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The Opacity of Spiral Galaxy Disks. IV. Radial Extinction Profiles from Counts of Distant Galaxies Seen through Foreground Disks
Dust extinction can be determined from the number of distant fieldgalaxies seen through a spiral disk. To calibrate this number for thecrowding and confusion introduced by the foreground image,González et al. and Holwerda et al. developed the Synthetic FieldMethod (SFM), which analyzes synthetic fields constructed by addingvarious deep exposures of unobstructed background fields to thecandidate foreground galaxy field. The advantage of the SFM is that itgives the average opacity for the area of a galaxy disk without makingassumptions about either the distribution of absorbers or of the diskstarlight. However, it is limited by poor statistics on the survivingfield galaxies, hence the need to combine a larger sample of fields.This paper presents the first results for a sample of 32 deep HubbleSpace Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 archival fields of 29 spiral galaxies. Theradial profiles of average dust extinction in spiral galaxies based oncalibrated counts of distant field galaxies is presented here, both forindividual galaxies and for composites from our sample. The effects ofinclination, spiral arms, and Hubble type on the radial extinctionprofile are discussed. The dust opacity of the disk apparently arisesfrom two distinct components: an optically thicker (AI=0.5-4mag) but radially dependent component associated with the spiral armsand a relatively constant optically thinner disk (AI~0.5mag). These results are in complete agreement with earlier work onocculted galaxies. The early-type spiral disks in our sample show lessextinction than the later types. Low surface brightness galaxies, andpossibly Sd's, appear effectively transparent. The average color of thefield galaxies seen through foreground disks does not appear to changewith radius or opacity. This gray behavior is most likely due to thepatchy nature of opaque clouds. The average extinction of a radialannulus and its average surface brightness seem to correlate for thebrighter regions. This leads to the conclusion that the brighter partsof the spiral disk, such as spiral arms, are also the ones with the mostextinction associated with them.

The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. VI. Extinction, stellar light and color
In this paper we explore the relation between dust extinction andstellar light distribution in disks of spiral galaxies. Extinctioninfluences our dynamical and photometric perception of disks, since itcan distort our measurement of the contribution of the stellarcomponent. To characterize the total extinction by a foreground disk,González et al. (1998, ApJ, 506, 152) proposed the "SyntheticField Method" (SFM), which uses the calibrated number of distantgalaxies seen through the foreground disk as a direct indication ofextinction. The method is described in González et al. (1998,ApJ, 506, 152) and Holwerda et al. (2005a, AJ, 129, 1381). To obtaingood statistics, the method was applied to a set of HST/WFPC2 fields(Holwerda et al. 2005b, AJ, 129, 1396) and radial extinction profileswere derived, based on these counts. In the present paper, we explorethe relation of opacity with surface brightness or color from 2MASSimages, as well as the relation between the scalelengths for extinctionand light in the I band. We find that there is indeed a relation betweenthe opacity (AI) and the surface brightness, particularly atthe higher surface brightnesses. No strong relation between nearinfrared (H-J, H-K) color and opacity is found. The scalelengths of theextinction are uncertain for individual galaxies but seem to indicatethat the dust distribution is much more extended than the stellar light.The results from the distant galaxy counts are also compared to thereddening derived from the Cepheids light-curves (Freedman et al. 2001,ApJ, 553, 47). The extinction values are consistent, provided theselection effect against Cepheids with higher values of AI istaken into account. The implications from these relations for diskphotometry, M/L conversion and galaxy dynamical modeling are brieflydiscussed.

The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. V. Dust opacity, HI distributions and sub-mm emission
The opacity of spiral galaxy disks, from counts of distant galaxies, iscompared to HI column densities. The opacity measurements are calibratedusing the "Synthetic Field Method" from González et al. (1998,ApJ, 506, 152), Holwerda et al. (2005a, AJ, 129, 1381). When comparedfor individual disks, the HI column density and dust opacity do not seemto be correlated as HI and opacity follow different radial profiles. Toimprove statistics, an average radial opacity profile is compared to anaverage HI profile. Compared to dust-to-HI estimates from theliterature, more extinction is found in this profile. This differencemay be accounted for by an underestimate of the dust in earliermeasurements due to their dependence on dust temperature. Since the SFMis insensitive to the dust temperature, the ratio between the SFMopacity and HI could very well be indicative of the true ratio. Earlierclaims for a radially extended cold dust disk were based on sub-mmobservations. A comparison between sub-mm observations and counts ofdistant galaxies is therefore desirable. We present the best currentexample of such a comparison, M 51, for which the measurements seem toagree. However, this remains an area where improved counts of distantgalaxies, sub-mm observations and our understanding of dust emissivityare needed.

