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Kinematic Decoupling of Globular Clusters with the Extended Horizontal Branch
About 25% of the Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) exhibit unusuallyextended color distribution of stars in the core helium-burninghorizontal-branch (HB) phase. This phenomenon is now best understood asdue to the presence of helium-enhanced second-generation subpopulations,which has raised the possibility that these peculiar GCs might have aunique origin. Here we show that these GCs with extended HB are clearlydistinct from other normal GCs in kinematics and mass. The GCs withextended HB are more massive than normal GCs and are dominated by randommotion with no correlation between kinematics and metallicity.Surprisingly, however, when they are excluded, most normal GCs in theinner halo show clear signs of dissipational collapse that apparentlyled to the formation of the disk. Normal GCs in the outer halo sharetheir kinematic properties with the extended HB GCs, which is consistentwith the accretion origin. Our result further suggests heterogeneousorigins of GCs, and we anticipate this to be a starting point for moredetailed investigations of Milky Way formation, including early mergers,collapse, and later accretion.

Where the Blue Stragglers Roam: Searching for a Link between Formation and Environment
The formation of blue stragglers is still not completely understood,particularly the relationship between formation environment andmechanism. We use a large, homogeneous sample of blue stragglers in thecores of 57 globular clusters to investigate the relationships betweenblue straggler populations and their environments. We use a consistentdefinition of ``blue straggler'' based on position in thecolor-magnitude diagram and normalize the population relative to thenumber of red giant branch stars in the core. We find that thepreviously determined anticorrelation between blue straggler frequencyand total cluster mass is present in the purely core population. We findsome weak anticorrelations with central velocity dispersion and withhalf-mass relaxation time. The blue straggler frequency does not showany trend with any other cluster parameter. Even though collisions maybe expected to be a dominant blue straggler formation process inglobular cluster cores, we find no correlation between the frequency ofblue stragglers and the collision rate in the core. We also investigatedthe blue straggler luminosity function shape and found no relationshipbetween any cluster parameter and the distribution of blue stragglers inthe color-magnitude diagram. Our results are inconsistent with somerecent models of blue straggler formation that include collisionalformation mechanisms and may suggest that almost all observed bluestragglers are formed in binary systems.

The ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. I. Overview and Clusters without Previous Hubble Space Telescope Photometry
We present the first results of a large Advanced Camera for Surveys(ACS) survey of Galactic globular clusters. This Hubble Space Telescope(HST) Treasury project is designed to obtain photometry with S/N(signal-to-noise ratio) >~10 for main-sequence stars with masses>~0.2 Msolar in a sample of globulars using the ACS WideField Channel. Here we focus on clusters without previous HST imagingdata. These include NGC 5466, NGC 6779, NGC 5053, NGC 6144, Palomar 2,E3, Lyngå 7, Palomar 1, and NGC 6366. Our color-magnitude diagrams(CMDs) extend reliably from the horizontal branch to as much as 7 magfainter than the main-sequence turnoff and represent the deepest CMDspublished to date for these clusters. Using fiducial sequences for threestandard clusters (M92, NGC 6752, and 47 Tuc) with well-knownmetallicities and distances, we perform main-sequence fitting on thetarget clusters in order to obtain estimates of their distances andreddenings. These comparisons, along with fitting the cluster mainsequences to theoretical isochrones, yield ages for the target clusters.We find that the majority of the clusters have ages that are consistentwith the standard clusters at their metallicities. The exceptions areE3, which appears ~2 Gyr younger than 47 Tuc, and Pal 1, which could beas much as 8 Gyr younger than 47 Tuc.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated byAURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555, under program GO-10775 (PI:A. Sarajedini).

Integrated colours of Milky Way globular clusters and horizontal branch morphology
Broadband colours are often used as metallicity proxies in the study ofextragalactic globular clusters. A common concern is the effect ofvariations in horizontal branch (HB) morphology - the second-parametereffect - on such colours. We have used U BV I, Washington, and DDOphotometry for a compilation of over 80 Milky Way globular clusters toaddress this question. Our method is to fit linear relations betweencolour and [Fe/H], and study the correlations between the residualsabout these fits and two quantitative measures of HB morphology. Whilethere is a significant HB effect seen in U-B, for the commonly usedcolours B-V, V-I, and C-T_1, the deviations from the baselinecolour-[Fe/H] relations are less strongly related to HB morphology.There may be weak signatures in B-V and C-T_1, but these are at thelimit of observational uncertainties. The results may favour the use ofB-I in studies of extragalactic globular clusters, especially when itshigh [Fe/H]-sensitivity is considered.

New catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters
We present a catalogue of blue-straggler candidates in galactic openclusters. It is based on the inspection of the colour-magnitude diagramsof the clusters, and it updates and supersedesthe first version(Ahumada & Lapasset 1995). A new bibliographical search was made foreach cluster, and the resulting information is organised into twotables. Some methodological aspects have been revised, in particularthose concerning the delimitation of the area in the diagrams where thestragglers are selected.A total of 1887 blue-straggler candidates have been found in 427 openclusters of all ages, doubling the original number. The catalogued starsare classified into two categories mainly according to membershipinformation.The whole catalogue (Tables 8, 9, notes, and references) is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/463/789

Integrated-Light Two Micron All Sky Survey Infrared Photometry of Galactic Globular Clusters
We have mosaicked Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) images to derivesurface brightness profiles in J, H, and Ks for 104 Galacticglobular clusters. We fit these with King profiles and show that thecore radii are identical to within the errors for each of these IRcolors and are identical to the core radii at V in essentially allcases. We derive integrated-light colors V-J, V-H, V-Ks, J-H,and J-Ks for these globular clusters. Each color shows areasonably tight relation between the dereddened colors and metallicity.Fits to these are given for each color. The IR - IR colors have verysmall errors, due largely to the all-sky photometric calibration of the2MASS survey, while the V-IR colors have substantially largeruncertainties. We find fairly good agreement with measurements ofintegrated-light colors for a smaller sample of Galactic globularclusters by M. Aaronson, M. Malkan, and D. Kleinmann from 1977. Ourresults provide a calibration for the integrated light of distantsingle-burst old stellar populations from very low to solarmetallicities. A comparison of our dereddened measured colors withpredictions from several models of the integrated light of single-burstold populations shows good agreement in the low-metallicity domain forV-Ks colors but also shows an offset at a fixed [Fe/H] of~0.1 mag in J-Ks, which we ascribe to photometric systemtransformation issues. Some of the models fail to reproduce the behaviorof the integrated-light colors of the Galactic globular clusters nearsolar metallicity.

Multivariate analysis of globular cluster horizontal branch morphology: searching for the second parameter
Aims.The interpretation of globular cluster horizontal branch (HB)morphology is a classical problem that can significantly blur ourunderstanding of stellar populations. Methods: .We present a newmultivariate analysis connecting the effective temperature extent of theHB with other cluster parameters. The work is based on Hubble SpaceTelescope photometry of 54 Galactic globular clusters. Results: .The present study reveals the important role of the total mass of theglobular cluster on its HB morphology. More massive clusters tend tohave HBs more extended to higher temperatures. For a set of three inputvariables including the temperature extension of the HB, [Fe/H] and M_V,the first two eigenvectors account for 90% of the total samplevariance. Conclusions: . Possible effects of clusterself-pollution on HB morphology, stronger in more massive clusters,could explain the results derived here.

Globular cluster system and Milky Way properties revisited
Aims.Updated data of the 153 Galactic globular clusters are used toreaddress fundamental parameters of the Milky Way, such as the distanceof the Sun to the Galactic centre, the bulge and halo structuralparameters, and cluster destruction rates. Methods: .We build areduced sample that has been decontaminated of all the clusters youngerthan 10 Gyr and of those with retrograde orbits and/or evidence ofrelation to dwarf galaxies. The reduced sample contains 116 globularclusters that are tested for whether they were formed in the primordialcollapse. Results: .The 33 metal-rich globular clusters([Fe/H]≥-0.75) of the reduced sample basically extend to the Solarcircle and are distributed over a region with the projected axial-ratiostypical of an oblate spheroidal, Δ x:Δ y:Δz≈1.0:0.9:0.4. Those outside this region appear to be related toaccretion. The 81 metal-poor globular clusters span a nearly sphericalregion of axial-ratios ≈1.0:1.0:0.8 extending from the central partsto the outer halo, although several clusters in the external regionstill require detailed studies to unravel their origin as accretion orcollapse. A new estimate of the Sun's distance to the Galactic centre,based on the symmetries of the spatial distribution of 116 globularclusters, is provided with a considerably smaller uncertainty than inprevious determinations using globular clusters, R_O=7.2±0.3 kpc.The metal-rich and metal-poor radial-density distributions flatten forR_GC≤2 kpc and are represented well over the full Galactocentricdistance range both by a power-law with a core-like term andSérsic's law; at large distances they fall off as ˜R-3.9. Conclusions: .Both metallicity components appearto have a common origin that is different from that of the dark matterhalo. Structural similarities between the metal-rich and metal-poorradial distributions and the stellar halo are consistent with a scenariowhere part of the reduced sample was formed in the primordial collapseand part was accreted in an early period of merging. This applies to thebulge as well, suggesting an early merger affecting the central parts ofthe Galaxy. The present decontamination procedure is not sensitive toall accretions (especially prograde) during the first Gyr, since theobserved radial density profiles still preserve traces of the earliestmerger(s). We estimate that the present globular cluster populationcorresponds to ≤23±6% of the original one. The fact that thevolume-density radial distributions of the metal-rich and metal-poorglobular clusters of the reduced sample follow both a core-likepower-law, and Sérsic's law indicates that we are dealing withspheroidal subsystems at all scales.

