internalprocesses than on external conditions. We further test the statisticalcriterion for picking up interacting galaxies in an automated way byusing the A-S projection plane. The diversity of our spiral-pair samplein the CAS space suggests that structural/SF/morphological properties ofinteracting galaxies change abruptly only when the interaction becomesvery strong and the criteria given previously by Conselice for findinggalaxies involved in major mergers are effective.

On the alignment between binary spiral galaxies
We show some significance against the null hypothesis of randominteractions of binary spiral galaxies, and in favour of the alternativethat more interactions than expected occur for axes either nearlyparallel (spins being parallel or anti-parallel) or nearly orthogonal.We discuss this in the context of similar prior studies, using adifferent statistical focus in such a way that we are able toincorporate additional data.

BVRI surface photometry of (S+S) binary galaxies I. The data
We present multicolour broad band (BVRI) photometry for a sample of 33spiral-spiral (S+S) binary galaxies drawn from the KarachentsevCatalogue of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies (KPG). The data is part of ajoint observational programme devoted to systematic photometric study ofone of the most complete and homogeneous pair samples available in theliterature. We present azimuthally averaged colour and surfacebrightness profiles, colour index (B-I) maps, B band and sharp/filteredB band images as well as integrated magnitudes, magnitudes at differentcircular apertures and integrated colours for each pair. Internal andexternal data comparisons show consistency within the estimated errors.Two thirds of the sample have total aperture parameters homogeneouslyderived for the first time. After reevaluating morphology for all thepairs, we find a change in Hubble type for 24 galaxies compared to theoriginal POSS classifications. More than half of our pairs showmorphological concordance which could explain, in part, the strongcorrelation in the (B-V) colour indices (Holmberg Effect) between paircomponents. We find a tendency for barred galaxies to show grand designmorphologies and flat colour profiles. The measurements will be used ina series of forthcoming papers where we try to identify and isolate themain structural and photometric properties of disk galaxies at differentstages of interaction. Table A.1 is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/379/54 and Tables 2-4 arealso available in electronic form at the CDS. Full Fig. 5 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the http://www.edpsciences.org Based ondata obtained at the 2.1 m telescope of the Observatorio Guillermo Haroat Cananea, Sonora, México, operated by the Instituto Nacional deAstrofísica, Optica y Electrónica.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxies
Using images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC).

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

21 CM H1 Line Spectra of Galaxies in Nearby Clusters
A compilation of HI line fluxes, systemic velocities and line widths ispresented for \Ndet detected galaxies, mostly in the vicinities of 30nearby rich clusters out to a redshift of z ~ .04, specifically for usein applications of the Tully-Fisher distance method. New 21 cm HI lineprofiles have been obtained for ~ 500 galaxies in 27 Abell clustersvisible from Arecibo. Upper limits are also presented for \Nnod galaxiesfor which HI emission was not detected. In order to provide ahomogeneous line width determination optimized for Tully-Fisher studies,these new data are supplemented by the reanalysis of previouslypublished spectra obtained both at Arecibo and Green Bank that areavailable in a digital archive. Corrections for instrumental broadening,smoothing, signal-to-noise and profile shape are applied, and anestimate of the error on the width is given. When corrected forturbulent broadening and viewing angle, the corrected velocity widthspresented here will provide the appropriate line width parameter neededto derive distances via the Tully-Fisher relation.

Large-Scale Structure at Low Galactic Latitude
We have extended the CfA Redshift Survey to low galactic latitudes toinvestigate the relation between the Great Wall in the North GalacticCap and the Perseus-Pisces chain in the South Galactic Cap. We presentredshifts for 2020 galaxies in the Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clustersof Galaxies (Zwicky et al. 1961-68, CGCG) in the following regions: 4^h^<= α <= 8^h^, 17^h^ <= α <= 20^h^, 0^deg^ <=δ <= 45^deg^. In these regions, the redshift catalogue includes1664 galaxies with B(0) <= 15.5 (of which 820 are newly measured) andis 97% complete. We also include redshifts for an additional 356galaxies in these regions with B(O) > 15.5; of these, 148 werepreviously unmeasured. The CGCG samples the galaxy distribution down tob_II_ = 10^deg^. In this paper, we discuss the acquisition and reductionof the spectra, and we examine the qualitative features of the redshiftdistribution. The Great Wall and the Perseus-Pisces chain are not simplyconnected across the Zone of Avoidance. These structures, which at firstappear to be coherent on scales of ~100 h^-1^ Mpc or more, actually formthe boundaries of neighboring voids of considerably smaller scale,approximately 50h^-1^ Mpc. The structures delineated by ouroptically-selected sample are qualitatively similar to those detected bythe far-infrared-selected IRAS 1.2 Jansky Survey (Fisher et al. 1995).Although the IRAS survey probes more deeply into the Zone of Avoidance,our optically-selected survey provides better sampling of structures atb_II_ >= 10^deg^.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

The spatial distribution of supernovae in paired and interacting galaxies
In order to investigate the location of supernovae (SNe) in paired andinteracting galaxies, the 54 supernovae discovered up to May 1993 in 14Isolated Pairs of Galaxies and the 32 Interacting Systems were taken asa sample and studied. The whole sample of SNe, as well as a subsampleformed of type II, and Ib SNe, whose progenitors are young massivestars, do not appear in any one particluar direction with respect to thecompanion. On paired and interacting galaxies, the radial distributionof type Ib and II SNe peaks more toward the galaxy centers than it doesin isolated galaxies, indicating an enhanced Star Formation Rate (SFR)around the nuclei and in the inner disks. The distribution of SNIaappear similar in both samples, confirming that their progenitors arenot the same as those of SNII and IB. The SN rates are related to galaxyluminosity and, as expected, the discovery of SNe is twice more frequentin the brighter galaxy of the pair than in fainter ones. We did not findany relation between the locations of SNe in parent galaxies, the totalStar Formation activity and the kinematics of paired and interactinggalaxies.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

H I observations of binary spiral galaxies
A sample of binary spiral galaxies has been observed with the Areciboand Westerbork radio telescopes in the H I 21 cm line, and these data,in conjunction with optical information, are used to ascertain thespin-vector spatial orientation of the galaxies, as well as to estimatetheir systemic and rotation velocities. A tabulation is given of theresults thus obtained for 23 galaxies.