Classical Cepheids and the Distances of HST Program Galaxies
The distances of HST program galaxies are revised using the PL-relationswe have obtained previously along with a different method from thatemployed by Freedman et al. On the average, the resulting distances tothese galaxies have higher internal accuracies than those obtainedbefore by others. In addition, we have used no corrections formetallicity or for the incompleteness of the samples of classicalcepheids in deriving these distances. Despite this, our distance moduli,with a dispersion of ±0m.395, agree with those of Freedman et al.This indicates that these two effects have little or even no effect forthe samples of classical cepheids in the HST program galaxies.

The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%
The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Extinction of gamma-ray burst afterglows as a diagnostic of the location of cosmic star formation
The properties of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows are usedto investigate the location of star formation activity through thehistory of the Universe. This approach is motivated by the following:(i) GRBs are thought to be associated with the deaths of massive starsand so the GRB rate ought to follow the formation rate of massive stars;(ii) GRBs are the last phase of the evolution of these stars, which donot live long enough to travel far from their place of birth, and soGRBs are located where the stars formed; and (iii) GRB afterglows occurover both X-ray and optical wavelengths, and so the differential effectsof dust extinction between the two wavebands can reveal whether or notlarge amounts of dust are present in galaxies hosting GRBs. Recentevidence suggests that a significant fraction of stars in the Universeformed in galaxies that are bright at rest-frame submillimetre (submm)and infrared wavelengths rather than at ultraviolet wavelengths; weestimate about three quarters of the star formation in the Universeoccurred in the submm-bright mode. High-redshift submm-selected galaxiesare thought to have properties similar to local ultraluminous infraredgalaxies (ULIGs) such as Arp 220, based on the concordance between theirluminosities and spectral energy distributions. If this is the case,then GRBs in submm-bright galaxies should have their optical afterglowsextinguished by internal dust absorption, but only very few should havetheir 2-10keV X-ray afterglows obscured. The value that we quote ofthree quarters is marginally consistent with observations of GRBs:60+/-15 per cent of GRBs have no detected optical afterglow, whereasalmost all have an X-ray afterglow. A more definitive statement could bemade with observations of soft X-ray afterglows (0.5-2keV), in whichextinction should be severe for GRBs located in submm-bright galaxieswith gas densities similar to those in local ULIGs. If the X-rayafterglows disappear at soft X-ray wavelengths in a large number ofGRBs, then this would provide strong evidence that much of thestar-formation in the Universe is heavily obscured. Far-infrared andsubmm follow up studies of the hosts of GRB would reveal thispopulation. We expect about 20 per cent of GRB hosts to be detectableusing the SCUBA camera at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) afterseveral hours of integration.

The H I Line Width/Linear Diameter Relationship as an Independent Test of the Hubble Constant
The relationship between corrected H I line widths and linear diameters(LW/LD) for spiral galaxies is used as an independent check on the valueof the Hubble constant. After calibrating the Tully-Fisher (TF) relationin both the B and I bands, the B-band relation is used for galaxies ofmorphological/luminosity types Sc I, Sc I.2, Sc I.3, Sab, Sb, Sb I-II,and Sb II to derive the LW/LD relation. We find that for this sample thescatter in the LW/LD is smallest with a Hubble constant of 90-95 kms-1 Mpc-1. Lower values of the Hubble constantproduce a separation in the LW/LD relation that is a function ofmorphological type. Since a Hubble constant of 90-95 is significantlylarger than the final Key Project value of 72 km s-1Mpc-1, a comparison of TF, surface brightness fluctuation(SBF), and fundamental plane (FP) is made. This comparison indicatesthat the Key Project TF distances to 21 clusters may be too large. For asample of 11 clusters, the Key Project TF distances provide anunweighted mean Hubble constant of 77 km s-1Mpc-1, while a combination of the FP, SBF, and our TFdistances for the same 11 clusters gives H0=91 kms-1 Mpc-1. A more subtle result in our data is amorphological dichotomy in the Hubble constant. The data suggest that ScI galaxies follow a Hubble constant of 90-95 while Sb galaxies follow aHubble constant closer to 75 km s-1 Mpc-1.Possible explanations for this result are considered, but it is shownthat this Sb/Sc I Hubble flow discrepancy is also present in the VirgoCluster and is consistent with previous investigations that indicatethat some galaxies carry a component of age-related intrinsic redshift.

