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The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Is there a miniature radio-galaxy in every "core" galaxy?
This is the second of a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGN in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. We selected two sampleswith 5 GHz VLA radio flux measurements down to 1 mJy, reaching levels ofradio luminosity as low as 1036 erg s-1. In PaperI we presented a study of the surface brightness profiles for the 65objects with available archival HST images out of the 116 radio-detectedgalaxies. We classified early-type galaxies into "core" and "power-law"galaxies, discriminating on the basis of the slope of their nuclearbrightness profiles, following the Nukers scheme. Here we focus on the29 core galaxies (hereafter CoreG). We used HST and Chandra data toisolate their optical and X-ray nuclear emission. The CoreG invariablyhost radio-loud nuclei, with an average radio-loudness parameter of LogR = L5 {GHz} / LB ˜ 3.6. The optical and X-raynuclear luminosities correlate with the radio-core power, smoothlyextending the analogous correlations already found for low luminosityradio-galaxies (LLRG) toward even lower power, by a factor of ˜1000, covering a combined range of 6 orders of magnitude. This supportsthe interpretation of a common non-thermal origin of the nuclearemission also for CoreG. The luminosities of the nuclear sources, mostlikely dominated by jet emission, set firm upper limits, as low asL/L_Edd ˜ 10-9 in both the optical and X-ray band, on anyemission from the accretion process. The similarity of CoreG and LLRGwhen considering the distributions host galaxies luminosities and blackhole masses, as well as of the surface brightness profiles, indicatesthat they are drawn from the same population of early-type galaxies.LLRG represent only the tip of the iceberg associated with (relatively)high activity levels, with CoreG forming the bulk of the population. Wedo not find any relationship between radio-power and black hole mass. Aminimum black hole mass of M_BH = 108 Mȯ isapparently associated with the radio-loud nuclei in both CoreG and LLRG,but this effect must be tested on a sample of less luminous galaxies,likely to host smaller black holes. In the unifying model for BL Lacsand radio-galaxies, CoreG likely represent the counterparts of the largepopulation of low luminosity BL Lac now emerging from the surveys at lowradio flux limits. This suggests the presence of relativistic jets alsoin these quasi-quiescent early-type "core" galaxies.

Gamma-ray emissions of AGN and cosmological standard candles
In this work, we compile a sample which contains 71 GeV Gamma-ray-loudActive Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) (14 BL Lacs and 57 FSRQs), 53 FR I radiogalaxies and 63 FR II radio galaxies. We make a nonlinear least-squarefit to this sample, and find that the best fit value of the Hubbleconstant is H0=71.5±3.8 kms-1Mpc-1 with a reduced χ ~= 2.46 by assumingMv = -23.0 and accepting q0 = 1.0, and thecorresponding regression line has a correlation index R ~= 0.78. Thebest fit value of H0 = 71.5±3.8 kms-1Mpc-1 is in well agreement with H0 =72±8 km s-1 obtained by the Hubble Space TelescopeKey Project. Our results show that the GeV Gamma-ray emissions of AGNscan be used as cosmological standard candles indeed.

The Hubble Space Telescope View of LINER Nuclei: Evidence for a Dual Population?
We study a complete, distance-limited sample of 25 LINERs, 21 of whichhave been imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. In nine objects wedetect an unresolved nucleus. To study their physical properties, wecompare the radio and optical properties of the nuclei of LINERs withthose of other samples of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs), namely,Seyfert galaxies and low-luminosity radio galaxies (LLRGs). Our resultsshow that the LINER population is not homogeneous, as there are twosubclasses: (1) the first class is similar to the LLRG class, as itextends the population of radio-loud nuclei to lower luminosities; (2)the second is similar to Seyfert galaxies and extends the properties ofradio-quiet nuclei toward the lowest luminosities. The objects areoptimally discriminated in the plane formed by the black hole massversus nuclear radio loudness: all radio-loud LINERs haveMBH>~108Msolar, while Seyfertgalaxies and radio-quiet LINERs haveMBH<~108Msolar. The different natureof the various classes of local AGNs are best understood when thefraction of the Eddington luminosity they irradiate,Lo/LEdd, is plotted against the nuclearradio-loudness parameter: Seyfert galaxies are associated withrelatively high radiative efficienciesLo/LEdd>~10-4 (and high accretionrates onto low-mass black holes); LLRGs are associated with lowradiative efficiencies (and low accretion rates onto high-mass blackholes); all LINERs have low radiative efficiency (and accretion rates)and can be radio-loud or radio-quiet, depending on their black holemass.Based on observations obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

