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# NGC 1591

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 Stellar populations and dust extinction in non-active and Seyfert spiral galaxiesMetallicity and age gradients of the stellar populations and dustextinction are studied for a sample of 32 non-active, seven type 1Seyfert (S1) and 17 type 2 Seyfert (S2) spiral galaxies. The samplegalaxies cover the whole range from face-on to edge-on view, and thevariation of the optical and near-infrared colour gradients in the discas a function of the inclination angle is investigated in order toseparate colour changes caused by population gradients from those due todust effects.The measurements show that the observed colour gradients in the discs ofthe non-active galaxies are significantly larger than those found forthe S1 and S2 galaxies. In the near-infrared wavelengths, however, thesedifferences disappear, and the colour gradients are the same for allthree galaxy types. No systematic differences are found between thecolour gradients of the discs of the S1 galaxies and those of the S2galaxies.The data are compared to model images of dusty galaxies with a varietyof age and metallicity gradients in the disc. The radial variations ofthe optical and near-infrared colours of the model galaxies arecalculated from the radial changes of the ages and the metallicities ofthe stars, using broad-band colours of a single stellar population. Thestellar content at a given position in the disc is determined by theaverage age, the metallicity and the star formation history.For the non-active galaxies, the observed colour gradients arerepresented best by a model with a metallicity gradient, with the innerregions of the stellar disc being more metal-rich than the outerregions. However, the presence of an age gradient, with the innerregions of the stellar disc being older than the outer regions, cannotbe ruled out. For the S1 and S2 galaxies, the comparison between dataand models indicates that the age and metallicity gradients in thestellar disc are small. As far as the internal dust extinction isconcerned, the comparison between data and models indicates that boththe non-active and the S2 galaxies show significant dust extinction, butthey are not optically thick. HYPERLEDA. II. The homogenized HI dataAfter a compilation of HI data from 611 references and new observationsmade in Nançay, we produce a catalog of homogenized HI data for16781 galaxies. The homogenization is made using the EPIDEMIC methodfrom which all data are progressively converted into the adoptedstandard. The result is a catalog giving: 1) the logarithm of twice themaximum rotation velocity, log 2V_Msin i, converted to thesystem of Mathewson et al. (\cite{Mathewson1996}). This quantity isgiven without correction for inclination; 2) the HI magnitude,m21, (area of the 21-cm line width expressed in magnitude)converted to the flux system of Theureau et al. (\cite{Theureau1998});3) the HI velocity, V_HI, expressed with the optical definition (i.e.,using wavelengths instead frequencies). The typical uncertainties are:0.04 for log 2V_Msin i, 0.25 mag for m21 and 9 kms-1 for V_HI.Full Tables \ref{epidemicw}, \ref{epidemicw2}, \ref{epidemicf},\ref{epidemicf2} and Fig. \ref{profiles} are available in electronicform at http://www.edpsciences.org. Full Tables \ref{references},\ref{cataf}, \ref{newdata} and \ref{notes} are available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/57 A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxiesWe have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of normality''. Thedefinition of a normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5 Environmental effects in galaxies. Molecular gas, star formation, and activityIn order to study whether there is any correlation between nuclearactivities, gas content, and the environment where galaxies reside, wehave obtained optical and millimetric spectra for a well-defined sampleof intermediate Hubble type spirals in dense environments and in thefield. We found that these spirals in dense environments have onaverage: less molecular gas per blue luminosity, a higher atomic gasfraction, lower current star formation rate, and the same star formationefficiency as field galaxies. Although none of these results stands outas a single strong diagnostic given their statistical significance,taken together they indicate a trend for diminished gas content andstar-formation activity in galaxies in high-density environments. Ourresults suggest that galaxies in dense environments have either (i)consumed their molecular gas via star formation in the past or (ii) thatdense environments leads to an inhibition of molecular gas from atomicphase. The similarities in star-formation efficiency of the denseenvironments and field galaxies suggest that the physical processescontroling the formation of stars from the molecular gas are localrather than global. We also found that star formation rate per blueluminosity increases linearly as the total amount of gas increases inLINERs. This result, based on a small sample, suggests that LINERs arepowered by star formation rather than an AGN. Based on observations atthe European Southern Observatory at the 15 m Swedish ESO Submillimetretelescope, SEST, and at the the 1.52 m telescope which is operated underthe ESO-ON agreement. Environmental effects