Calibration of the distance scale from galactic Cepheids. II. Use of the HIPPARCOS calibration
New estimates of the distances of 36 nearby galaxies is presented. Theseare based on the calibration of the V- and I-band Period-Luminosityrelations for galactic Cepheids measured by the HIPPARCOS mission. Thedistance moduli are obtained in a classical way. The statistical biasdue to the incompleteness of the sample is corrected according to theprecepts introduced by Teerikorpi (\cite{Tee87}). We adopt a constantslope (the one obtained with LMC Cepheids). The correction forincompleteness bias introduces an uncertainty that depends on eachgalaxy. On average, this uncertainty is small (0.04 mag) but it mayreach 0.3 mag. We show that the uncertainty due to the correction of theextinction is small (propably less than 0.05 mag). The correlationbetween the metallicity and the morphological type of the host galaxysuggests that we should reduce the application to spiral galaxies inorder to bypass the problem of metallicity. We suspect that the adoptedPL slopes are not valid for all morphological types of galaxies. Thismay induce a mean systematic shift of 0.1 mag on distance moduli. Acomparison with the distance moduli recently published by Freedman etal. (\cite{Fre01}) shows there is a reasonably good agreement with ourdistance moduli. The compilation of raw data is only available inelectronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/389/19 and on ouranonymous ftp-server www-obs.univ-lyon1.fr (pub/base/CEPHEIDES.tar.gz).

Calibration of the distance scale from galactic Cepheids. I. Calibration based on the GFG sample
New estimates of the distances of 36 nearby galaxies are presented basedon accurate distances of galactic Cepheids obtained by Gieren et al.(1998) from the geometrical Barnes-Evans method. The concept of``sosie'' is applied to extend the distance determination toextragalactic Cepheids without assuming the linearity of the PLrelation. Doing so, the distance moduli are obtained in astraightforward way. The correction for extinction is made using twophotometric bands (V and I) according to the principles introduced byFreedman & Madore (1990). Finally, the statistical bias due to theincompleteness of the sample is corrected according to the preceptsintroduced by Teerikorpi (1987) without introducing any free parameters(except the distance modulus itself in an iterative scheme). The finaldistance moduli depend on the adopted extinction ratioRV/RI and on the limiting apparent magnitude ofthe sample. A comparison with the distance moduli recently published bythe Hubble Space Telescope Key Project (HSTKP) team reveals a fairagreement when the same ratio RV/RI is used butshows a small discrepancy at large distance. In order to bypass theuncertainty due to the metallicity effect it is suggested to consideronly galaxies having nearly the same metallicity as the calibratingCepheids (i.e. Solar metallicity). The internal uncertainty of thedistances is about 0.1 mag but the total uncertainty may reach 0.3 mag.The table of the Appendix and Table 3 are available in electronic format CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/383/398, and on ouranonymous ftp-server www-obs.univ-lyon1.fr (pub/base/CEPHEIDES.tar.gz).

Spiral arms in near-infrared bands. Broad- and narrow-band NIR photometry
We investigate the contribution of Brgamma and H_2 emission due to youngobjects in the arms of spiral galaxies observed in the K'filter. Out of a sample of disk galaxies for which we obtained deepsurface photometry in broad- and narrow-band near-infrared filters, weselected two grand design spirals (NGC 5861, NGC 7412), which clearlyhave sharp knots along their arms both in optical and NIR images. Forthese galaxies we estimate the amount of light coming from Brgamma andH2 emission and we conclude that it represents only a fewpercent of the observed K' light. For comparison we used thespiral galaxy NGC 4603, which has high recessional velocity. In thiscase the emission lines we study are practically shifted out of thenarrow-band filter. Comparing its flux with what we found in the twoformer cases, we conclude that a major contribution from young objectsin K'comes from continuum radiation which in the arm regionscan amount to 20%. Based on observations collected at the EuropeanSouthern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