The Bologna Complete Sample of Nearby Radio Sources
We present a new, complete sample of 95 radio sources selected from theB2 Catolog of Radio Sources and the Third Cambridge Revised Catalog(3CR), with z<0.1. Since no selection effect on the core radio power,jet velocity, or source orientation is present, this sample is wellsuited for statistical studies. In this first paper we present theobservational status of all sources on the parsec (milliarcsecond) andkiloparsec (arcsecond) scale; we give new parsec-scale data for 28sources and discuss their parsec-scale properties. By combining thesedata with those in the literature, information on the parsec-scalemorphology is available for a total of 53 radio sources with differentradio power and kiloparsec-scale morphologies. We investigate theirproperties. We find a dramatically higher fraction of two-sided sourcesin comparison with that of previous flux-limited VLBI surveys.

The HST view of the nuclear emission line region in low luminosity radio-galaxies
We study the properties of the emission line regions in two samples oflow luminosity radio-galaxies, while focusing on the Compact EmissionLine Region (CELR) revealed to be a characteristic feature of theseobjects by HST narrow-band imaging. We find a strong correlation betweenline and optical continuum nuclear emission, which suggests that theoptical cores (most likely of non-thermal origin) can be directlyassociated to the source of ionizing photons, i.e. that we are seeing ajet-ionized narrow line region. A photon budget argument indicates thatthe optical nuclear sources produce sufficient photon flux provided thatthe covering factor of the circum-nuclear gas is rather large, onaverage 0.3. Analysis of HST images and spectra suggests that the CELRmay take the form of a pc-scale, high filling factor structure, possiblyan optically thin torus. Estimates of the CELR mass lead to values assmall as 10{-}10^3 Mȯ, and photon counting sets a limitto the Broad Line Region mass of M_BLR < 10-2Mȯ. When considered together with the low accretion rateand the tenuous torus structure, a general paucity of gas in theinnermost regions of low luminosity radio-galaxies emerges as the maincharacterizing difference from more powerful Active Galactic Nuclei.

A dichotomy in the orientation of dust and radio jets in nearby low-power radio galaxies
We examine the properties of central dust in nearby quiescent and activeearly-type galaxies. The active galaxies are low-power radio galaxieswith Fanaroff & Riley type I or I/II radio jets. We focus on (a) thecomparison of the dust distributions in the active and quiescent galaxysamples; and (b) the relation between the radio jet and dustorientations. Our main observational conclusions are: (i) in line withprevious studies, the dust detection rate is higher in radio-jetgalaxies than in non radio-jet galaxies; (ii) radio galaxies contain ahigher fraction of regular dust “ellipses” compared toquiescent galaxies which contain more often irregular dustdistributions; (iii) the morphology, size and orientation of dustellipses and lanes in quiescent early-types and active early-types withkpc-scale radio jets is very similar; (iv) dust ellipses are alignedwith the major axis of the galaxy, dust lanes do not show a preferredalignment except for large (>kpc) dust lanes which are aligned withthe minor axis of the galaxy; and (v) as projected on the sky, jets donot show a preferred orientation relative to the galaxy major axis (andhence dust ellipses), but jets are preferentially perpendicular to dustlanes. We show that the dust ellipses are consistent with being nearlycircular thin disks viewed at random viewing angles. The lanes arelikely warped dust structures, which may be in the process of settlingdown to become regular disks or are being perturbed by anon-gravitational force. We use the observed dust-jet orientations toconstrain the three-dimensional angle θDJ between jetand dust. For dust-lane galaxies, the jet is approximately perpendicularto the dust structure, while for dust-ellipse galaxies there is a muchwider distribution of θDJ. We discuss two scenariosthat could explain the dust/jet/galaxy orientation dichotomy. If lanesare indeed settling, then the jet orientation apparently is roughlyaligned with the angular momentum of the dust before it settles. Iflanes are perturbed by a jet-related force, it appears that it causesthe dust to move out of its equilibrium plane in the galaxy into a planewhich is perpendicular to the jet.