in galaxies. The data{We present optical and millimetric data for 47 intermediate Hubble typespiral galaxies located either in dense environments or in the field. Wecompare correlations between global parameters, such as far-infraredluminosity, blue luminosity, and total molecular gas content, with othersamples of galaxies, including normal galaxies, clusters andultraluminous infrared galaxies. We find that overall our sample is awell-defined subset of these other samples of galaxies. Based onobservations at the European Southern Observatory at the 15 m SwedishESO Submillimetre telescope, SEST, and at the the 1.52 m telescope whichis operated under the ESO-ON agreement. Appendix A is only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Disc scalelengths of non-active and active spiral galaxiesDisc scalelengths rD are determined for a sample of 32non-active and 28 active spiral galaxies from optical CCD images. For 21of the 32 non-active galaxies and 20 of the 28 active galaxies B, V, Rand I data have been obtained, while for the remaining galaxies only Band I images have been taken. For 18 of the 21 non-active galaxies,which are measured in all four passbands, rD decreasessystematically from B to I, whereas such a decrease is found for onlyfour of the 20 active galaxies with BVRI data. For the non-activegalaxies, the ratios rD(B)/rD(I),rD(V)/rD(I) and rD(R)/rD(I)increase systematically with increasing apparent ellipticity ɛof the galaxies. For the active galaxies, no systematic variation of anyof the ratios with increasing ɛ is found. The variation ofrD(B)/rD(I) with ɛ is compared with modelcalculations. For the non-active galaxies, the data are represented bestby a model with a stellar disc that has an intrinsic colour gradient andwith a central optical depth in the B band for face-on view ofτ0B=3. For the active galaxies, the best agreement between data andmodels is found for models with a stellar disc with no intrinsic colourgradient and no dust. The best-fitting model for the non-active galaxiesdoes not reproduce the data of the active galaxies. The main conclusionof this work is that structural differences seem to exist between thediscs of non-active and active galaxies. The non-active galaxies showsignificant colour gradients within their discs, whereas the activegalaxies do not. These gradients are probably caused by a combination ofan intrinsic colour gradient within the stellar disc, and dustextinction. Furthermore, the measurements indicate that the non-activegalaxies show significant dust extinction in the centre, but they areoptically thin in the outer regions. The active galaxies do not seem tohave intrinsic colour gradients within the stellar disc and they areoptically thin throughout the disc. Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of GroupsIn this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales. The Southern Sky Redshift SurveyWe report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory. Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory. A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: BibliographyWe present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Optical Rotation Curves and Linewidths for Tully-Fisher ApplicationsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.2402C&db_key=AST 1.25-mm observations of a complete sample of IRAS galaxies. II. Dust properties.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996MNRAS.283...85A&db_key=AST Parameters of 2447 Southern Spiral Galaxies for Use in the Tully-Fisher RelationI-band luminosities, rotational velocities, and redshifts of 1092 spiralgalaxies have been measured by CCD photometry and Hα spectroscopyusing the 1 m and 2.3 m telescopes at Siding Spring Observatory,respectively. The results are tabulated. Luminosity profiles andHα rotation curves are given for the galaxies. When these resultsare combined with similar data for 1355 spiral galaxies publishedpreviously (Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, hereafter Paper I), itprovides a large, uniform, and unique data set with which to measure,via the Tully-Fisher relation, the peculiar velocities of galaxies inthe local universe to a distance of 11,000 km s^-1^ (Mathewson &Ford). Taking advantage of the opportunity for publishing this data inmachine-readable form, in the CD-ROM, we have also included similar datafor the 1355 galaxies in Paper I. Rotation Curves of 967 Spiral GalaxiesWe present the rotation curves of 967 southern spiral galaxies, obtainedby deprojecting and folding the raw Hα data originally publishedby Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn (1992). For 900 objects, we alsopresent, in figures and tables, the rotation curves smoothed on scalescorresponding to 5%-20% of the optical size; of these, 80 meet objectiveexcellence criteria and are suitable for individual detailed massmodeling, while 820, individually less compelling mainly because of themoderate statistics and/or limited extension, are suitable forstatistical studies. The remaining 67 curves suffer from severeasymmetries, small statistics, and large internal scatter that maylargely limit their use in galaxy structure studies. The deprojectedfolded curves, the smoothed curves, and various related quantities areavailable via anonymous ftp at galileo.sissa.it in the directory/users/ftp/pub/psrot. CO, HI and cold dust in