Nearby Spiral Globular Cluster Systems. I. Luminosity Functions
We compare the near-infrared (JHK) globular cluster luminosity functions(GCLFs) of the Milky Way, M31, and the Sculptor Group spiral galaxies.We obtained near-infrared photometry with the Persson's AuxiliaryNasmyth Infrared Camera on the Baade Telescope for 38 objects (mostlyglobular cluster candidates) in the Sculptor Group. We also havenear-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)-6Xdatabase for 360 M31 globular cluster candidates and aperture photometryfor 96 Milky Way globular cluster candidates from the 2MASS All-Sky andSecond Incremental Release databases. The M31 6X GCLFs peak at absolutereddening-corrected magnitudes of MJ0=-9.18,MH0=-9.73, and MK0=-9.98.The mean brightness of the Milky Way objects is consistent with that ofM31 after accounting for incompleteness. The average Sculptor absolutemagnitudes (correcting for relative distance from the literature andforeground reddening) are MJ0=-9.18,MH0=-9.70, and MK0=-9.80.NGC 300 alone has absolute foreground-dereddened magnitudesMJ0=-8.87, MH0=-9.39, andMK0=-9.46 using the newest Gieren et al. distance.This implies either that the NGC 300 GCLF may be intrinsically fainterthan that of the larger galaxy M31 or that NGC 300 may be slightlyfarther away than previously thought. Straightforward application of ourM31 GCLF results as a calibrator gives NGC 300 distance moduli of26.68+/-0.14 using J, 26.71+/-0.14 using H, and 26.89+/-0.14 using K.Data for this project were obtained at the Baade 6.5 m telescope, LasCampanas Observatory, Chile.

RR Lyrae-based calibration of the Globular Cluster Luminosity Function
We test whether the peak absolute magnitude MV(TO) of theGlobular Cluster Luminosity Function (GCLF) can be used for reliableextragalactic distance determination. Starting with the luminosityfunction of the Galactic Globular Clusters listed in Harris catalogue,we determine MV(TO) either using current calibrations of theabsolute magnitude MV(RR) of RR Lyrae stars as a function ofthe cluster metal content [Fe/H] and adopting selected cluster samples.We show that the peak magnitude is slightly affected by the adoptedMV(RR)-[Fe/H] relation, with the exception of that based onthe revised Baade-Wesselink method, while it depends on the criteria toselect the cluster sample. Moreover, grouping the Galactic GlobularClusters by metallicity, we find that the metal-poor (MP) ([Fe/H]<-1.0, <[Fe/H]>~-1.6) sample shows peak magnitudes systematicallybrighter by about 0.36mag than those of the metal-rich (MR) ([Fe/H]>-1.0, (<[Fe/H]>~-0.6) one, in substantial agreement with thetheoretical metallicity effect suggested by synthetic Globular Clusterpopulations with constant age and mass function. Moving outside theMilky Way, we show that the peak magnitude of the MP clusters in M31appears to be consistent with that of Galactic clusters with similarmetallicity, once the same MV(RR)-[Fe/H] relation is used fordistance determination. As for the GCLFs in other external galaxies,using Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) measurements we giveevidence that the luminosity functions of the blue (MP) GlobularClusters peak at the same luminosity within ~0.2mag, whereas for the red(MR) samples the agreement is within ~0.5mag even accounting for thetheoretical metallicity correction expected for clusters with similarages and mass distributions. Then, using the SBF absolute magnitudesprovided by a Cepheid distance scale calibrated on a fiducial distanceto Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we show that the MV(TO)value of the MP clusters in external galaxies is in excellent agreementwith the value of both Galactic and M31 ones, as inferred by an RR Lyraedistance scale referenced to the same LMC fiducial distance. Eventually,adopting μ0(LMC) = 18.50mag, we derive that the luminosityfunction of MP clusters in the Milky Way, M31, and external galaxiespeak at MV(TO) =-7.66 +/- 0.11, - 7.65 +/- 0.19 and -7.67 +/-0.23mag, respectively. This would suggest a value of -7.66 +/- 0.09mag(weighted mean), with any modification of the LMC distance modulusproducing a similar variation of the GCLF peak luminosity.

Resolved Massive Star Clusters in the Milky Way and Its Satellites: Brightness Profiles and a Catalog of Fundamental Parameters
We present a database of structural and dynamical properties for 153spatially resolved star clusters in the Milky Way, the Large and SmallMagellanic Clouds, and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal. This databasecomplements and extends others in the literature, such as those ofHarris and Mackey & Gilmore. Our cluster sample comprises 50 ``youngmassive clusters'' in the LMC and SMC, and 103 old globular clustersbetween the four galaxies. The parameters we list include central andhalf-light-averaged surface brightnesses and mass densities; core andeffective radii; central potentials, concentration parameters, and tidalradii; predicted central velocity dispersions and escape velocities;total luminosities, masses, and binding energies; central phase-spacedensities; half-mass relaxation times; and ``κ-space'' parameters.We use publicly available population-synthesis models to computestellar-population properties (intrinsic B-V colors, reddenings, andV-band mass-to-light ratios) for the same 153 clusters plus another 63globulars in the Milky Way. We also take velocity-dispersionmeasurements from the literature for a subset of 57 (mostly old)clusters to derive dynamical mass-to-light ratios for them, showing thatthese compare very well to the population-synthesis predictions. Thecombined data set is intended to serve as the basis for futureinvestigations of structural correlations and the fundamental plane ofmassive star clusters, including especially comparisons between thesystemic properties of young and old clusters.The structural and dynamical parameters are derived from fitting threedifferent models-the modified isothermal sphere of King; an alternatemodified isothermal sphere based on the ad hoc stellar distributionfunction of Wilson; and asymptotic power-law models withconstant-density cores-to the surface-brightness profile of eachcluster. Surface-brightness data for the LMC, SMC, and Fornax clustersare based in large part on the work of Mackey & Gilmore, but includesignificant supplementary data culled from the literature and importantcorrections to Mackey & Gilmore's V-band magnitude scale. Theprofiles of Galactic globular clusters are taken from Trager et al. Weaddress the question of which model fits each cluster best, finding inthe majority of cases that the Wilson models-which are spatially moreextended than King models but still include a finite, ``tidal'' cutoffin density-fit clusters of any age, in any galaxy, as well as or betterthan King models. Untruncated, asymptotic power laws often fit about aswell as Wilson models but can be significantly worse. We argue that theextended halos known to characterize many Magellanic Cloud clusters maybe examples of the generic envelope structure of self-gravitating starclusters, not just transient features associated strictly with youngage.