A transition in the accretion properties of radio-loud active nuclei
We present evidence for the presence of a transition in the accretionproperties of radio-loud sources. For a sample of radio galaxies andradio-loud quasars, selected based on their extended radio properties,the accretion rate is estimated from the black hole mass and nuclearluminosity. The inferred distribution is bimodal, with a paucity ofsources at accretion rates, in Eddington units, of the order of~10-2- assuming a radiative efficiency of 10 per cent - andpossibly spanning 1-2 orders of magnitude. Selection biases are unlikelyto be responsible for such behaviour. We discuss possible physicalexplanations, including a fast transition to low accretion rates, achange in the accretion mode/actual accretion rate/radiative efficiency,the lack of stable disc solutions at intermediate accretion rates or theinefficiency of the jet formation processes in geometrically thin flows.This transition might be analogous to spectral states (and jet)transitions in black hole binary systems.

No evidence for a different accretion mode for all 3CR FR I radio galaxies
We have analysed the optical and radio properties of a sample of 3CR FRI radio galaxies which have Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging capableof detecting optical cores. The jet powers of the FR I radio galaxiesare estimated from their low-frequency radio luminosities, and theoptical core luminosity is taken as an upper limit on the emission fromany unobscured accretion disc. We argue that if the accretion discs inthese sources are assumed to be advection-dominated accretion flows(ADAFs), or adiabatic inflow-outflow solution (ADIOS) flows, then theBlandford-Znajek mechanism provides insufficient power to explain thehigh radio luminosities of at least a third, and perhaps all, of thesample. We suggest instead that a significant fraction (the`high-jet-power' third), and perhaps most, of the 3CR FR I radiogalaxies have normal accretion discs, but that their optical cores canbe hidden, with any HST-detected optical synchrotron emission comingfrom jets on scales larger than the obscuring material. A normalaccretion disc hypothesis, at least for the high-jet-power third of the3CR FR Is, explains why narrow-line luminosity correlates with radioluminosity. It also explains why one object in the sample (3C 386) hasan observed broad-line nucleus. We conclude that there is no evidence tosuggest that there is a difference in accretion mode between FR I and FRII radio galaxies.

Optical nuclei of radio-loud AGN and the Fanaroff-Riley divide
We investigate the nature of the point-like optical nuclei that havebeen found in the centres of the host galaxies of a majority of radiogalaxies by the Hubble Space Telescope. We examine the evidence thatthese optical nuclei are relativistically beamed, and look fordifferences in the behaviour of the nuclei found in radio galaxies ofthe two Fanaroff-Riley types. We also attempt to relate this behaviourto the properties of the optical nuclei in their highly beamedcounterparts (the BL Lac objects and radio-loud quasars) as hypothesizedby the simple Unified Scheme. Simple model-fitting of the data suggeststhat the emission may be coming from a non-thermal relativistic jet. Itis also suggestive that the contribution from an accretion disk is notsignificant for the FRI objects and for the narrow-line radio galaxiesof FRII type, while it may be significant for the Broad-line objects,and consistent with the idea that the FRII optical nuclei seem to sufferfrom extinction due to an obscuring torus while the FRI optical nucleido not. These results are broadly in agreement with the Unified Schemefor radio-loud AGNs.Appendix C is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

ISOCAM survey and dust models of 3CR radio galaxies and quasars
We present a survey of all 3CR sources imaged with ISOCAM onboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO). The sample consists mostly ofradio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). For each source, we presentspatially integrated mid-infrared (MIR, 5-18 μm) fluxes measured fromnewly calibrated ISOCAM images. In total, we detected 68 objects of the3CR catalogue, at redshifts z ≤2.5, and obtained upper limits for 17objects. In addition, we detected 10 galaxies not listed in the 3CRcatalogue. The one with the highest redshift is 4C+72.26 at z = 3.53.ISOCAM data are combined with other photometric measurements toconstruct the spectral energy distribution (SED) from optical to radiowavelengths. The MIR emission may include synchrotron radiation of theAGN, stars of the host galaxy or dust. Extrapolation of radio corefluxes to the MIR show that the synchrotron contribution is in mostcases negligible. In order to describe dust emission we apply newradiative transfer models. In the models the dust is heated by a centralsource which emits photons up to energies of 1 keV. By varying threeparameters, luminosity, effective size and extinction, we obtain a fitto the SED for our objects. Our models contain also dust at large(several kpc) distances from the AGN. Such a cold dust component wasneglected in previous computations which therefore underestimated theAGN contribution to the far infrared (FIR). In 53 cases (˜ 75% ofour detected 3CR sources), the MIR emission can be attributed to dust.The hot dust component is mainly due to small grains and PAHs. Themodelling demonstrates that AGN heating suffices to explain the ISObroad band data, starburst activity is not necessary. In the models, atype 1 AGN is represented by a compact dust distribution, the dust istherefore very warm and emission of PAHs is weak because ofphoto-destruction. In AGNs of type 2, the dust is relatively colder butPAH bands are strong.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Appendices A and B are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