Ten Years and Counting: HST in Orbit
Not Available

A Database of Tully-Fisher Calibrator Galaxies
We present BVRI surface photometry of spiral galaxies suitable for theabsolute calibration of the Tully-Fisher relation. Galaxies wereobserved at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO) 1.2 m, the MountStromlo and Siding Spring Observatory (MSSSO) 1 m, and the Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory (CTIO) 1.5 m telescopes from 1994 to 1999.The surface photometry measurements were carried out using the SFOTOpackage. We also present new derivations of 20% and 50% 21 cm linewidths for most of these galaxies, based on existing profiles.

A Database of Cepheid Distance Moduli and Tip of the Red Giant Branch, Globular Cluster Luminosity Function, Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function, and Surface Brightness Fluctuation Data Useful for Distance Determinations
We present a compilation of Cepheid distance moduli and data for foursecondary distance indicators that employ stars in the old stellarpopulations: the planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF), theglobular cluster luminosity function (GCLF), the tip of the red giantbranch (TRGB), and the surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) method. Thedatabase includes all data published as of 1999 July 15. The mainstrength of this compilation resides in the fact that all data are on aconsistent and homogeneous system: all Cepheid distances are derivedusing the same calibration of the period-luminosity relation, thetreatment of errors is consistent for all indicators, and measurementsthat are not considered reliable are excluded. As such, the database isideal for comparing any of the distance indicators considered, or forderiving a Cepheid calibration to any secondary distance indicator, suchas the Tully-Fisher relation, the Type Ia supernovae, or the fundamentalplane for elliptical galaxies. This task has already been undertaken byFerrarese et al., Sakai et al., Kelson et al., and Gibson et al.Specifically, the database includes (1) Cepheid distances, extinctions,and metallicities; (2) reddened apparent λ5007 Å magnitudesof the PNLF cutoff; (3) reddened apparent magnitudes and colors of theturnover of the GCLF (in both the V and B bands); (4) reddened apparentmagnitudes of the TRGB (in the I band) and V-I colors at 0.5 mag fainterthan the TRGB; and (5) reddened apparent surface brightness fluctuationmagnitudes measured in Kron-Cousin I, K', andKshort, and using the F814W filter with the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) WFPC2. In addition, for every galaxy in the database wegive reddening estimates from IRAS/DIRBE as well as H I maps, J2000coordinates, Hubble and T-type morphological classification, apparenttotal magnitude in B, and systemic velocity.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Distances to Galaxies from the Correlation between Luminosities and Line Widths. III. Cluster Template and Global Measurement of H0
The correlation between the luminosities and rotation velocities ofgalaxies can be used to estimate distances to late-type galaxies. It isan appropriate moment to reevaluate this method given the great deal ofnew information available. The major improvements described hereinclude: (1) the template relations can now be defined by large,complete samples, (2) the samples are drawn from a wide range ofenvironments, (3) the relations are defined by photometric informationat the B, R, I, and K' bands, (4) the multiband information clarifiesproblems associated with internal reddening, (5) the template zeropoints are defined by 24 galaxies with accurately known distances, and(6) the relations are applied to 12 clusters scattered across the skyand out to velocities of 8000 km s-1. The biggest change fromearlier calibrations are associated with point 5. Roughly a 15% increasein the distance scale has come about with the fivefold increase in thenumber of zero-point calibrators. The overall increase in the distancescale from the luminosity-line width methodology is about 10% afterconsideration of all factors. Modulo an assumed distance to the LargeMagellanic Cloud of 50 kpc and no metallicity corrections to the Cepheidcalibration, the resulting value of the Hubble constant isH0=77+/-8 km s-1 Mpc-1, where the erroris the 95% probable statistical error. Cumulative systematic errorsinternal to this analysis should not exceed 10%. Uncertainties in thedistance scale ladder external to this analysis are estimated at ~10%.If the Cepheid calibration is shifted from the LMC to NGC 4258 with adistance established by observations of circumnuclear masers, thenH0 is larger by 12%.

