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|FLASH redshift survey - I. Observations and catalogue|
The FLAIR Shapley-Hydra (FLASH) redshift survey catalogue consists of4613 galaxies brighter than bJ= 16.7 (corrected for Galacticextinction) over a 700-deg2 region of sky in the generaldirection of the Local Group motion. The survey region is a70°× 10° strip spanning the sky from the ShapleySupercluster to the Hydra cluster, and contains 3141 galaxies withmeasured redshifts. Designed to explore the effect of the galaxyconcentrations in this direction (in particular the Supergalactic planeand the Shapley Supercluster) upon the Local Group motion, the 68 percent completeness allows us to sample the large-scale structure betterthan similar sparsely-sampled surveys. The survey region does notoverlap with the areas covered by ongoing wide-angle (Sloan or 2dF)complete redshift surveys. In this paper, the first in a series, wedescribe the observation and data reduction procedures, the analysis forthe redshift errors and survey completeness, and present the surveydata.
|Galaxy Luminosity Functions from Deep Spectroscopic Samples of Rich Clusters|
Using a new spectroscopic sample and methods accounting forspectroscopic sampling fractions that vary in magnitude and surfacebrightness, we present R-band galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) for sixnearby galaxy clusters with redshifts of 4000 kms-1
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry|
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample|
This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEARsurvey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong toclusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction ofa Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes newmeasurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift,velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameterdn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopicdata are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometryis presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations withexternal data sets are used to construct a final merged catalogconsisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objectivecriteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from completeredshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies toclusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct thetemplate Dn-σ distance relation for early-typegalaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derivepeculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observationsat Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement betweenthe Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory,National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; theFred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dosDias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísicaand the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxies|
Using images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC).
|A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters|
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp 220.127.116.11. Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.
|Hα objective prism survey of Abell 1060|
As part of a continuing study of the effect of cluster environment onthe star formation properties of galaxies, we have undertaken anHα objective prism survey of the nearby cluster, Abell 1060. Wedetect 33 galaxies in emission, 24 of which are cluster members. Wepresent new radial velocity measurements and Hα + [N Ii]equivalent widths and fluxes for a number of these galaxies. Wedistinguish between galaxies with diffuse and compact emission, thelatter having been associated in previous work with a disturbedmorphology of the galaxy and most likely resulting from tidally-inducedstar formation from galaxy-galaxy or cluster-galaxy interactions. Thefraction of cluster spirals in Abell 1060 detected with compact emissionagrees with the expected fraction for a cluster of its richness, asderived from results of a previous survey of 8 clusters. Some of thedetected cluster early-type spirals exhibit anomalously high globalHα equivalent widths, as compared to galaxies of similar type inthe field.
|Stellar populations of cluster E and S0 galaxies|
Spectral line index data for a sample of 290 E and S0 galaxies are usedto investigate the stellar populations of these galaxies. 250 of thegalaxies are members of 11 nearby clusters (cz_CMB<11500 km s^-1). Westudy how the stellar populations of the galaxies are related to thevelocity dispersions, the masses of the galaxies, and the clusterenvironment. This is done by establishing relations between theseparameters and the line indices Mg_2, and Hβ_G. Thedifference between the slope of the Mg_2-sigma relation and the slope ofthe -sigma relation indicates that the abundance ratio [Mg/Fe]is 0.3-0.4 dex higher for galaxies with velocity dispersions of 250 kms^-1 compared to galaxies with velocity dispersions of 100 km s^-1. Thisis in agreement with previous estimates by Worthey et al. The index is more strongly correlated with the projected cluster surfacedensity, rho_cluster, than with the galactic mass or the velocitydispersion. Earlier we found that the residuals for the Mg_2-sigmarelation depend on the cluster environment. Here we determine how boththe Mg_2 index and the index depend on the velocitydispersion and rho_cluster. Alternative explanations that could create aspurious environment dependence are discussed. No obvious alternativesare found. The environment dependence of the Mg_2-sigma relation issupported by data from Faber et al. The dependence on the environmentimplies that [Mg/Fe] decreases with increasing density, rho_cluster. Thedecrease in [Mg/Fe] is 0.1 dex over 2.5 dex in rho_cluster. We have alsostudied the extent to which the mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of thegalaxies are determined by the stellar populations. The M/L ratios arestrongly correlated with the indices Mg_2 and Hβ_G, while the index is only weakly correlated with the M/L ratio. Based oncurrent stellar population models, we find that it is not yet possibleto derive unique physical parameters (mean age, mean abundances, meanIMF, and fraction of dark matter) from the observables (line indices,velocity dispersion, mass, M/L ratio).
|Structure and kinematics of galaxy clusters. I. The redshift catalogue.|
An extensive redshift survey has been conducted on a sample of 15 nearby(0.01<~z<~0.05) clusters of galaxies. A total number of 860redshifts were determined by fitting of emission-lines and/orcross-correlation techniques. Of this sample, 735 galaxies are within0.2-0.8Mpc (H_0_=50km/s/Mpc) of the center of clusters. Approximatemorphological types are available for most of the galaxies. A comparisonof the present redshifts with published data allows an extensive erroranalysis. The agreement is excellent with the most modern data, showinga zero point error of 5km/s and an overall consistency of themeasurements and their uncertainties. We estimate our redshifts to havemean random errors around 30km/s. A population analysis of the clusterswill be given in a forthcoming paper.
|The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.|
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.