A scheme to unify low-power accreting black holes. Jet-dominated accretion flows and the radio/X-ray correlation
We explore the evolution in power of black holes of all masses, andtheir associated jets, within the scheme of an accretion rate-dependentstate transition. Below a critical value of the accretion rate allsystems are assumed to undergo a transition to a state where thedominant accretion mode is optically thin and radiatively inefficient.In these significantly sub-Eddington systems, the spectral energydistribution is predicted to be dominated by non-thermal emission from arelativistic jet whereas near-Eddington black holes will be dominatedinstead by emission from the accretion disk. Reasonable candidates forsuch a sub-Eddington state include X-ray binaries in the hard andquiescent states, the Galactic Center (Sgr A*), LINERs, FR I radiogalaxies, and a large fraction of BL Lac objects. Standard jet physicspredicts non-linear scaling between the optically thick (radio) andoptically thin (optical or X-ray) emission of these systems, which hasbeen confirmed recently inX-ray binaries. We show that this scaling relation is also a function ofblack hole mass and only slightly of the relativistic Doppler factor.Taking the scaling into account we show that indeed hard and quiescentstate X-ray binaries, LINERs, FR I radio galaxies, and BL Lacs can beunified and fall on a common radio/X-ray correlation. This suggests thatjet domination is an important stage in the luminosity evolution ofaccreting black hole systems.

Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. II. 391 Calibrated Images with Photometric and Structural Measurements
This paper presents empirical results from a deep imaging survey ofgalaxies in the local universe at the J and Ks wavelengths.Three hundred ninety-one images have been obtained and calibrated usingthe same camera and filter set with the Steward Observatory 1.6 m KuiperTelescope on Mount Bigelow and the 2.3 m Bok Telescope on Kitt Peak. Thelimiting magnitude is typically 22 mag arcsec-1 at J and 21mag arcsec-1 at Ks. The central surfacebrightness, apparent magnitudes, sizes, scale lengths, and inclinationsare tabulated from measurements made using these data. The purpose ofthis paper is to provide basic near-infrared data on a variety of galaxytypes.

A multi-wavelength test of the FR I-BL Lac unifying model
We collect multi-wavelength measurements of the nuclear emission of 20low luminosity FR I radio-galaxies to test the viability of the FR I-BLLac unifying model. Although poorly sampled, the Spectral EnergyDistributions (SED) of FR Is are consistent with the double peaked shapecharacteristic of BL Lacs. Furthermore while the distribution of the FRIs in the broad-band spectral index planes shows essentially no overlapwith the regions where HBL and LBL are located, this can be simply dueto the effects of relativistic beaming. More quantitatively, derivingthe beaming Doppler factor of a given radio-galaxy from its X-rayluminosity ratio with respect to BL Lacs with similar extended radioluminosity, we find that i) the luminosity in all bands, ii) the valueof the spectral indices, iii) the slope of the X-ray spectrum, iv) theoverall SED shape, may be all simultaneously reproduced. However, thecorresponding jet bulk Lorentz factors are significantly smaller thanthose derived for BL Lacs from other observational and theoreticalconsiderations. This suggests to consider a simple variant of theunification scheme that allows for the presence of a velocity structurein the jet.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Spectroscopic study of blue compact galaxies. I. The spectra
Blue compact galaxies are compact objects that are dominated by intensestar formation. Most of them have dramatically different propertiescompared to the Milky Way and many other nearby galaxies. Using theIRAS, H I data, and optical spectra, we wanted to measure the currentstar formation rates, stellar components, metallicities, and starformation histories and evolution of a large blue compact galaxy sample.We anticipate that our study will be useful as a benchmark for studiesof emission line galaxies at high redshift. In the first paper of thisseries, we describe the selection, spectroscopic observation, datareduction and calibration, and spectrophotometric accuracy of a sampleof 97 luminous blue compact galaxies. We present a spectrophotometricatlas of rest-frame spectra, as well as tables of the recessionvelocities and the signal-to-noise ratios. The recession velocities ofthese galaxies are measured with an accuracy of delta V< 67 kms-1. The average signal-to-noise ratio of sample spectra is ~51. The spectral line strengths, equivalent widths and continuum fluxesare also measured for the same galaxies and will be analyzed in the nextpaper of this series. The atlas and tables of measurements will be madeavailable electronically. Table 3 and Fig. 4 are only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/389/845