Has Blending Compromised Cepheid-based Determinations of the Extragalactic Distance Scale?
We examine the suggestion that half of the galaxies observed by theHubble Space Telescope Key Project and the Type Ia Supernova CalibrationTeam have had their distances systematically underestimated, by 0.1-0.3mag in the distance modulus, because of the underappreciated influenceof stellar profile blending on the Wide Field Camera chips. Thesignature of such an effect would be a systematic trend in (1) the TypeIa supernova-corrected peak luminosity and (2) the Tully-Fisherresiduals, with increasing calibrator distance, and (3) a differentialoffset between Planetary Camera and Wide Field Camera distance moduli,within the same galaxy. The absence of a trend would be expected ifblending were negligible (as has been inherently assumed in the analysesof the aforementioned teams). We adopt a functional form for thepredicted influence of blending that is consistent with the models ofMochejska et al. and Stanek & Udalski, and we demonstrate that theexpected correlation with distance predicted by these studies is notsupported by the data. We conclude that the Cepheid-based extragalacticdistance scale has not been severely compromised by the neglect ofblending.

The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. XXVI. The Calibration of Population II Secondary Distance Indicators and the Value of the Hubble Constant
A Cepheid-based calibration is derived for four distance indicators thatutilize stars in old stellar populations: the tip of the red giantbranch (TRGB), the planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF), theglobular cluster luminosity function (GCLF), and the surface brightnessfluctuation method (SBF). The calibration is largely based on theCepheid distances to 18 spiral galaxies within cz=1500 km s-1obtained as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Key Project on theExtragalactic Distance Scale, but relies also on Cepheid distances fromseparate HST and ground-based efforts. The newly derived calibration ofthe SBF method is applied to obtain distances to four Abell clusters inthe velocity range 3800-5000 km s-1. Combined with clustervelocities corrected for a cosmological flow model, these distancesimply a value of the Hubble constant of H0=69+/-4(random)+/-6 (systematic) km s-1 Mpc-1. Thisresult assumes that the Cepheid PL relation is independent of themetallicity of the variable stars; adopting a metallicity correction asin Kennicutt et al. would produce a 5%+/-3% decrease in H0.Finally, the newly derived calibration allows us to investigatesystematics in the Cepheid, PNLF, SBF, GCLF, and TRGB distance scales.

A Cepheid Distance to NGC 4603 in Centaurus
In an attempt to use Cepheid variables to determine the distance to theCentaurus cluster, we have obtained images of NGC 4603 with the HubbleSpace Telescope for 9 epochs (totalling 24 orbits) over 14 months in theF555W filter and 2 epochs (totalling six orbits) in the F814W filter.This galaxy has been suggested to lie within the ``Cen 30'' portion ofthe Centaurus cluster, which is concentrated around a heliocentricredshift of ~3000 km s^-1 and is the most distant object for which thismethod has been attempted. Previous distance estimates for Cen 30 havevaried significantly, and some have presented disagreements with thepeculiar velocity predicted on the basis of full-sky redshift surveys ofgalaxies, motivating our investigation. Using our WFPC2 observations, wehave found 61 candidate Cepheid variable stars with well-determinedoscillation periods and mean magnitudes; however, a significant fractionof these candidates are likely to be nonvariable stars whose magnitudemeasurement errors happen to fit a Cepheid light curve of significantamplitude for some choice of period and phase. Through a maximumlikelihood technique, we determine that we have observed 43+/-7 realCepheids (with zero excluded at greater than 9 sigma) and that NGC 4603has a distance modulus of 32.61^+0.11_-0.10 (random, 1sigma)^+0.24_-0.25 (systematic, adding in quadrature), corresponding toa distance of 33.3^+1.7_-1.5 (random, 1 sigma)^+3.8_-3.7 (systematic)Mpc. This result is consistent with a number of recent estimates of thedistance to NGC 4603 or Cen 30 and implies a small peculiar velocityconsistent with predictions from the IRAS 1.2 Jy redshift survey if thegalaxy lies in the foreground of the cluster.