|Spectroscopy for E and S0 galaxies in nine clusters|
Central velocity dispersions, Mg_2 line indices and radial velocitiesfor 220 E and S0 galaxies are derived on the basis of intermediateresolution spectroscopy. Galaxies in the following clusters have beenobserved: Abell 194, Abell 539, Abell 3381, Abell 3574, S639, S753,Doradus, HydraI (Abell 1060) and Grm 15. For 151 of the galaxies, thevelocity dispersion has not previously been measured. 134 of the Mg_2determinations are for galaxies with no previous measurement. Thespectra cover either 500 or 1000A, centred on the magnesium triplet at5177A. The observations were obtained with the Boller & Chivensspectrograph at the ESO 1.5-m telescope and with the OPTOPUS, amulti-object fibre-fed B&C spectrograph, at the ESO 3.6-m telescope.The data are part of our ongoing study of the large-scale motions in theUniverse and the physical background for the Fundamental Plane. TheFourier fitting method was used to derive the velocity dispersions andradial velocities. The velocity dispersions have been corrected for theeffect of the size of the aperture. The correction was established onthe basis of velocity dispersion profiles available in the literature. Acomparison with results from Davies et al. shows that the derivedcentral velocity dispersions have an rms error of 0.036 in logsigma.There is no offset relative to the velocity dispersions from Davies etal. The offset relative to data from Lucey & Carter is-0.017+/-0.011 in logsigma, with our velocity dispersions being thesmallest. The velocity dispersions derived from the B&C and theOPTOPUS observations, as well as the velocity dispersions published byDavies et al., Dressler, Lucey & Carter and Lucey et al., can bebrought on a system consistent within 3 per cent. The Mg_2 line indiceshave been corrected for the size of the apertures, transformed to theLick system, and corrected for the effect of the velocity dispersion.From comparison with data from Davies et al. and from Faber, we findthat the rms error of Mg_2 is 0.013. Comparisons of the radialvelocities with data from the literature show that our determinationsare accurate to within ~=35 km s^-1. The accuracies reached for theseobservations are adequate for the study of the large-scale motions inthe Universe and for investigations of the Fundamental Plane.
|A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update|
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.
|Surface photometry of the Hydra I cluster of galaxies. I - Photometric data|
Surface photometry was made for 137 galaxies on a UK Schmidt plate whosecenter is located at the center of the Hydra I (A1060 ) cluster ofgalaxies. For 133 of the 137 galaxies, such photometric parameters astotal magnitude, equivalent radius, concentration indices, and meansurface brightness were obtained. The total magnitudes were comparedwith those in the literature to check the accuracy of the present data.The estimated accuracy in the total magnitudes is about 0.1 mag at mostfor majority of the galaxies.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|The Hydra I cluster of galaxies. V - A catalogue of galaxies in the cluster area|
The available information for 581 galaxies in the area of the Hydra I (= Abell 1060) cluster is compiled into a catalog. Positions, magnitudes,diameters, position angles, radial velocities, and morphological typesare given. A first determination of the luminosity function of Hydra Iis attempted. An assessment of the photometric errors in the isophotalmagnitudes is included.
|Distances to five nearby southern galaxy clusters and the absolute motion of the Local Group|
Redshifts and central velocity dispersions have been obtained forgalaxies in five nearby southern clusters, and relative distances to theclusters are determined by applying the D-sigma relation to theearly-type galaxies. It is suggested that the large peculiar velocity ofCen45 may be due to its infall toward the more massive Cen30 component.Rich sample clusters such as Cen30 are found to have peculiar velocitieswith respect to the cosmic microwave background.
|Southern Galaxy Catalogue.|
|The dependence on distance and redshift of the velocity vectors of the sun, the Galaxy, and the Local Group with respect to different extragalactic frames of reference|
The solar apex S is confirmed to move steadily from S-prime toS-asterisk, when the mean redshift of the reference frame increases fromsmall to large values, on the basis of a new analysis of the solarmotion and Hubble ratio. Most of the change takes place in the 0-4000km/sec interval. The velocity vectors increase steadily, and thedirections of the apexes drift progressively as the mean distance orredshift of the reference frame increases. The frame of referencedefined by galaxies at z greater than 0.01 is essentially at rest withrespect to background radiation, suggesting that any intrinsic dipolaranisotropy of the background radiation is probably less than about0.0001.
|Inner ring structures in galaxies as distance indicators. III - Distances to 453 spiral and lenticular galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1983ApJS...51..149B&db_key=AST
|The Hydra I cluster of galaxies. II - First results from H I observations|
The number of known redshifts in the area of the Hydra I cluster hasbeen raised to 96, through the detection of 17 galaxies in the course ofH I 21-cm line observations of 42 galaxies in this field. Evidence isalso found for an increase of the H I deficiency factor radially inwardsto the center of the cluster. The cluster's distance modulus, relativeto the Virgo cluster from the blue magnitude Tully-Fisher relation is inagreement with other determinations and with the value that is based onthe ratio of cluster redshifts; a constraint to the infall velocity ofthe Local Group toward the Virgo cluster is therefore given to values ofless than 350 km/sec.
|The Hydra I cluster of galaxies - A unique case of membership definition|
New optical radial velocities for 71 galaxies in the Hydra I cluster arepresented. The recession velocity of the cluster is determined to 3425km/sec, yielding a distance of about 45.7 Mpc. The overall velocitydispersion is 676 km/sec. Results of galaxy counts could be fitted by atwo-component model. Many of the global cluster properties of Hydra Ilike, e.g., total galaxy content, velocity dispersion, X-ray flux, etc.,suggest a remarkable similarity with the Virgo cluster. No foregroundgalaxies and no background galaxies were noted in the observed area upto about 8000 km/sec, suggesting regions of empty space of the order of40-50 Mpc extent along the line of sight.
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