Effect of the environment on the fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies
We present an analysis of the location of interacting E/S0 galaxies onthe Fundamental Plane (FP). Using the NEMO package, we performed N-bodysimulations of close encounters and mergers of two self-gravitatingspherical galaxies. Two models for encounting galaxies - Plummer's andHernquist's - were used. The number of particles ranged from 20 000 to50 000 per galaxy. The changes of central density, half-mass radius andcentral velocity dispersion were analysed. It was found that closeencounters between galaxies alter noticeably the above parameters withina very short time interval (107-108 years) justbefore the final merger. The amplitudes of parameter changes stronglydepend on the initial mass concentration of a model. In some experimentswe considered an encounter of two spherical galaxies with dark mattercomponents. The effect of parameter changes was less pronounced than forthe experiments without a dark halo. The results of the simulations wereused to discuss the FP for interacting early-type galaxies.

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

ROSAT-HRI observations of six southern galaxy pairs
We present the detailed analysis of the X-ray data for 6 pairs, isolatedor in poor groups, observed at high resolution with the ROSAT HRI . Inall cases, the stronger X-ray source is associated with the brighterearly-type member and is extended. The extent varies from galactic togroup scale, from 3 (RR 210b) to 182 kpc( RR 22a). The fainter membersare detected only in two pairs, RR 210 and RR 259. Except for one case,no significant substructures have been detected in the X-ray maps,possibly also as a consequence of the poor statistics. The core radii ofthe X-ray surface brightness profiles are in the range 1-3 kpc. Thedistribution of the luminosities of galaxies in pairs encompasses a verywide range of both luminosities and LX / LBratios, in spite of the very small number of objects studied so far. Ourdata provide no evidence that pair membership affects the X-rayproperties of galaxies. Observation are discussed in the context of thepair/group evolution.

Face-on Dust Disks in Galaxies with Optical Jets
The presence of optical synchrotron jets in radio galaxies is relativelyrare. Here we show that of the nearest five FR I 3CR radio galaxiesshowing optical jets, four show evidence for almost circular, presumablyface-on, dust disks. This is strong support for the twofold idea that(1) jets emerge close to perpendicular to inner gas disks and (2)optical nonthermal synchrotron emission is seen only when the jet pointstoward the observer. The implied critical angle to the line of sight isapproximately 30deg-40deg i.e., if the angle ofthe jet to the line of sight is less than about 40deg we seean optical jet. The corresponding relativistic γ factor is ~1.5,which is consistent with current observations of jet proper motion thatshow a range up to γ~6 for M87. The relatively low speeds impliedby γ~1.5 may be due to a global deceleration of the jet as inunified theories or else to stratification within the jet. Unresolvednuclei are common in the optical. Their luminosities are also consistentwith the beaming concept when compared to inclination inferred from thedust lanes. The disk sizes are typically several hundred parsecs tokiloparsec size. The galaxy with an optical jet that does not show aface-on disk, M87, instead has more complex radial dust and ionized gasfilaments. Based on observations obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Interstellar Gas in the NGC 4410 Galaxy Group
We present new radio continuum, 21 cm H I, and 2.6 mm CO data for thepeculiar radio galaxy NGC 4410A and its companion NGC 4410B and comparewith available optical and X-ray maps. Our radio continuum maps show anasymmetric double-lobed structure, with a high surface brightness lobeextending 3.6′ (~100 kpc) to the southeast and a 6.2′(~180 kpc) low surface brightness feature in the northwest. Moleculargas is abundant in NGC 4410A, withMH2~4×109 Msolar(using the standard Galactic conversion factor) but is undetected in NGC4410B. H I is less abundant, with MHI~109Msolar for the pair. Our H I map shows a3×108 Msolar H I tail extending 1.7′(50 kpc) to the southeast of the pair, coincident with a faint opticaltail and partially overlapping with the southeastern radio lobe. The H Itail is anticoincident with a 2' (56 kpc) long X-ray structure alignedwith a stellar bridge that connects the pair to a third galaxy. If thisX-ray emission is associated with the group, we infer(3-8)×108 Msolar of hot gas in this feature.This may be either intracluster gas or shocked gas associated with thebridge. Our detection of abundant interstellar gas in this pair,including an H I-rich tidal tail near the southeastern radio lobe,suggests that the observed distortions in this lobe may have been causedby the interstellar medium in this system. The gravitational interactionof the two galaxies and the subsequent motion of the interstellar mediumin the system relative to the jet may have produced sufficient rampressure to bend and distort the radio jet. An alternative hypothesis isthat the jet was distorted by ram pressure due to an intraclustermedium, although the small radial velocity of NGC 4410A relative to thegroup and the lack of diffuse X-ray emission in the group makes thisless likely unless the group is not virialized or is in the process ofmerging with another group. Using our VLA data, we also searched for H Icounterparts to the other 10 known members of the NGC 4410 group and COfrom three other galaxies in the inner group. In our velocity range of6690-7850 km s-1, we detected six other galaxies above our HI sensitivity limits of 2×108 Msolar for theinner group and 4×108 Msolar for the outergroup. The total H I in the group is 1.4×1010Msolar, 80% of which arises from four galaxies in the outergroup. Three of these galaxies (VCC 822, VCC 831, and VCC 847) arespirals with MHI/LB ratios typical of fieldgalaxies, while FGC 170A appears to be a gas-rich dwarf galaxy(MB~-18, MHI~3×109Msolar). In the inner group, the SBa galaxy NGC 4410D (VCC934) was detected in H I and CO (MHI~5×108Msolar and MH2~8×108Msolar) and has a 1' (28 kpc) long H I tail that pointstoward the nearby disk galaxy NGC 4410F. NGC 4410F was also detected inH I (MHI~4×108 Msolar). Thegalaxies in the inner group appear to be somewhat deficient in H Icompared to their blue luminosities, suggesting phase changes driven bygalaxy-galaxy or galaxy-intracluster medium encounters.