The Century Survey Galactic Halo Project. II. Global Properties and the Luminosity Function of Field Blue Horizontal Branch Stars
We discuss a 175 deg2 spectroscopic survey for bluehorizontal branch (BHB) stars in the Galactic halo. We use the TwoMicron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) toselect BHB candidates, and we find that the 2MASS and SDSS colorselection is 38% and 50% efficient, respectively, for BHB stars. Oursamples include one likely runaway B7 star 6 kpc below the Galacticplane. The global properties of the BHB samples are consistent withmembership in the halo population: the median metallicity is[Fe/H]=-1.7, the velocity dispersion is 108 km s-1, and themean Galactic rotation of the BHB stars 3 kpc<|z|<15 kpc is-4+/-30 km s-1. We discuss the theoretical basis of thePreston, Shectman, and Beers MV-color relation for BHB starsand conclude that the intrinsic shape of the BHB MV-colorrelation results from the physics of stars on the horizontal branch. Wecalculate the luminosity function for the field BHB star samples usingthe maximum likelihood method of Efstathiou and coworkers, which isunbiased by density variations. The field BHB luminosity functionexhibits a steep rise at bright luminosities, a peak between0.8

Helium self-enrichment in globular clusters and the second parameter problem in M 3 and M 13
Inspection of the CM diagrams of globular clusters having similar heavyelement content shows that the luminosity of the red giant bump relativeto the turnoff (Δ V_TO^bump) differs by more than 0.1 mag betweenclusters with different horizontal branch morphology. Unfortunately,careful consideration of the data leaves us with only one pair (M 3 andM 13) of clusters suitable for a quantitative discussion. For this pairwe consider differences in age and helium content as possible causes forthe difference in Δ V_TO^bump, and find more convincing supportfor the latter. A larger helium content in M 13 stars (Y ˜ 0.28 vs.Y ˜ 0.24) accounts for various CM diagram features, such as thedifference in the luminosity level of RR Lyr variables and of the redgiant bump with respect to the turnoff luminosity and the horizontalbranch morphology. This enhanced helium can be tentatively understood inthe framework of self-enrichment by massive asymptotic giant branchstars in the first ~100 Myr of the cluster life. A modestself-enrichment can be present also in M 3 and can be the reason for thestill unexplained presence of a not negligible number of luminous,Oosterhoff II type RR Lyr variables. The hypothesis that a larger heliumcontent is the second parameter for clusters with very blue horizontalbranch morphology could be checked by an accurate set of data for moreclusters giving turnoff, RR Lyrs and bump magnitudes within a uniquephotometry.

Far-Ultraviolet Observations of the Globular Cluster NGC 2808 Revisited: Blue Stragglers, White Dwarfs, and Cataclysmic Variables
We present a reanalysis of far-ultraviolet (FUV) observations of theglobular cluster NGC 2808 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope.These data were first analyzed by Brown and coworkers, with an emphasison the bright, blue horizontal-branch (HB) stars in this cluster. Here,our focus is on the population of fainter FUV sources, which includewhite dwarfs (WDs), blue stragglers (BSs), and cataclysmic variables(CVs). We have therefore constructed the deepest FUV-NUV color-magnitudediagram of NGC 2808 and searched for variability among our FUV sources.Overall, we have found ~40 WD, ~60 BS, and ~60 CV candidates; three ofthe BSs and two of the CV candidates are variable. We have alsorecovered a known RR Lyrae star in the core of NGC 2808, which exhibitsmassive (~4 mag) FUV variability. We have investigated the radialdistribution and found that our CV and BS candidates are more centrallyconcentrated than the HB stars and WD candidates. This might be aneffect of mass segregation but could as well be due to the preferentialformation of such dynamically formed objects in the dense cluster core.For one of our CV candidates we found a counterpart in WFPC2 opticaldata published by Piotto and coworkers.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc.,under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Age and Metallicity Estimation of Globular Clusters from Strömgren Photometry
We present a new technique for the determination of age and metallicityin composite stellar populations using Strömgren filters. Usingprincipal component (PC) analysis on multicolor models, we isolate therange of values necessary to uniquely determine age and metallicityeffects. The technique presented here can only be applied to old(τ>3 Gyr) stellar systems composed of simple stellar populations,such as globular clusters and elliptical galaxies. Calibration using newphotometry of 40 globular clusters with spectroscopic [Fe/H] values andmain-sequence-fitted ages links the PC values to the Strömgrencolors, for an accuracy of 0.2 dex in metallicity and 0.5 Gyr in age.