a sample of IRAS galaxies.Using the IRAM 30m, SEST 15m, and Nancay radiotelescopes, we havegathered the 1mm continuum emission, the intensities of the J=1-0 lineof the CO molecule and of the atomic hydrogen line at 21cm for twosamples of IRAS galaxies. The southern sample was selected from the IRASCatalogue and is complete at the limiting flux of 2Jy at 60μm; of the10 northern objects 7 belong to the Smith et al. complete sample (1987)and 3 are isolated objects. Using these data, we have estimated theatomic hydrogen masses from the 21cm emission, the molecular gas massesfrom the CO(1-0)line brightness, and the dust and gas masses from the mmcontinuum emission using two "extreme" dust models. The main conclusionsof this work for far-infrared selected galaxies can be summarized in thefollowing points: (1) the median value of M_H_2__/M_HI_ is 0.5, meaningthat the atomic phase dominates in these galaxies. The fraction of gasin molecular form increases with increasing FIR luminosity but does notshow any obvious trend with other galaxy properties, in particular withthe FIR surface brightness. (2) the H_2_ surface density derived fromCO(1-0)emission is better correlated with the cold dust surface densitythan the HI surface density, but the correlation of HI with dust is notnegligible (we found a correlation coefficient of 0.5, while thecorrelation coefficient with σ_H_2__ is 0.70). Thus, globally inthese galaxies, the cold dust emission is likely associated with boththe molecular and atomic phases. Indeed, the dust surface density isalso correlated with the total gas surface density. (3) the FIR surfacebrightness increases as the third power of the S(60μm) /S(100μm)ratio. It shows a tight correlation with both the H_2_ and dust surfacedensities and a weaker one with the HI surface density. This suggeststhat a large part of the far-infrared emission of these galaxiesoriginates in the molecular medium. (4) the gas-to-dust ratio, (M_H_2__+M_HI_)/M_d_ ranges between 100 and 1000 and its average value is 230,close to the Galactic value. There is indeed a clear trend: this ratiodecreases as the FIR surface density increases. This result can beexplained in the framework of an enhancement of metallicity in galaxydiscs having a higher star formation rate. Galaxy properties in different environments. 1: The sampleThis paper presents two galaxy samples, respectively in a high and in alow local density environments, that were generated from the SouthernSky Redshift Survey (SSRS) catalog using objective criteria. Apreliminary comparison of physical properties in these two samplesreveals that galaxies in high-density environments tend to be under ahigher starbursting activity, have a deficiency of the neutral hydrogencontent, present a higher fractional Seyfert population and a higherfraction of barred spirals as well. The present samples are intended tobe used in future spectroscopic observations for more detailedinvestigation. Galaxy properties in different environments. 2: Star formation in bulges of late-type spiralsThe star formation history in the nucleus of late spiral galaxies iscompared between a sample in a high galaxy density medium (HDS) and acontrol sample (CS) of isolated galaxies. We have observed 20 HDS and 18CS galaxies from a larger list generated by the application of agroup-finding algorithm to the SSRS survey. Using equivalent widths ofabsorption lines and the continuum distribution, we determined thenuclear stellar population types, from those dominated by old populationto those containing star formation bursts of different ages andintensities. The HDS and CS stellar population type histograms aresimilar, suggesting that environmental influences, at least for thepresent sample, do not affect substantially the nuclear stellarpopulation. However, the nuclear emission lines indicate that, in theBPT diagnostic diagrams, there is an excess of HDS galaxies locatedwithin or close to the active galactic nuclei (AGN) loci. For six HDSand two CS galaxies, it was possible to determine oxygen (O/H) andnitrogen (N/H) abundances. The samples present similar O/H values, butin the CS galaxies the N/O ratio is lower at equal galaxy luminosity. A volume-limited sample of IRAS galaxies to 4000 km/s, 3: CCD photometry from Palomar and Tololo observatoriesAn all-sky, quasi-volume-limited sample of 251 spiral galaxies within4000 km/s has been extracted from the redshift survey of InfraredAstronomy Satellite (IRAS) galaxies by Strauss (1992). Distance modulifor these objects estimated via the Tully-Fisher (TF) method allow thepeculiar velocity field and the cosmological density parameter to beconstrained within this volume. The TF relation we exploit relatesdeprojected neutral hydrogen line width to near-infrared luminosity.Herein we present I and V band photometry for 159 members of this sampleobtained with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras at Palomar and Tololoobservatories. Image processing and photometric calibration proceduresare described. Twenty seven objects with multiple calibratedobservations suggest that isophotal I band magnitudes are reproduced toequal to or less than 0.05 mag precision at sigmaI = 23.5 magarcsec-2, and that systematic run-to-run offsets are limitedto equal to or less than 0.05 I mag. A volume-limited sample of IRAS galaxies to 4000 km/s, 2: Neutral hydrogen observations