Emission-Line Properties of 3CR Radio Galaxies. III. Origins and Implications of the Velocity Fields
We present the results of an analysis of the large-scale velocity fieldsof the ionized gas associated with powerful radio galaxies. Long-slitspectra of 52 objects provide a sample of resolved velocities that spana wide range of redshifts and radio and emission-line luminosities. Linewidths reaching 1000 km s-1 and resolved velocity fields withamplitudes of up 1500 km s-1 are found on scales from 10 to100 kpc in the environments of radio galaxies at redshifts greater than0.5. The global velocities and FWHM are of comparable amplitudes in theFR II sources, while the FR I sources have FWHM values that are largerthan their resolved velocity fields. We find evidence for systematicallylarger line widths and velocity field amplitudes at z>0.6. Several ofthe largest amplitude systems contain two galaxies with small projectedseparations. All of the greater than 1000 km s-1 systemsoccur in objects at z>0.6 and all have comparable radio and [O II]sizes. There is a weak correlation of off-nuclear line widths andvelocity field with the ratio of the radio and emission-line sizes, butit is of low statistical significance and there is a very largedispersion. The change in properties at redshifts above z~0.6 couldreflect a difference in environments of the host galaxies, with thehosts inhabiting higher density regions with increasing redshift (e.g.,Hill & Lilly). The mass of ionized gas and the apparent encloseddynamical mass are correlated and both increase steeply with redshiftand/or radio power. The origin of the velocities remains uncertain. Thedata do not require jet-gas interactions to explain the kinematics andsuperficially are slightly more consistent with gravitational originsfor the bulk of the kinematics. If the line width reflects theunderlying gravitational potential, the observed FWHM traces thevelocity dispersion of the host galaxy or its surrounding group orcluster. The highest velocities seen then point to interestingenvironments for intermediate- and high-redshift radio galaxies.Turbulent interactions with the expanding radio source as the origin ofthe kinematics are certainly not ruled out. In the jet interactionscenario, the maximum velocities seen in the nebula can be used toconstrain the density of the preshock gas to be roughlyne>0.6 cm-3.