The structure of our stellar system.
Not Available

Comparing the properties of local globular cluster systems: implications for the formation of the Galactic halo
We investigate the hypothesis that some fraction of the globularclusters presently observed in the Galactic halo formed in externaldwarf galaxies. This is done by means of a detailed comparison betweenthe `old halo', `young halo' and `bulge/disc' subsystems defined by Zinnand the globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud, SmallMagellanic Cloud, and Fornax and Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxies.We first use high-quality photometry from Hubble Space Telescope imagesto derive a complete set of uniform measurements of horizontal branch(HB) morphology in the external clusters. We also compile structural andmetallicity measurements for these objects and update the data base ofsuch measurements for the Galactic globular clusters, including newcalculations of HB morphology for 11 objects. Using these data togetherwith recent measurements of globular cluster kinematics and ages weexamine the characteristics of the three Galactic cluster subsystems.Each is quite distinct in terms of their spatial and age distributions,age-metallicity relationships, and typical orbital parameters, althoughwe observe some old halo clusters with ages and orbits more similar tothose of young halo objects. In addition, almost all of the Galacticglobular clusters with large core radii fall into the young halosubsystem, while the old halo and bulge/disc ensembles are characterizedby compact clusters. We demonstrate that the majority of the externalglobular clusters are essentially indistinguishable from the Galacticyoung halo objects in terms of HB morphology, but ~20-30 per cent ofexternal clusters have HB morphologies most similar to the Galactic oldhalo clusters. We further show that the external clusters have adistribution of core radii which very closely matches that for the younghalo objects. The old halo distribution of core radii can be very wellrepresented by a composite distribution formed from ~83-85 per cent ofobjects with structures typical of bulge/disc clusters, and ~15-17 percent of objects with structures typical of external clusters. Takentogether our results fully support the accretion hypothesis. We concludethat all 30 young halo clusters and 15-17 per cent of the old haloclusters (10-12 objects) are of external origin. Based on cluster numbercounts, we estimate that the Galaxy may have experienced approximatelyseven merger events with cluster-bearing dwarf-spheroidal-type galaxiesduring its lifetime, building up ~45-50 per cent of the mass of theGalactic stellar halo. Finally, we identify a number of old halo objectswhich have properties characteristic of accreted clusters. Several ofthe clusters associated with the recently proposed dwarf galaxy in CanisMajor fall into this category.

Globular clusters and the formation of the outer Galactic halo
Globular clusters in the outer halo (Rgc > 15kpc) arefound to be systematically fainter than those at smaller Galactocentricdistances. Within the outer halo the compact clusters with half-lightradii Rh < 10pc are only found at Rgc <40kpc, while on the other hand the larger clusters with Rh> 10pc are encountered at all Galactocentric distances. Among thecompact clusters with Rh < 10pc that have Rgc> 15kpc, there are two objects with surprisingly high metallicities.One of these is Terzan 7, which is a companion of the Sagittarius dwarf.The other is Palomar 1. The data on these two objects suggests that theymight have had similar evolutionary histories. It is also noted that,with one exception, luminous globular clusters in the outer halo are allcompact whereas faint ones may have any radius. This also holds forglobular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud, Small Magellanic Cloudand Fornax dwarf. The lone exception is the large luminous globular NGC2419. Possibly this object is not a normal globular cluster, but thestripped core of a former dwarf spheroidal. In this respect it mayresemble ω Centauri.

The Early Evolution of Globular Clusters: The Case of NGC 2808
Enhancement and spread of helium among globular cluster stars have beenrecently suggested as a way to explain the horizontal-branch blue tailsin those clusters that show a primordial spread in the abundances of C,N, O, and other elements involved in advanced CNO burning. Heliumenhancement is unavoidable if the matter responsible for the abundancespreads is identified with the matter lost by massive asymptotic giantbranch stars, which evolve during the early phases of globular clusterlife, as we noted in 2002. In this paper we examine the implications ofthe hypothesis that, in many globular clusters, stars were born in twoseparate events: an initial burst (first generation), which gives originto probably all high- and intermediate-mass stars and to a fraction ofthe cluster stars observed today, and a second, prolonged star formationphase (second generation), in which stars form directly from the ejectaof the intermediate-mass stars of the first generation. In particular,we consider in detail the morphology of the horizontal branch in NGC2808 and argue that it unveils the early cluster evolution, from thebirth of the first star generation to the end of the second phase ofstar formation. This framework provides a feasible interpretation forthe still-unexplained dichotomy of the NGC 2808 horizontal branch,attributing the lack of stars in the RR Lyrae region to the gap in thehelium content between the red clump, whose stars are considered tobelong to the first stellar generation and have primordial helium, andthe blue side of the horizontal branch, whose minimum helium contentreflects the helium abundance in the smallest progenitor mass (~4Msolar) contributing to the second stellar generation. Thisscenario provides constraints on the required initial mass function, insuch a way that a great many remnant neutron stars and stellar massblack holes might have been produced.