from the Parkes telescopeWe have extracted a volume-limited sample of spiral galaxies within 4000km/s from the Strauss et al. (1992) redshift survey of InfraredAstronomical Satellite (IRAS) galaxies. The purpose of the sample is touse distances obtained from the neutral hydrogen/near-infrared (I-band)Tully-Fisher relation to study deviations from uniform Hubble expansion.This will allow us to estimate the distribution of mass in the localuniverse and to place constraints on the value of the cosmologicaldensity parameter, omega 0. Here we report neutral hydrogen(H I) observations of 61 galaxies from this sample taken at the 64 mParkes telescope, 48 of which resulted in measured linewidth parameters.Empirical estimates of random and systematic errors in H I line widthsat low signal-to-noise ratio are described. The extended 12 micron galaxy sampleWe have selected an all-sky (absolute value of b greater than or equalto 25 deg) 12 micron flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies from the IRASFaint Source Catalog, Version 2 (FSC-2). We have obtained accurate totalfluxes in the IRAS wavebands by using the ADDSCAN procedure for allobjects with FSC-2 12 micron fluxes greater than 0.15 Jy and increasingflux densities from 12 to 60 microns, and defined the sample by imposinga survey limit of 0.22 Jy on the total 12 micron flux. Its completenessis verified, by means of the classical log N - log S andV/Vmax tests, down to 0.30 Jy, below which we have measuredthe incompleteness down to the survey limit, using the log N - log Splot, for our statistical analysis. We have obtained redshifts (mostlyfrom catalogs) for virtually all (98.4%) the galaxies in the sample.Using existing catalogs of active galaxies, we defined a subsample of118 objects consisting of 53 Seyfert 1s and quasars, 63 Seyfert 2s, andtwo blazars (approximately 13% of the full sample), which is the largestunbiased sample of Seyfert galaxies ever assembled. Since the 12 micronflux has been shown to be about one-fifth of the bolometric flux forSeyfert galaxies and quasars, the subsample of Seyferts (includingquasars and blazars) is complete not only to 0.30 Jy at 12 microns butalso with respect to a bolometric flux limit of approximately 2.0 x10-10 ergs/s/sq cm. The average value of V/Vmaxfor the full sample, corrected for incompleteness at low fluxes, is 0.51+/- 0.04, expected for a complete sample of uniformly distributedgalaxies, while the value for the Seyfert galaxy subsample is 0.46 +/-0.10. We have derived 12 microns and far-infrared luminosity functionsfor the AGNs, as well as for the entire sample. We extracted from oursample a complete subsample of 235 galaxies flux-limited (8.3 Jy) at 60microns. The 60 micron luminosity function computed for this subsampleis in satisfactory agreement with the ones derived from the brightgalaxy sample (BGS) and the deep high-galactic latitude sample, bothselected at 60 microns. A southern sky survey of the peculiar velocities of 1355 spiral galaxiesThe paper presents data from photometric and spectroscopic observationsof 1355 southern spiral galaxies and uses them to determine theirdistances and peculiar velocities via the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation.I-band CCD surface photometry was carried out using the 1-m and 3.9-mtelescopes at Siding Spring Observatory. H-alpha rotation curves for 965galaxies and 551 H I profiles are presented. The physical parameters,photometric and velocity data, distances, and peculiar velocities of thegalaxies are presented in tabular form. The mean distance, systemicvelocity, and average peculiar velocity of 24 clusters in the sample aregiven. TF diagrams are presented for each cluster. Southern Sky Redshift Survey - The catalogThe catalog of radial velocities for galaxies which comprise thediameter-limited sample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey ispresented. It consolidates the data of observations carried out at theLas Campanas Observatory, Observatorio Nacional, and South AfricanAstronomical Observatory. The criteria used for the sample selection aredescribed, as well as the observational procedures and the techniqueutilized to obtain the final radial velocities. The intercomparisonbetween radial velocity measurements from different telescopes indicatesthat the final data base is fairly homogeneous with a typical error ofabout 40 km/s. The sample is at present 90 percent complete, and themissing galaxies are predominantly objects with very low surfacebrightness for which it is very difficult to obtain optical redshifts. A southern redshift survey. I - Accurate redshifts for 500 galaxies observed at SAAORadial velocities are presented for about 500 galaxies observed with anintensified Reticon photon-counting detector attached to the 1.9 mtelescope at the Sutherland field station of SAAO. The velocities weredetermined by cross correlation with standard velocity templates, fromthe measured wavelengths of emission lines, or from both techniques,with spectra covering the wavelength range from 3700 to 5400 A. Thefinal velocities appear to have the same zero point as H I radiovelocities, and have standard deviations of the order of 35 km/s, thoughcross-correlation velocities on their own may have significantly largererrors. Southern Galaxy Catalogue.Not Available
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