Statistical methods for investigating periodicities in double-galaxy redshifts
It is shown how to test binary-galaxy redshift data for periodicitiesagainst all possible monotone-decreasing distribution functions. Thesignificance of the periodicity in both radio and optical data remainshigh. Likelihood methods are used to compare the chances that the datacome from periodic versus Newtonian distributions and find that theoptical data are greater than about 15 times more likely to come from atruly periodic distribution. The same calculation for a new compilationof radio data shows a likelihood ratio of 3. Bayesian inferencetechniques are used to show that the data suggest a much higherprobability for the quantization than has been the case in the past.

Velocity differences in binary galaxies. I - Suggestions for a nonmonotonic, two-component distribution
A compilation of published high-precision velocities for 107 isolatedgalaxies is presented and used to obtain the distribution function oftheir velocity differences. The distribution shows a peak at the zerodifference as expected, but it also exhibits a preference for valuesnear 72 km/2. The distribution function declines smoothly beyond about72 km/s, with no significant peaks at multiples of 72 km/s, as claimedby Tifft (1977, 1980, 1982). It is argued that criteria for selectionprocedures on binary galaxy samples which are defined on the basis oftoo narrow a projected separation in the sky can produce a nonmonotonicdistribution if the orbits are eccentric. Such orbits can produce astrong secondary peak only if the level of incompleteness inbinary-galaxy samples is quite high, suggesting that the presentstatistical estimates of the masses of binary galaxies should bereevaluated.

The radio-far-infrared relation of interacting and non-interacting spiral galaxies. I - Observations and data collection
Data from 6.3-cm radio continuum, H I, and far-infrared (FIR)observations are presented for a sample of isolated pairs of spiralgalaxies, and for a comparison sample of noninteracting ones. H I dataare used to separate the FIR emission of the cold and warm dustcomponent, employing a modification of the model presented by Buat andDeharveng (1988). The FIR flux of the warm dust component is used toestimate the thermal radio emission for some galaxies. A comparisonbetween the calculated thermal 6.3-cm flux densities and those derivedfrom radio observations show good agreement. It is concluded that themodel for the separation of the cold and warm dust component can be usedfor a further examination of the radio-FIR correlation.

Neutral hydrogen in small groups of galaxies
Neutral hydrogen in 36 pairs and small groups of galaxies was studiedusing the Arecibo radio telescope. Potential groups were selected fromthe Uppsala General Catalogue of Galaxies of Nilson (1973) by a simplealgorithm with the aims of determining or improving redshifts forgalaxies in possible groups and of mapping some of the larger galaxiesto determine their internal dynamics. The H I spectra are examined indetail and problems of confusion in these and previous observations areaddressed. A simple analysis of the groups' mean dynamical mass suggeststhat the mass determined from the galaxies' rotation is sufficient tobind them, but there may be important unmodeled selection orcontamination problems. A simple method for estimating errors of H Ivelocity measurements is also derived.

Gas deficiency in cluster galaxies - A comparison of nine clusters
The available 21 cm line data in the literature for galaxies in nineclusters is combined with new high-sensitivity observations of 51galaxies in five of the nine clusters in order to test fordiscriminating circumstances between those clusters which show H Ideficiency among their spiral population and those which do not. An H Ideficiency for the complete cluster sample is derived employing acomparison sample of galaxies chosen from the Catalog of IsolatedGalaxies. The deficiency and its radial dependence is summarized foreach cluster and a composite. A comparison of the environments indifferent clusters leads to the conclusion that the occurrence of H Ideficiency is correlated with the presence of a hot X-ray intraclustermedium, and that an ongoing interaction process is active through thecores of X-ray clusters.

Double galaxy investigations. I - Observations
Redshift information from 240 A/mm spectrograms is presented for 370double arcsec galaxy systems from the Karachentsev (1972) catalog,including all pairs in that catalog with separation less than 80 arcsec.An extensive error discussion utilizing internal and external (21 cm)comparisons provides calibration of systematic error and determines theuncertainty for a typical high weight optical redshift to be plus orminus 65 km/sec. Internal differential redshifts within single spectrausing common lines achieve accuracies of 18-30 km/sec, depending uponseparation, and are available for about 200 pairs. Extensive informationon emission and other properties is also provided.

Selected H I observations of double galaxies
Neutral-hydrogen observations of 12 binary galaxies were made using theArecibo telescope. The pairs were taken from a catalog compiled byPeterson (1979), and the observations supplemented a larger programcarried out at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Of the binariesobserved, three pairs were well detected and resolved into components;while in four other systems the observed neutral hydrogen is limited toa single galaxy.

Radial velocities of double galaxies
Spectral observations of 92 galaxies in isolated pairs have been carriedout. In 52 cases radial velocities were measured. The mean value of theorbital mass-to-luminosity ratio for 18 pairs is (16.2 plus or minus10.0) times the solar value.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:07h57m56.50s
Aparent dimensions:1.514′ × 0.871′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 2486

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