The metal content of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6528
High resolution spectra of five stars in the bulge globular cluster NGC6528 were obtained at the 8m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVESspectrograph. Out of the five stars, two of them showed evidence ofbinarity. The target stars belong to the horizontal and red giant branchstages, at 4000 < Tefflt; 4800 K. Multiband V, I, J, H,Ks photometry was used to derive initial effectivetemperatures and gravities. The main purpose of this study is thedetermination of metallicity and elemental ratios for this templatebulge cluster, as a basis for the fundamental calibration of metal-richpopulations. The present analysis provides a metallicity [Fe/H] =-0.1±0.2 and the α-elements O, Mg and Si, show [α/Fe]≈ +0.1, whereas Ca and Ti are around the solar value or below,resulting in an overall metallicity Z ≈ Zȯ.Observations collected both at the European Southern Observatory,Paranal and La Silla, Chile (ESO programme 65.L-0340) and with theNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, operated by AURA Inc. under contract to NASA.Tables \ref{targets}, \ref{logobs}, \ref{tablines} and Fig. \ref{chart}are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

The initial helium abundance of the Galactic globular cluster system
In this paper we estimate the initial He content in about 30% of theGalactic globular clusters (GGCs) from new star counts we have performedon the recently published HST snapshot database of Colour MagnitudeDiagrams (Piotto et al. \cite{Piotto02}). More specifically, we use theso-called R-parameter and estimate the He content from a theoreticalcalibration based on a recently updated set of stellar evolution models.We performed an accurate statistical analysis in order to assess whetherGGCs show a statistically significant spread in their initial Heabundances, and whether there is a correlation with the clustermetallicity. As in previous works on the subject, we do not find anysignificant dependence of the He abundance on the cluster metallicity;this provides an important constraint for models of Galaxy formation andevolution. Apart from GGCs with the bluest Horizontal Branch morphology,the observed spread in the individual helium abundances is statisticallycompatible with the individual errors. This means that either there isno intrinsic abundance spread among the GGCs, or that this is masked bythe errors. In the latter case we have estimated a firm 1σ upperlimit of 0.019 to the possible intrinsic spread. In case of the GGCswith the bluest Horizontal Branch morphology we detect a significantspread towards higher abundances inconsistent with the individualerrors; this can be fully explained by additional effects not accountedfor in our theoretical calibrations, which do not affect the abundancesestimated for the clusters with redder Horizontal Branch morphology. Inthe hypothesis that the intrinsic dispersion on the individual Heabundances is zero, taking into account the errors on the individualR-parameter estimates, as well as the uncertainties on the clustermetallicity scale and theoretical calibration, we have determined aninitial He abundance mass fraction YGGC=0.250±0.006.This value is in perfect agreement with current estimates based onCosmic Microwave Background radiation analyses and cosmologicalnucleosynthesis computations.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA,Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and on observations retrieved withthe ESO ST-ECF Archive.

Integrated spectral energy distributions and absorption-feature indices of single stellar populations
Using evolutionary population synthesis, we present integrated spectralenergy distributions and absorption-line indices defined by the LickObservatory image dissector scanner (referred to as Lick/IDS) system,for an extensive set of instantaneous burst single stellar populations(SSPs). The ages of the SSPs are in the range 1 Gyr <=τ<= 19Gyr and the metallicities are in the range -2.3 <=[Fe/H]<=+0.2.Our models use the rapid single stellar evolution algorithm of Hurley,Pols and Tout for the stellar evolutionary tracks, the empirical andsemi-empirical calibrated BaSeL-2.0 model of Lejeune, Cuisinier andBuser for the library of stellar spectra and the empirical fittingfunctions of Worthey, Faber, Gonzalez and Burstein for the Lick/IDSspectral absorption-feature indices.Applying our synthetic Lick/IDS absorption-line indices to the meritfunction, we obtain the age and the metallicity of the central region ofM32, which can be well explained by an instantaneous SSP with an age of~6.5 Gyr and a metallicity similar to solar. Applying the derived ageand the metallicity from the merit function to a number of index-indexdiagrams, we find that the plots of Hβ-Fe5015 andHβ-Fe5782 are the best index-index diagrams from whichwe can directly obtain reasonable age and metallicity.

BVRI photometry of the galactic globular cluster NGC 6779
We present B, V, R and I photometry for NGC 6779 (M56), a metal-poorglobular cluster in the galactic halo. The observations were performedusing the 1.3-m telescope at Skinakas Observatory, in Crete. Thereddening of the cluster was found to be E(B-V) = 0.32 +/- 0.02 [E(V-I)= 0.43 +/- 0.02], significantly higher than previous estimates. Themetal abundance of the cluster was derived from various parametrizationsof red giant branch characteristics and it was found to be[Fe/H]ZW=-2.20 +/- 0.12 dex on the Zinn-West metallicityscale, or [Fe/H]CG=-2.00 +/- 0.21 dex on the Carretta-Grattonscale. The distance modulus of the cluster is estimated to be(m-M)V= 15.62 +/- 0.26 (or 14.62, if we correct for thereddening to the cluster). The horizontal branch of NGC 6779 shows aclear gap at (B-V)o= 0.0. Finally, the revised value for themetallicity of NGC 6779 led to a revision of its age to 13 Gyr, usingthe age-index calibrations of Salaris & Weiss.