The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: 21 Centimeter H I Line Data
A compilation of 21 cm line spectral parameters specifically designedfor application of the Tully-Fisher (TF) distance method is presentedfor 1201 spiral galaxies, primarily field Sc galaxies, for which opticalI-band photometric imaging is also available. New H I line spectra havebeen obtained for 881 galaxies. For an additional 320 galaxies, spectraavailable in a digital archive have been reexamined to allow applicationof a single algorithm for the derivation of the TF velocity widthparameter. A velocity width algorithm is used that provides a robustmeasurement of rotational velocity and permits an estimate of the erroron that width taking into account the effects of instrumental broadeningand signal-to-noise. The digital data are used to establish regressionrelations between measurements of velocity widths using other commonprescriptions so that comparable widths can be derived throughconversion of values published in the literature. The uniform H I linewidths presented here provide the rotational velocity measurement to beused in deriving peculiar velocities via the TF method.

The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.

Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxies
Using images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC).

Investigations of the Local supercluster velocity field. II. A study using Tolman-Bondi solution and galaxies with accurate distances from the Cepheid PL-relation
A sample of 32 galaxies with accurate distance moduli from the CepheidPL-relation (Lanoix \cite{Lanoix99}) has been used to study thedynamical behaviour of the Local (Virgo) supercluster. We usedanalytical Tolman-Bondi (TB) solutions for a spherically symmetricdensity excess embedded in the Einstein-deSitter universe (q_0=0.5).Using 12 galaxies within Theta =30degr from the centre we found a massestimate of 1.62M_virial for the Virgo cluster. This agrees with thefinding of Teerikorpi et al. (\cite{Teerikorpi92}) that TB-estimate maybe larger than virial mass estimate from Tully & Shaya(\cite{Tully84}). Our conclusions do not critically depend on ourprimary choice of the global H_0=57 km s-1 Mpc{-1}established from SNe Ia (Lanoix \cite{Lanoix99}). The remaining galaxiesoutside Virgo region do not disagree with this value. Finally, we alsofound a TB-solution with the H_0 and q_0 cited yielding exactly onevirial mass for the Virgo cluster.

The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. XII. The Discovery of Cepheids and a New Distance to NGC 2541
We report the detection of Cepheids and a new distance to the spiralgalaxy NGC 2541, based on data obtained with the Wide Field PlanetaryCamera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A total of 25exposures (divided into 13 epochs) were obtained using the F555W filter(transformed to Johnson V), and nine exposures were obtained (dividedinto five epochs) using the F814W filter (transformed to Cousins I).Photometric reduction of the data is performed using two independentpackages, DoPHOT and DAOPHOT II/ALLFRAME, which give very good agreementin the measured magnitudes. A total of 34 bona fide Cepheids, withperiods ranging from 12 to over 60 days, are identified based on bothsets of photometry. By fitting V and I period-luminosity relations,apparent distance moduli are derived assuming a Large Magellanic Clouddistance modulus and mean color excess of mu_LMC = 18.50 +/- 0.10 magand E(B-V) = 0.10 mag, respectively. Adopting A(V)/E(V-I) = 2.45, weobtain a true distance modulus to NGC 2541 of mu_0 = 30.47 +/- 0.11(random) +/- 0.12 (systematic) mag (D = 12.4 +/- 0.6 [random] +/- 0.7[systematic] Mpc), and a total (Galactic plus internal) mean colorexcess E(B-V) = 0.08 +/- 0.05 (internal error) mag.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

An HI survey for protogalaxies in the Centaurus and Fornax galaxy clusters
The results of 21-cm neutral hydrogen survey observations, made usingthe 64-m Parkes telescope, are presented for two 8 deg by 8 deg fields,centred on the Centaurus and Fornax galaxy clusters, and a smaller 1deg.5 field in Eridanus. The purpose of the observations was to searchfor extended Hi clouds with no clear optical counterparts. 31 previouslycatalogued galaxies were detected, with Hi parameters for 16 beinglisted for the first time. One previously uncatalogued dwarf galaxy(`Wombat I', J0341-3851) was found near the Fornax cluster. AustraliaTelescope Compact Array observations give an Hi mass of 8x10^7 Msolarand a diameter of 4kpc for this object, which is also visible on UKSTsurvey plates. However, no clouds with optically invisible counterpartswere detected. We deduce a 99 per cent confidence limit on the total Hidensity of such objects in the cluster and near-cluster environment ofOmega_HI<10^-2h^-1(deltaV/100kms^-1.