A Test for Large-Scale Systematic Errors in Maps of Galactic Reddening
Accurate maps of Galactic reddening are important for a number ofapplications, such as mapping the peculiar velocity field in the nearbyuniverse. Of particular concern are systematic errors which vary slowlyas a function of position on the sky, as these would induce spuriousbulk flow. We have compared the reddenings of Burstein & Heiles (BH)and those of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (SFD) to independentestimates of the reddening, for Galactic latitudes |b|>10^deg. Ourprimary source of Galactic reddening estimates comes from comparing thedifference between the observed B-V colors of early-type galaxies, andthe predicted B-V color determined from the B-V-Mg_2 relation. We havefitted a dipole to the residuals in order to look for large-scalesystematic deviations. There is marginal evidence for a dipolar residualin the comparison between the SFD maps and the observed early-typegalaxy reddenings. If this is due to an error in the SFD maps, then itcan be corrected with a small (13%) multiplicative dipole term. Weargue, however, that this difference is more likely to be due to a small(0.01 mag) systematic error in the measured B-V colors of the early-typegalaxies. This interpretation is supported by a smaller, independentdata set (globular cluster and RR Lyrae stars), which yields a resultinconsistent with the early-type galaxy residual dipole. BH reddeningsare found to have no significant systematic residuals, apart from theknown problem in the region 230^deg

Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey of 3CR Radio Source Counterparts. III. Radio Galaxies with z<0.1
We present and describe optical counterparts to 46 3CR radio galaxies ofredshifts less than 0.1 that were imaged with the Hubble SpaceTelescope's (HST) WFPC2 camera through the broadband F702W filter aspart of the 3CR Snapshot Survey. This is the fifth and last such paperdescribing the 252 radio galaxies of this R-band survey. At the 0.1"resolution of the images, a wealth of detail is visible. Approximately89% of the galaxies are ellipticals, and nearly all reside in groups orclusters of galaxies of various richness and compactness. Nearbyelliptical companions of slightly smaller size and mass are common. Dustis prevalent in the cores of the 3C hosts; nearly half of the galaxiespossess some type of dust structure, such as irregular dust lanes,filaments, or disks. Besides the well-known dust disks of 3C 264 and 3C270, we have found five new candidates in 3C 31, 3C 40, 3C 296, 3C 449,and 3C 465, as well as in the central regions of the nearby neighbors of3C 31 and 3C 465. Our sample includes six confirmed optical synchrotronjets in 3C 15, 3C 66B, 3C 78, 3C 264, 3C 274, and 3C 371, orapproximately 13% of the sample. Unresolved nuclei, consistent with thepoint spread function of WFPC2, are found in 43%-54% of the galaxies andin the majority of galaxies with dust disks and optical jets.

The Dynamics of Poor Systems of Galaxies
We assemble and observe a sample of poor galaxy systems that is suitablefor testing N-body simulations of hierarchical clustering and otherdynamical halo models. We (1) determine the parameters of the densityprofile rho(r) and the velocity dispersion profile sigma_p(R), (2)separate emission-line galaxies from absorption-line galaxies, examiningthe model parameters and as a function of spectroscopic type, and (3)for the best-behaved subsample, constrain the velocity anisotropyparameter, beta, which determines the shapes of the galaxy orbits. Oursample consists of 20 systems, 12 of which have extended X-ray emissionin the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We measure the 877 optical spectra ofgalaxies brighter than m_R~15.4 within 1.5 h^-1 Mpc of the systemcenters (we take H_0=100 h km s^-1 Mpc^-1). Thus, we sample the systemmembership to a radius typically three times larger than other recentoptical group surveys. The average system population is 30 galaxies, andthe average line-of-sight velocity dispersion is ~300 km s^-1. TheNavarro, Frenk, & White universal profile and the Hernquist modelboth provide good descriptions of the spatial data. In most cases anisothermal sphere is ruled out. Systems with declining sigma_p(R) arewell-matched by theoretical profiles in which the star-forming galaxieshave predominantly radial orbits (beta>0) many of these galaxies areprobably falling in for the first time. There is significant evidencefor spatial segregation of the spectroscopic classes regardless ofsigma_p(R).

An X-Ray Survey of Galaxies in Pairs
Results are reported from the first survey of X-ray emission fromgalaxies in pairs. The sample consists of 52 pairs of galaxies from theCatalog of Paired Galaxies whose coordinates overlap the ROSAT PositionSensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations. The mean observedlogl_X for early-type pairs is 41.35+/-0.21, while the mean logl_Xpredicted using the l_X-l_b relationship for isolated early-typegalaxies is 42.10+/-0.19. With 95% confidence, the galaxies in pairs areunderluminous in the X-ray, compared with isolated galaxies, for thesame l_b. A significant fraction of the mixed pair sample also appearssimilarly underluminous. A spatial analysis shows that the X-rayemission from pairs of both types typically has an extent of ~10-50 kpc,much smaller than the group intergalactic medium, and thus likelyoriginates from the galaxies. CPG 564, the most X-ray luminousearly-type pair, 4.7x10^42 ergs s^-1, is an exception. The extent of itsX-ray emission, greater than 169 kpc, and HWHM, ~80 kpc, is comparableto that expected from an intergalactic medium. The sample shows only aweak correlation, ~81% confidence, between l_X and l_b, presumably dueto variations in gas content within the galaxies. No correlation betweenl_X and the pair velocity difference (Deltav), separation (Deltar), orfar-infrared luminosity (l_fir) is found, although the detection rate islow, 22%.

Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxy Morphology
This review addresses one of the important topics of currentastrophysical research, namely the role that supermassive black holesplay in shaping the morphology of their host galaxies. There isincreasing evidence for the presence of massive black holes at thecenters of all galaxies and many efforts are directed at understandingthe processes that lead to their formation, the duty cycle for theactive phase and the question of the fueling mechanism. Related issuesare the epoch of formation of the supermassive black holes, their timeevolution and growth and the role they play in the early ionization ofthe Universe. Considerable observational and theoretical work has beencarried out in this field over the last few years and I will review someof the recent key areas of progress.

The HST view of FR I radio galaxies: evidence for non-thermal nuclear sources
Unresolved nuclear sources are detected by the Hubble Space Telescope inthe great majority of a complete sample of 33 FR I radio galaxiesbelonging to the 3CR catalogue. The optical flux of these CentralCompact Cores (CCC) shows a striking linear correlation with the radiocore one over four decades, arguing for a non-thermal synchrotron originof the CCC radiation. We also find evidence that this emission isanisotropic, which leads us to identify CCCs with the misorientedrelativistic jet component which dominates in BL Lac objects. Thisinterpretation is also supported by the similarity in theradio-to-optical and optical spectral indices. The high rate of CCCdetection (85%) suggests that a ``standard'' pc scale, geometricallythick torus is not present in low luminosity radio-galaxies. Thus thelack of broad lines in FR I cannot be attributed to obscuration. CCCfluxes also represent upper limits to any thermal/disc emission. For a10(9) M_ȯ black hole, typical of FR I sources, these limitstranslate into a fraction as small as <~ 10^{-7}-10^{-5} of theEddington luminosity. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA HubbleSpace Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 and bySTScI grant GO-3594.01-91A

Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. I. The Survey and Some Representative Results
This paper introduces a continuing survey of galaxies in the localuniverse. Consistent deep images are being acquired for a representativesample of 321 galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue down to 21.7 magarcsec-2 at Ks (2.16 mu m) and 22.4 mag arcsec-2 at J (1.25 mu m) usinga NICMOS camera with a 3.'8 x 3.'8 field of view attached to the 61 inch(1.5 m) telescope on Mount Bigelow. We provide some examples of theresults being obtained by employing 64 deep images of a subset of 44galaxies. Bulge-to-disk ratios are tabulated for 30 galaxies. Thebrightness of the central region of 44 galaxies declines approximately 5mag from Hubble type S0 to Sm. An exponential vertical scale height atKs is found to be 500 pc for the disk of UGC 5173. Arm amplitudes offour nearly face-on spiral galaxies are found to range between 11% and88% compared to the interarm region. There is some evidence that the armamplitude is larger at Ks than it is at J. Color gradients are measuredfor 15 galaxies with only one showing a significant nonzero result. Ameasurement of galactic symmetry applied to 64 deep images reveals anaverage asymmetry of 7.6% ( sigma = 4.6%) for these galaxies.

The Complex Core of Abell 2199: The X-Ray and Radio Interaction
The cluster Abell 2199 is one of the prototypical "cooling flow"clusters. Its central cD galaxy is host to a steep spectrum radio sourceof the type associated with cooling cores. In this paper, we combineradio data with new ROSAT HRI data to show that conditions in its innercore, <~50 kpc, are complex and interesting. Energy and momentum fluxfrom the radio jet have been significant in the dynamics of the gas inthe core. In addition, the Faraday data detects a dynamically importantmagnetic field there. The core of the X-ray luminous gas is not asimple, spherically symmetric cooling inflow. In addition, we believethe X-ray gas has had strong effects on the radio source. It seems tohave disrupted the jet flow, which has led to a dynamical history verydifferent from the usual radio galaxy. This particular source is muchyounger than the galaxy, which suggests the disruptive effects lead toan on-off duty cycle for such sources.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:22h14m45.00s
Aparent dimensions:1.318′ × 0.851′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 7236

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