The Milky Way Formation Timescale
Based on a new large, homogeneous photometric database of 69 Galacticglobular clusters extended out to 42 kpc from the galactic center, a setof distance and reddening free relative age indicators has beenmeasured: delta (V-I)@2.5 and Delta VHBTO. Using this two independent indicators andtwo recent updated libraries of isochrones we have found thatself-consistent relative ages can be estimated for our GGCs sample.The main results are: (a) most clusters and all with [Fe/h]<-1.2 areold and coeval; (b) there is no trend of the age with the Galactocentricdistance out to 25 kpc from the galactic center; (c) there is a mildindication (but still based on a limited number of clusters) thatclusters beyond 25kpc are slightly younger (d) there is noage-metallicity trend and (e) for more metal-rich clusters([Fe/h]>-1.2) there are indication of a larger age dispersion, of theorder of 10-15%.From these results, a tentative interpretation of the Milky Wayformation can be given. First, the GC formation process started at thesame zero age throughout the halo including the outer regions, out tothe current ˜ 42 kpc. The so-called disk globulars were formed ata later time (˜ 15% lower age). Finally, significantly youngerhalo GGCs are found at any distance out to RGC˜ 30 kpc.For these, a possible scenario associated with mergers of dwarf galaxiesto the Milky Way is suggested.

RR Lyrae variables in Galactic globular clusters. I. The observational scenario
In this paper we revisit observational data concerning RR Lyrae stars inGalactic globular clusters, presenting frequency histograms offundamentalized periods for the 32 clusters having more than 12pulsators with well recognized period and pulsation mode. One finds thatthe range of fundamentalized periods covered by the variables in a givencluster remains fairly constant in varying the cluster metallicity allover the metallicity range spanned by the cluster sample, with the onlytwo exceptions given by M 15 and NGC 6441. We conclude that the width intemperature of the RR Lyrae instability strip appears largelyindependent of the cluster metallicity. At the same time, it appearsthat the fundamentalized periods are not affected by the predictedvariation of pulsators luminosity with metal abundance, indicating theoccurrence of a correlated variation in the pulsator mass. We discussmean periods in a selected sample of statistically significant ``RRrich" clusters with no less than 10 RRab and 5 RRc variables. One findsa clear evidence for the well known Oosterhoff dichotomy in the meanperiod of ab-type variables, together with a similarlyclear evidence for a constancy of the mean fundamentalized period in passing from Oosterhoff type II to type I clusters. Onthis basis, the origin of the Oosterhoff dichotomy is discussed,presenting evidence against a strong dependence of the RR Lyraeluminosity on the metal content. On the contrary, i) the continuity ofthe mean fundamentalized period, ii) the period frequency histograms inthe two prototypes M 3 (type I) and M 15 (type II), iii) the relativeabundance of first overtone pulsators, and iv) the observed differencebetween mean fundamental and fundamentalized periods, all agree in suggesting the dominant occurrence of avariation in the pulsation mode in a middle region of the instabilitystrip (the ``OR" zone), where variables of Oosterhoff type I and type IIclusters are pulsating in the fundamental or first overtone mode,respectively.

The Red Giant Branch luminosity function bump
We present observational estimates of the magnitude difference betweenthe luminosity function red giant branch bump and the horizontal branch(Delta F555WbumpHB), and of star counts in thebump region (Rbump), for a sample of 54 Galactic globularclusters observed by the HST. The large sample of stars resolved in eachcluster, and the high photometric accuracy of the data allowed us todetect the bump also in a number of metal poor clusters. To reduce thephotometric uncertainties, empirical values are compared withtheoretical predictions obtained from a set of updated canonical stellarevolution models which have been transformed directly into the HSTflight system. We found an overall qualitative agreement between theoryand observations. Quantitative estimates of the confidence level arehampered by current uncertainties on the globular cluster metallicityscale, and by the strong dependence of DeltaF555WbumpHB on the cluster metallicity. In case ofthe Rbump parameter, which is only weakly affected by themetallicity, we find a very good quantitative agreement betweentheoretical canonical models and observations. For our full clustersample the average difference between predicted and observedRbump values is practically negligible, and ranges from-0.002 to -0.028, depending on the employed metallicity scale. Theobserved dispersion around these values is entirely consistent with theobservational errors on Rbump. As a comparison, the value ofRbump predicted by theory in case of spurious bump detectionsdue to Poisson noise in the stellar counts would be ~ 0.10 smaller thanthe observed ones. We have also tested the influence on the predictedDelta F555WbumpHB and Rbump values ofan He-enriched component in the cluster stellar population, as recentlysuggested by D'Antona et al. (\cite{d02}). We find that, underreasonable assumptions concerning the size of this He-enrichedpopulation and the degree of enrichment, the predicted DeltaF555WbumpHB and Rbump values are onlymarginally affected.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA,Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and on observations retrieved withthe ESO ST-ECF Archive.

Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Study of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters: The Inner Region of NGC 6441
We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope snapshot program tosurvey the inner region of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6441 forits variable stars. A total of 57 variable stars were found, including38 RR Lyrae stars, six Population II Cepheids, and 12 long-periodvariables. Twenty-four of the RR Lyrae stars and all of the PopulationII Cepheids were previously undiscovered in ground-based surveys. Of theRR Lyrae stars observed in this survey, 26 are pulsating in thefundamental mode with a mean period of 0.753 days and 12 arefirst-overtone-mode pulsators with a mean period of 0.365 days. Thesevalues match up very well with those found in ground-based surveys.Combining all the available data for NGC 6441, we find mean periods of0.759 and 0.375 days for the RRab and RRc stars, respectively. We alsofind that the RR Lyrae stars in this survey are located in the sameregions of a period-amplitude diagram as those found in ground-basedsurveys. The overall ratio of RRc to total RR Lyrae stars is 0.33.Although NGC 6441 is a metal-rich globular cluster and would, on thatground, be expected either to have few RR Lyrae stars or to be anOosterhoff type I system, its RR Lyrae stars more closely resemble thosein Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. However, even compared withtypical Oosterhoff type II systems, the mean period of its RRab stars isunusually long. We also derived I-band period-luminosity relations forthe RR Lyrae stars. Of the six Population II Cepheids, five are of WVirginis type and one is a BL Herculis variable star. This makes NGC6441, along with NGC 6388, the most metal-rich globular cluster known tocontain these types of variable stars. Another variable, V118, may alsobe a Population II Cepheid, given its long period and its separation inmagnitude from the RR Lyrae stars. We examine the period-luminosityrelation for these Population II Cepheids and compare it with those inother globular clusters and in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We argue thatthere does not appear to be a change in the period-luminosity relationslope between the BL Herculis and W Virginis stars, but that a change ofslope does occur when the RV Tauri stars are added to theperiod-luminosity relation.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

M75, A Globular Cluster with a Trimodal Horizontal Branch. II. BV photometry of the RR Lyrae Variables
We present new BV CCD photometry, light curves, and ephemerides for ninepreviously known, 29 newly detected RR Lyrae variables, and one newlydetected variable of an unknown type in the globular cluster M75. Thephotometry used for the detection of the additional variables wasobtained with the image subtraction package ISIS. The data were acquiredon an observing run in 1999 July and range over seven observing nights.Estimates of fundamental photometric parameters are presented includingintensity- and magnitude-averaged B and V magnitudes, magnitude-averagedcolors, pulsation periods, and pulsation amplitudes. The mean period ofthe RRab variables, =0.5868 days, and the numberfraction of RRc stars, Nc/NRR=0.342, are bothlarge for an Oosterhoff type I (OoI) globular cluster, suggesting thatM75 may be Oosterhoff-intermediate. Possible conflicts betweenOosterhoff-type determination based on the AV-logP andAB-logP diagrams are discussed. The physical parameters ofthe RRc and RRab variables, as obtained from Fourier decomposition oftheir light curves, do not show any clear deviation from normal OoIbehavior.

Globular Clusters as Candidates for Gravitational Lenses to Explain Quasar-Galaxy Associations
We argue that globular clusters (GCs) are good candidates forgravitational lenses in explaining quasar-galaxy associations. Thecatalog of associations (Bukhmastova 2001) compiled from the LEDAcatalog of galaxies (Paturel 1997) and from the catalog of quasars(Veron-Cetty and Veron 1998) is used. Based on the new catalog, we showthat one might expect an increased number of GCs around irregulargalaxies of types 9 and 10 from the hypothesis that distant compactsources are gravitationally lensed by GCs in the halos of foregroundgalaxies. The King model is used to determine the central surfacedensities of 135 GCs in the Milky Way. The distribution of GCs incentral surface density was found to be lognormal.

VLT spectroscopy of NGC 3115 globular clusters
We present results derived from VLT-FORS2 spectra of 24 differentglobular clusters associated with the lenticular galaxy NGC 3115. Asubsample of 17 globular clusters have sufficiently high signal-to-noiseto allow precision measurements of absorption line-strengths. Comparingthese indices to new stellar population models by Thomas et al. wedetermine ages, metallicities and element abundance ratios. For thefirst time these stellar population models explicitly take abundanceratio biases in the Lick/IDS stellar library into account. Our data arealso compared with the Lick/IDS observations of Milky Way and M 31globular clusters. Unpublished higher order Balmer lines(HγA ,F and HdeltaA ,F) from the Lick/IDSobservations are given in the Appendix. Our best age estimates show thatthe observed clusters which sample the bimodal colour distribution ofNGC 3115 are coeval within our observational errors (2-3 Gyr). Our bestcalibrated age/metallicity diagnostic diagram (Hβ / vs. [MgFe])indicates an absolute age of 11-12 Gyr consistent with the luminosityweighted age for the central part of NGC 3115. We confirm with ouraccurate line-strength measurements that the (V-I) colour is a goodmetallicity indicator within the probed metallicity range (-1.5 <[Fe/H] < 0.0). The abundance ratios for globular clusters in NGC 3115give an inhomogeneous picture. We find a range from solar to super-solarratios for both blue and red clusters. This is similar to the data for M31 while the Milky Way seems to harbour clusters which are mainlyconsistent with [alpha / Fe] =~ 0.3. From our accurate recessionvelocities we detect, independent of metallicity, clear rotation in thesample of globular clusters. In order to explain the metallicity andabundance ratio pattern, particularly the range in abundance ratios forthe metal rich globular clusters in NGC 3115, we favour a formationpicture with more than two distinct formation episodes. Based onobservations collected at the European Southern Observatory, CerroParanal, Chile (ESO No. 66.B-0131).

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:16h46m58.86s
Apparent magnitude:9.4

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6229

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