Homogeneous Velocity-Distance Data for Peculiar Velocity Analysis. III. The Mark III Catalog of Galaxy Peculiar Velocities
This is the third in a series of papers in which we assemble and analyzea homogeneous catalog of peculiar velocity data. In Papers I and II, wedescribed the Tully-Fisher (TF) redshift-distance samples thatconstitute the bulk of the catalog and our methodology for obtainingmutually consistent TF calibrations for these samples. In this paper, wesupply further technical details of the treatment of the data andpresent a subset of the catalog in tabular form. The full catalog, knownas the Mark III Catalog of Galaxy Peculiar Velocities, is available inaccessible on-line databases, as described herein. The electroniccatalog incorporates not only the TF samples discussed in Papers I andII but also elliptical galaxy Dn- sigma samples originally presentedelsewhere. The relative zero pointing of the elliptical and spiral datasets is discussed here. The basic elements of the Mark III Catalog arethe observables for each object (redshift, magnitude, velocity width,etc.) and inferred distances derived from the TF or Dn- sigma relations.Distances obtained from both the forward and inverse TF relations aretabulated for the spirals. Malmquist bias--corrected distances arecomputed for each catalog object using density fields obtained from theIRAS 1.2 Jy redshift survey. Distances for both individual objects andgroups are provided. A variety of auxiliary data, including distancesand local densities predicted from the IRAS redshift surveyreconstruction method, are tabulated as well. We study the distributionsof TF residuals for three of our samples and conclude that they are wellapproximated as Gaussian. However, for the Mathewson et al. sample wedemonstrate a significant decrease in TF scatter with increasingvelocity width. We test for, but find no evidence of, a correlationbetween TF residuals and galaxy morphology. Finally, we derivetransformations that map the apparent magnitude and velocity width datafor each spiral sample onto a common system. This permits theapplication of analysis methods that assume that a unique TF relationdescribes the entire sample.

The I band Tully-Fisher relation for cluster galaxies: data presentation.
Observational parameters which can be used for redshift-independentdistance determination using the Tully-Fisher (TF) technique are givenfor \ntot spiral galaxies in the fields of 24 clusters or groups. I bandphotometry for the full sample was either obtained by us or compiledfrom published literature. Rotational velocities are derived either from21 cm spectra or optical emission line long-slit spectra, and convertedto a homogeneous scale. In addition to presenting the data, a discussionof the various sources of error on TF parameters is introduced, and thecriteria for the assignment of membership to each cluster are given.

Scaleheights of 486 southern spiral galaxies and some statistical correlation
Based on Peng's method (1988), we obtain scaleheights of 486 southernspiral galaxies, the images of which are taken from the Digitized SkySurvey at Xinglong Station of Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Thefitted spiral arms of 70 galaxies are compared with their images to gettheir optimum inclinations. The scaleheights of other 416 ones arelisted in Table A1 in Appendix. After compiling and analyzing the data,we find some statistical correlations. The most interesting results arethat a flatter galaxy is bluer and looks brighter, and galaxies becomeflatter along the Hubble sequence Sab -- Scd. Based on photographic dataof the National Geographic Society -- Palomar Observatory Sky Survey(NGS-POSS) obtained using the Oschin Telescope Palomar Mountain. TheNGS-POSS was funded by a grant from the National Geographic Society tothe California Institute of Technology. The plates were processed intothe present compressed digital form with their permission. The DigitizedSky Survey was produced at the Space Telescope Science Institute underUS Government grant NAG W-2166. Table A1 is available in electronic fromonly, via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Parameters of 2447 Southern Spiral Galaxies for Use in the Tully-Fisher Relation
I-band luminosities, rotational velocities, and redshifts of 1092 spiralgalaxies have been measured by CCD photometry and Hα spectroscopyusing the 1 m and 2.3 m telescopes at Siding Spring Observatory,respectively. The results are tabulated. Luminosity profiles andHα rotation curves are given for the galaxies. When these resultsare combined with similar data for 1355 spiral galaxies publishedpreviously (Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, hereafter Paper I), itprovides a large, uniform, and unique data set with which to measure,via the Tully-Fisher relation, the peculiar velocities of galaxies inthe local universe to a distance of 11,000 km s^-1^ (Mathewson &Ford). Taking advantage of the opportunity for publishing this data inmachine-readable form, in the CD-ROM, we have also included similar datafor the 1355 galaxies in Paper I.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h40m55.70s
Aparent dimensions:3.388′ × 2.291′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names
NGC 2000.0NGC 4603

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